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Full text of "Electrical world"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of Toronto 



http://www.archive.org/details/electricalworld24newy 



THE 



ELECTRICAL WORLD 



"SrOT^XJ]VIE^ 



FROM JULV 7 XO DKCBMBER 29, 1894 




NEW YORK 

THE W. J. JOHNSTON COMPANY, LIMITED 

253 BROADWAY 



T< 



E 47 



INDEX TO VOLUME XXIV. 



GENERAL ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 

Note. — Titles from Dig-pst are indicated by (Digest) ; if merely references by (Digest, Ref.). 



Accident. Curious (Digest). 157 
Accidents. Best method of treating (P. M. Dyer). 
473 

from high tension currents (Digest. Ref.). 2% 

freatment in case of. 107. 356 (Digest). 110, 

157. 296. 318 (Digest, Ref.), 157, 369, 478 

Accninulaior. Fery (Digest), 651 

Mulden (Digest), 157 

I'evrusson (Digest. Kef.). 157 

I'ollak (Digest. Ref.). 268 

Schoop (Digest, Ref.), 83 

Tauleigne (Digest). 14, (Digest, Ref,), 577 

Tudor (Digest. Ret.). 408 

liolts (Digest. Ref.). 503 

Chemical theory of (Digest). 369, 478, 503. 544 

(Digest. Ref.). 408, 449 

^chloride of lead. First mention of (Digest), 529 

Chloride of lead, in England. 244 

chloride of lead. Invention of (Digest). 181 

impossibilities. 2 

industry. 612 

Lead dust (Digest). 529. 651 

litigation: Accumulator Co. vs Edison Illum- 

iiialiug Co . of New York. 391, 412. 540 

luigation ; Brush Electric Co. vs. Electric Stor- 
age Battery Co., 236 

pHlent, Faure (Digest, Ref.), 110 

pjleuts. Acquisition of. by Electric Storage 

H.mery Co., 61.3, 635, 648 

plale (Digesl) 369 

plates. Electro-chemical preparation of (Di- 
gesl). 449 

plates. Regeneration of (Digest), 239 

fjcket (Digest). 625 

rortable (Digest, Ref.), 267 

Preparing solution for (Digest), 239 

regulator (Digest. Ref.). 407 

regulator. Poster-Viuay (Digest), 318 

slation (Digest), 577 

stations in Berlin (Digest. Ref.). 674 

slation at Eccles (Digest. Ref.), 239 

stations. Small gas engine (Digest). 650 

traction (Digest). 13. 213 (Digest. Ref.). 60, 553 

traction in mines (Digest). 527. (Digest. Ref.). 

448 

traction in Paris (Digest. Ref.), 267, 602 

traction on ordinary roads (Digest). 83 

Accumulators. Automatic switch fcr charging. 

Electric Bell & Resislance Co., 64 

Commercial efficiency of (Digest), 239 

Cuuuectiou of plates of (Digest). 478. (Digesl, 

Ref,). 578 

Dvnamos for charging (Digeslj, 36 

Efficiency of (Digest. Kef ), 408 

English patents for. and data regatding 

(Digest). 296 

tor central stations. 71 

fur traction purposes. A novel application of, 

ill Chicago, 346 

Future of, 566 

Guaranteeing (Digest). 449 

ill power houses (Digest). 83 

ill the station of the N. Y. Edison Electric 

Illuminating Co.. 185 

Local action in (Digest). 625 

under water (Digesl). 675 

ll^ed with minors (Digesl). 267. 295 

Aclinoiuetrv, Electo-chemical (Dige.st. Ret.). 673 
Action electric phenomenon (Digest. Ref.), 623 
Aerial Lines, Inductance in (Digesl), 625 
Aeronautics, Electricity in (Digest), 450. 529 
Afterglow in Geissler tubes (Digest Ref.), 81 
Agriculture. Electricity in (Digest. Ref.). 369 
Air. Klectrihcatiou of (Digest). 131. 265 
Air-pump. Mercury (Digest. Ret). 343 

Alarm. Burglar (Digest, Ref.). 603 

Alarm clock atlachment (Digesl. Ret.). 603 

Allernale current working (H. J. Ry^n). 360. 382. 

461 
Alternating current circuits. Regulating phase in 

(Digesl). 448 

curves (Digest. Ret.). 295 

distribution (Digesl). 181 

ni ilor system (Digest), 625 

system. Monocyclic, General Electric Co.. 371 

systems (Digest. Ref.). 267 

Alteri'i.iting currents. Action of. on dielectrics 
(Digest). 447 

A<lvantages of (Digest). 368 

Analysis of (Digest) 265 

Coiilinuous from. 551 

Ill a divided circuit (Digest. Ret.), 366 

Ill direct current armatures and their bad 

effects on machines (G. J. Scott). 314 

Suine advantages of (S. P. Thompson), 208 

fni directional from (Digest). 108 

vs. direct (Digest). 267, 295 

Allernator, Current curves cf (Digest), 12 

Huge, General Electric Co., 652 

Ironclad. Fort Wayne Electric Corporation, 372 

Kapp (Digest. Ref ). 295 

Sine curve (Digest). 82. 212 

Alternators and alternating current motors. Self- 
excited (Digest). 316 



Alternators, Design of large (Digest). 406 553. 576 

E. M. F. and current cuives or (Digest). 624 

• in parallel. Coupling (Digest), 61. 317. 527 

(Digest. Ref.). 342. 476 
.Aluminium and its electrical metallurgy (Digest, 

Kef. I. 268 

Impuriiies of (Digest. Ret.), 181 

induslrv. Obstacles in development of 

(Digest). 110 

induslrv. Present state of (Digest). 61 

leading-in wires (Digest). 650 

plating (Digesl). 110. 478 

Production of Nauhauseu plant (Digest. Ret.). 

450 

sulphide and clay as a source of aluminium 

(Digesl). 577 

Amateur's practical work. 16 

."American Association for the Advancement of 
Science. History of (W. H. Hale) 147 

Forty-third meeting of. at Brooklyn, 143, 146, 

169. 202 

American Bell's policy of silence, 665 
American Electro-Therapeutic Association. Pro- 
gramme of. 119. 121 

Annual meeting of, 333 

American Electrical Work's clam bake, 2.% 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers: A 

commendable policy, 327 
— ■ — October meeting of, 461 

November meeting of. 565 

December meeting of. 660 

American Manufacturers' Exhibition. 487 
Aintrrcan Street Railway Association. Atlanta 

meeting of. .;39. 413. 417. 425 
Ainidon Tool Corporation, corner brace, 113 
Ammeter. Keystone Electrical Instrument Co.. 531 

and voltmeter for amateurs. How to make (G. 

H. Duntou). 285. 3jS 

Ammeters and voltmeters for alternating currents 
(Digest), 266 

and voltmeters. Registering (Digest. Ref.). S53 

Amperion molecule. Energy of (Digest). 552. 649 
Analogv; electrical difference of potential. (J. 

Waddell). 589. 672 (A. W. K. Pierce), 671 
Analogies, Hydraulic (Digest, Ref.), 294 
Analysis. Sources of current for (Digest). 675 
Annunciator, Patrick & Carter Co.. 160 
Anode. Cheap insoluble (Digest). 344 
Anodes, composite. Decomposing (Digest, Ref.). 

675 
Antwerp exhibition. (See Exhibition.) 
Arc. Alternaling current (Digest). 317. 367, 511 

Constitution of (Digest. Ret.). 623 

Continuous and alternating current (Digest), 

527, 602, 650 

Researches with (Digest), 576. 624 

rotation of (Digest). 109 

Starling an (Digesl), 212 (Digest, Ref.). 294 

Architect and the electrical engineer (K. Hall). 600 
Arcing of 500volt fuses. Destructive (W. E. Harring- 
ton). 474 

.\rc lamp (Digesl). 406 

.\llernating current. General Electric Co.. 410 

Auerbach-Woolverton Electric Co.. 373 

Davy (Digest. Kef.). 132 

Imperial Electric Lamp Co., 409 

Lewis (Digest). 60 

ing (Digest. Ref.). 213 



Rn 



88 



Differential (Digest. Ref.). 367 

Lantern (Digest Ref.). 553 

Theatre (Digest. Ref ). 5.>7 

. with two arcs (Digesl). 367 

Arc lamps. Alternating current (Digesl). 12. 109 

alternating current. Candle power of. 2 

Alternating vs. continuous current (Digest). 343 

in London (Digest). 60 

Poles for (Digest). 602 

ScientiBc study of (Digesl). 674 

Arc light carbons, alternating current. Consump- 
tion of (F. Bedell and A. C. Crehore). 613 (A. 
H. Bucherer), 672. 

Consumption of. 659 (Digest). 476. 502 

Arc light installation. Alternaling (Digest). 83 
Arc lieht regulator ^F. H. Pcmber). 408 

Arc light system. Double series (Dieest). 448 
Armature diameter and length. Best proportions 
ol (M. H. Johnson). 287 

discs. Machinery for manufacturing. E. W. 

Bliss Co.. 159 

■ Measuring self-induction of (Digest). 576 

. star. Mammoth, Siemens & Halske Electric 

Co.. 18 

winding (Digest. Ref.). 266 

Armatures, direct current. Alternating currents 
in. and their bad effects iG. J. Scott), 314 

Ventilating (Digest). 576 

Asbestos. Magnetic properties (Digest). '447. 526. 

575 (Diee.st. Ref.). 316 
Ashley. Frank M... safety automatic gauge cock. 63 



Atmospheric electricity (Digesl), 13L 156. 237. 501 
^— and solar radiation (Digest. Ref.). 213 
Auerbach-Woolverton Electric Co.. arc lamps. 373 
Automatic Switch Co.. elevator controller. ..'71 



B. 

Bacteriology. (Digest. Ref.). 14 

Ball Engine Co.. new vertical engine. 347 . 

Balloon, Electrically driven (Digesl), 240 

struck by lightning (Digest, Ref.). 344 

Trolley (Digest), 344 

Banquet, Electrically cooked, 31 

Bate refrigerator case: arguments before Supreme 
Court, 543. 588 

Postponement of hearing of. 5*2 

Baths. Testing (Digest). 450 (Digesl. Ret.). 554 
Battery, primary. Clark, when producing a current 
(Digest). 406 

Coad (Dige.st. Ret.), 369 

l.eclanche (Digest). 603 

Million (Digesl). 63 

Nas.sau Electrical Co.. 63 

Velvo (Digesl). 343. 369. 408. 4:0 

Western siandard. 327 

Western standard cadmium (Digest), 341 

Cupron (Digest), 181 

drv. Comparing, 228 

. Dry, Himmer. 89 

-=— dry. Lessing (Digest, Ref.). 268 

Dry. Test ol (Digesl). 238 

Gas (Digesl). 60.> (Digest. Ref.). 651 

New (Digest). 267. 268 

Batteries. Primary, for lighting (Digest). 83. .37 

Spongy lead in (Digest). S.9 

Useful bi-products ol (Digesl, Ref.) 239 

Bell. Bug proof. Central Electric Co., 3-0 

Suggestion for. 279 

Bells. Harmonic call (S. D. Motl). 287 (Digest). 529 

ally operated, M. J. Busby, 216 



nation Companies, 
y Asso- 



of Ed 

Boston meeting of. 17, 
Atlanta meeting of American Street Rail 

ciatiou. 339. 413. 417, 425 
Atlanta, Street railways of, 391. 441 
Atlas Engine Works, heavy duty engine, 677 
water tube boiler, 480 A 



Mecbanii 

Porter, 183 

with different sounds (Digesl), 503 i 

Bells, Electric, in England, 207 
Berlin, Electricity in. 3o3, 310 

Berliner telephone patent declared void, 635 
Bernard Co.. The E. G., electric alarm and pressure 

gage, 17 
Bismuth in magnetic fields (Digest, Ref.). 266 

in magnetic fields. Conductivity of (Digesl), 552 

Blackening of walls by conductors (Digest). 318 
Bleaching. Electrical (Digest), 407 

paper pulp (Digest) 603 

Bliss Co., E. W.. flexible frictionclulch. 579 

machinery for manufacturing armature di.scs 

159 

Block signals, Hall system of. 319 

Block system. Automatic (Digest, Ref.) S3 

Tyler (Digest, Ref.), 603 

Boats, Propulsion of (Digesl), 650 

Boiler, Water tube. Atlas Engine Works. 480 
Boilers and engines. Efficiency of. 564 
Board of Electrical Conlrol. New York. 563 
Bolometer. Edelmanu (Digest). 36 
Boloinetric investigations (Digest. Ref ). 673 
Books. Reviews of: 

— Alternating Current Wiring and Distribution (W. 

LeR. Emmet). Ill 

— Aiinuairede Association Suisses des Electriciens 

408 

— Central Station Bookkeeping and Suggested 

Forms (H. A. Foster). 504 

— Dictionary of Electrical Words, Terms and 

Phrases (E. J. Houston), 241 

— Dynamo Attendants and Their Dynamos (A. H. 

Cibbings). 408 

— Electrical Measurements lor Amateurs (E. Tre- 

vert), 269 

— Electrician's Manual of Diagrams (E. W 

Smith). 270 

— Electric Lamps and Electric Lighting (J. A. 

Fleming). 626 . 

— Electric Light and Power (A. F. Grey). 675 

— Electric Light Installations (D. Salomons). ISS 

— Electric Lighting Plants (*. J. Buckley). 626 

— Elecliic Railway Motors (N. W. Perryl.'626 

— Electric Transmission of Energy (G. Kapp), S5S 

— Electricity. Electrometer. Magnetism and Elec- 

trolysis (G. Chrystal and W. N. Shaw). 504 

— Electricity One Hundred Years Ago and To-day 

(E. J. Houston). 37 

— Electromagnetic Theory (O. Heaviside). 478 

— How to Become a Successful Electrician (T.O'C. 

Sloane). 269 

— How to Build a One- Fourth Horse- Power Dvnamo 

(A. E. Watson). 349 

— How to Build a 1.000- Watt Alternating Current 

Dynamo or Motor (A. E. Watson). 349 

— How to Build Dynaino-Electnc Machinery (E. 

Treveit). 349 

— How to Make and Us^ the Telephone (G. H. 

Cary). 270 

— Johtrston's Electrical and Street Railway Direc- 

tory. 504 

— Magnetische Kreise. Deren Tbeorie uiid Anwen- 

dung iH. du Bois). 530 

— Mechanical Drawing (W. K. Palmer), 408 



i N O KX 



— rruy's Sleam Tables and Eugiue Constants (T. 

Pray). 341 
— ri'rogress in Flying Machines (O. Clianule). 2iU 

— yuantilivc Chemical Analysis (A.Classon; trans- 

lated l)y W. H. Hcrrick). 556 
Hooks. Reviews of. The Electncal Central Stations 
at Cologne and Amsterdam (C. Coerper 
translated by C. I'. Heldman), .=55 

— The Magneto Hand Telephone IN. Hughes). 270 

— The Mineral Industry |K. P. Kolhwell). 318 

— The I'linciples ol KUipiic and Hyperbolic Anal- 

ysis (A. Maclarlane). IS 

— TherinoDyuamics ot Reversible Cycles in Gases 

and Saturated Vapors. Ill 

— Tramsways. Their Construction and Workings 

(D. K. Clark) 604 
"Booster" on railway circuits. Use ol 438 
Bracket with fuse (Uigest. Kef.). 407 
Brady Mfg. Co.. safety wire cutter. 159 
brake shoes. 440 
Brakes. Electric. 304. 312 (Digest). 84 

Power vs. hand. 473 

Braking. Utilizing energy lost by (Digest). 317 
Brandy. Ageing, electrically (Uigesl), 2V0 
Brewerv analvsis (Digest, Kef.). 84 
Bridge building. Application of electric power in 

(Digest). 240 
Bridge. Thompson (Digest. Ref). 448 
British Association meeting at Oxford. 14.\ 146. 167. 

171. 204. (Digest. Rel.). 241 
Brombacher's Sons. Jacob, insulated pliers. 136 
Buflalo's electrical carnival. Suggestions lor (F. C. 

Perkins). 590 
Bunnell & Co.. J. II.. trolley and trolley wheel. 215 

Burglar alarm (Digest). 1.13 
Busby. M. J., mechanically operated bells. 216 
Business. Revival of. 192 

situation. The. 191. 193 

Buoy. Electric (Digest). 182. 240. (Digest, Ref.), 

157, 450 



Cable. AIIantic.109. 181. (Digest. Ref.). 478 

Caledonian (Digest. Ref.). 83. 181 

First direct New York. 281 

lor ships (Digest). 37 

Pacific (Digest. Ret.). 109, 369. 478. 528. 651 

signalling (Digest), 651 

submarine. Thompson (Digest). 628 

Underground, lor low tension currents (Digest, 

Ref.). 83 

working. Pupin system of. 97 

Cables. Compensating (Digest. Ref.). 109 

Localizing faults in submarine (Digest), 316, 

527. 576. (Digest, Ret.), 342. 553 

Submarine, of the world (Digest, Ref ) 528 

Cadmium. Electrical deposition of (Digest. Ref.), 296 
Canadian Electrical Association, Montreal meeting 

of, 52, 303. 305 
Canal boat propulsion (Digest), 477, (Digest, Ref.) 

553 

traction (Digest), 527. 674, (Digest, Ref.) 267 

Canal tugboat. Electric (F. M. F. Caziii). 344. 452 
Canals. Electricity on (M. W. Hassou). 4 
Capacity, Inductance and, 304 

and capacity of suspended wires (H.J- Houston 

and A. E. Kenuclly) 
Calorific phenomenon (Digest). 265 
Calorimetric measuremenis (Digest, Ref.). 576 
Carbon, Cored, litigation (Digest. Rel.). 60, 602 

dioxide. Electricity from (Digest. Ref.). 265 

Electro chemical relations of (Digest). 267 

Retort (Digest), 14 

Vaporization of (Digest), 649 

Carbons. Alternating ate light (Digest. Kef.). 576 

" 'ng consumption of (Digest), 



arc light, Dii 

476. 502 
■ Consuinplii 



Bedell and 



1 of alternating arc 

e). 613. (A. N. Bucherer) 672 

Consumption of arc. 659 

Improved (Digest). 240 

Increasing lite of (Digest), 602 

Carbonit-carborundum (Digest. Ref.). 626 
Car Equipment Co., John.ston rail bond. 219 
Cane, E.. Biography of (Digest. Kef.). 61 
Carriages, Electric (Digest Ref). 650 

Self-motive (Digest. Kef.). 318 

Cathode rays (Digest). 26.5. 552. 649 

Effect of, on salts (Digest), 623 

Velocity of (Digest), 447 

Cable roads, 488 

Cell (See Battery) 

Central Electric Co.. bug proof bell, 320 

new home of, 15 

trolley wire clamp, 532 

Ccutral station, Altona (Digest. Ref.), 651 
Aruudel Castle (Digest, Kef.). 449 

Bedford (Digest Ret.), 651 

■ Bolton (Digest, Ref.), 554, 577 

Bradford (Digest. Ref.), 61 

Budapest (Digest. Ref.l. 181 

Calais (Digest, Ret.). 477. 5S4 

Cologne, Alternating current (Digest). 133 

. Dresden (R. Grimshaw), 469 

Ealing (Digest), 407, (Digest, Ref,), 449 

Glasgow (Digest, Ret.), 37 

Halles (Digest, Ref.), 157, 

Hainpsteao municipal (Digest, Ref.). 5' 

Manchester (Digest. Rel.). ISl. 239 

Melbourne (Digest, Ret), 503 

Nancy (Digest, Ref.), 407 

Southporl (Digest, Ref.), 577 

Teme.svar (Digest, Ref,), 368 

Worcester (Digest. Ref.) 449. 477 

Zurich (Dicest. Ref.). 407 

bookkeeping (H. A. 'Foster), 525 

burned out 676 

. for drainage and lighting (Digest. Ref.), 343 

in India (Digest, Ref.), 295 

on tht Pacific slope. S 

operation (Digest). 407 

statistics (Digest. Ref). 109 

statistics for Austria (D gest. Ref.). 68 



603. 



Central station statistics for Switzerland (Digest). 
343. (Digest. Kef.). 651 

German (Digest). 554 

tbieephasc. Large (Digest). 181 

Central stations and isolated plants,i.Coniparison ol 
(Digest). 5-8 

Competition with. 1 

Day load ol (Digest). 651 

lor lighting. Designing (C. H. Caiter). 551 

Future ol (Digest). 602 

Central stations. Gas vs. stea:u for (Digest), 83. 109 

l.>3 
General data on design of (Digest), 528 

in Europe (Digest, Rel.). 554 

in Germany (Digest. Kel.). 37, 61 

. in Pans (Digest, Kel.). 528 

Lighting in (Digest. Ref.), 295 

Municipal (Digest). 503 

ot Beilni (Digest). 477 

, ol Chicago (C. Desmond), 29 

run by gas engines (Digest, Ref.). 318 

Various (Digest, Kel.). 157. 528 

Charging lor current. Various inethods_of (Digest), 

238 
Chemical analysis (Digest. Ret.), 625 
Choking coils v.s. resistances (Digest). 528 
Christmas and electricity, 639 
Chromium (Digest). 133 
Chronograph (Digest. Ref). 266 

Circuits containing magnets. Opening (Digest). 266 
Cleat, Self-locking. Nashold Cleat Co.. 580 
Clock. Self-winding. Edwards ti Co.. 604 
Clocks, driven l)y alternating currents (Digest, 

Ret.). 503 
Clutch. Flexible friction, E. W. Bliss Co.. 579 
Coal boats. Electric lighting on, Westmghousc 

Electric & MIg. Co., 297 
Coal cutler, Jeflrey MIg. Co., 411 

cutting machines (Digest, Kef.). 478. 503 

Coast communication (Digest. Kef.). 239 
Coils, Finding laults in (Digest), 35 
Columbian University. Electrical engineering at. 263 
Columbia Telephone Mfg. Co.. telephone appara- 
tus, 64 
Come-along, Cope, Hubley MIg. Co.. 481 
Commercial Electric Co., multipolar generators 

and motors, 627 
Commutator lubricating compound, Knott Mfg. 
Co.. 87 

Mercury (Digest. Ref.), 449 

Compounding ot dyi 
Hanchett). 487 



Compass. Electrical st( 

344. 529 
Condenser and feed-w 

Condenser & Eugii 
Condenser, Measuring 

650 



Practical, 494 (G. T. 

ering (Digest. Ref.). 84, 110, 

atcr heater. Volz. Wheeler 

eering Co., 450 

capacity of (Digest, Ref,), 

, 303 



Condensers, Residual charges 

Seat of electricity in (Digest), 265 

Silk as a dielectric for (Digest). 132 

- Study of residual charges of, and their depend- 
ence upon temperature (F. Bedell and C. Kins- 
lev). 314 

with alternating current. Capacity of (Digest, 

Ref,), 316 

Conauetivity and pressure (Digest, Ref.). 649 

and the dielectric constant. Determiation ol 

(Digest. 673 

balance (Digest). 406 

Nature of (Digest). 81 

Specific (Digest). 12 

ol salts in aethyl and methyl alcohols (Digest, 

Ref.). 81 

Conductivities. Determining (Digest). 650 
Conductors. Armored flexible (Digest. Ref.), 213 
- — - Laws regarding (Digest. Ret.), 318 
Conduits, Iron armored iusulatiug. Interior Conduit 
& Insulating Co.. 39 

Telescopic iron armored insulated. Interior 

Conduit & Insulation Co.. 160 

Conduits. Explosions in (Disest). 368 

Stoneware (Digest. Ret.). 528 

Controller, car. Edgecombe, 604 

of currents,' Automatic (Digest), 318 

Primary battery, Culler-Hamnier Mfg. Co., 113 

Street railway. Walker Mfg. Co., SOS 

Cooking, Electric (Digest), 37 

Copper, Ancient methods of tempering (Digest, 
Kef.). 61 

electrolysis in vacuum (Digest). 407 

production of diflerei.t countries (Digest, Ref.), 

240 

Specific resistance of pure (Digest), 108 

zinc alloys. Resistance of (Digest), 265 

Cord adjuster. George Cutter, 136 

Cores. lloUowaud cylindrical iron (Digest, Ref.). 

180 
Colgate Co.. Geo. L, Keystone ammeter. 531 
Corner brace. Aniidon Tool Corporation. 113 
Cosmic electricity, 460 
Crane, Electric (Digest, Ref), 214, 268 
Current and lines of force. Rule for (B. S. Lam- 

pher). 595 

curves. Recording (Digest). 2'M 

indicator (Digest. Ref.). 529. 603 

rapid changes in. Practical method of measur- 
ing (W. E. Harrington), 642 

Currents in open circuits, dielectics and electro- 
lytes (Digest), 366, (Digest, Rel. I 405 
Cutler-Hammer MIg. Co., pciroary battery control- 



113 



s, 218 



Cutter. George, Combination i 

Cord adjuster, 136 

Cut-out, Service end. Interior Conduit & Insulalii 

Co.. 556 
Cut-outs. High tension. Hope Electric Applian 

Co.. 182 
Crystals. Electrification of (Dige.st). 265 
Cylinders. Magnelization of hollow (Dige.st). 447 



Damping (Digest. Ref.). 60 

Dayton Globe Iron Works Co., turbine I 

Death by electricity (Digest), 14. 71, 84 

jiroin electric shock. How to deal v 

T;nt (A. H. Goelet). 229 



Decimal system of weights and measures. 636 
Deck planer. Portable electric (C. Dougherty). j8 
Dccomposiliou, Minimum E. M. F. of (Digest). 110 
Depolarizer. New (Digest). 267 
Derroatines (Digest). 503 , , , .. 

Dielectric bodies in electrostatic fields. Movement 
of (Digest). 341 

coiislaiils (Digest. Ref). 265 

constants and chemical equilibrium (Digest. 

Dielectric bodies in elect rostalic fields, conslant.s. 
Delerminatiion of (Digest. Ref. 405). 

Magnetic (Diges-t. Rel.). 341 

polarization of liquids (Digest. Ref.). 26S 

Dielectrics (Digest). 447 (Digest. Rel.). 601 

Action ol alternating currents on (Digesl). 

3n. 366. 447 (Digest. Ref.). 405 

DifTusion. Electric (Digest. Ref.). 265 

Digest for 1894 (Digest). 675 

Discharge. Equation of (Digest, Ref.), 212 

phenomenon. New (Digesl), 2o7 

Spectrum of (Digest. Ref.). 265 

through an orange (Digest). 294 

through gases (Digest). 265 . 

Diselectrification of bodies by light (Digest, Rel.l. 

180 
Dissociation, Heat of (Digest), 405 
Distribution, Continuous current, at high voltage 

(Digesl). 239 

from sub-stations. 252 

with equalization of P. D. (D. H. Keeley). ^6^ 

Drainage and lighting. Combined plant for 

(Digest. Kef ). 343 
Door opener. J. J. Jones & Son. 220 
Drill Motor driven radial. Lodge & Davis Machine 

Tool Co. 89 
Dry cell (See Battery) . , ,„ 

Dunstan. K. J. Biography and portrait of, j53 
Dyes. Purification of (Digest). 408 
Dynamo. Alternating current. Fort Wayne Electric 

Corporation. 136 

and turbine combined (Digest. Ref.), 673 

and motor. Amateur 16 

armature.Measuring self-induction of (Digest), 

576 

brusi, New (Digest), 407 

brush, Poland, 413 

calculations. Practical notes on (A. E. Wiener), 

11, 32. 57. 79. 98. 129. 153. 210, 497, 521, 549. 572, 
598, 615. 646 

Central station (Digest. Ref), 342 

closed coil arc. Test ol (R. B. Owens and C. A. 

Skinner). ISO 

current. Increasing a (Digest). 212 

Direct connected. Mather Electric Co.. 217 

Direct connected. Wenstroin Electric Co.. 65 

Double voltage. Fontaine Crossing & Electrical 

Co.. SOS 

excite itself. How to make (G. T. Hanchett), 

262. (E. G. Miller), 340 

Iron clad, Wenstrom Electric Co., 183 

Multipolar. Electrical Mfg. Co.. 373 

Multipolar. Mather Electric Co., 1J» 

National Electric Co., 220 

Roth & Eck, 348 

Dynamos and apparatus, Siemens & Halske 
(Digest. Ref.;. 156 

and motors. Measuring armature loss and 

efficiency of (Digest). 575 

■ and motors. Multipolar, Commercial Electric 

Co.. 627 

and motors. Simple electrical method for 

testing (Digest). 237 448. .=01. 527 

and transformers. Classification of (Digest). 

81 
Dvuamos, closed coil Sparkingof (G, T. Hanchetti 

668 

Construction of (Digest. Ref.). 527 

■ Direct connected. General Electric Co.. 17 

Direct connected multipolar. General Electric 



Co.. 87 



ulaliou ol (Digesl). 156 (Digest, 



Graphical i 

Ref.). 406 

in parallel. Overcompounding. 3SS (A. F. 

Hemingway). 647 (Digest. Ref.). 577 

Practical compounding of, 487 (G. T. Han- 
chett). 494 

Slow-speed multipolar. General Electric Co., 

557 

. Unipolar. 12. (Digest). 476, 673 

without iron (Digesl). 132 

Dynamometer (Digest. Ref.). 674 

E. 

Earth as an electrical conductor (J. H. Holt). 290, 

310 
charging from leaking mains (Digest), 407 

currents. Experiments with, at Mt. Vesuvius 

(Digest. Ref.). 501. 526 

currents. Origin of (Diges'), 501 (Digest. Ref.). 

447. 526 . 

magnetism (Digest. Ref.). 526 

Earthquake in Tokio. 98 

Educational reports (Digest. Ref ), 110 

Edwards & Co.. self-winding clock. 604 

F;icclion. The, and its effect upon the electrical 

indu-trie.s. 511. 515 
Electrical dupes. 71 
Electrical energy. Cost of producing. 181. 227 (B. J. 

Arnold). 104. 120. 340 (M. Meyer) 236 

direct from coal, 587. 636 (Digest), 503. 603 

(Digest, Ref.). .344. 625 

direct from fuel (C. J. Reed). 637 

Electrical Engineering & Supply Co., knife blade- 
switch, 273 

Electrical engineering in England (Digest). 13 

Theory and practice in (Digesl), 625 

Electrical Mfg. Co.. multipolar dynamos, 373 
Electrical World. The. at home, 1 

New dress of, 1 

Electric and magnetic perturbations. Propagation 

of (Digest, Ref.). .-41 
Electric Bell & Resistance Co.. automatic switch 

tor charging accumulators. 64 
Electric Heat Alarm Co.. journal bearing alarm, 

243 



IN DEX. 



Electric Storage Battery Co. acquires accumulatoa 

patents ill U. S.. (>13. 635, o4S 
Electric whirls iR. T. Escher,. 365 
Electricity aud gravitation (Digest). 108 

as a motive power. SX1 (see Motive Power) 

considered as a wlurling movement (Digest). 



■ direct from coal (See Electr 

■ Does it kill. 23 
•ing (Digest). 227 



al Energy) 



in church. 199 

in connection with other physical phenomena 

(Digest. Ref.). 156 

ElectricUy. of drops (Digest, Ref.), 180 

Surplus and de6cit theory of, (Digest, Kef,), 

526. 552 

Theorelical vs. practcal. 47 

What is it? (Digest), 649 

Electrochemical economy (Digest) 343 
Electrochemistry, 48. 355 (Digest). 61 
Electrocution, S63. 564 (Digest, Ref,), 240 (See also 

Death by Electricity) 
Electrode sensitive light (Digest). 623 
Electro-depositions. Flocculent (Digest. Ref.), 408 

of iron (Digest, Ref,), 214 

Electro-dyuamic machinery, 48 lE. |. Houston, and 

A. n. Kennellv). 50. 123. 149. 174, 205, 231, 2.S9, 

289. 309, 337. 362. 398. 444, 468, 496, 520. 546, 597, 

644, 670 
Electro-dynai 
Electro-dynar 



- 81 



c spring balance (Digest). 342 

cs Vortex theory of (Digest, Ref.), 



watt meters 



used 

tion. Some phenomena of 



Electro-dvnamometers 

(Digest). 294 
Electrolysis and polari 

(Digest. Ref.), 554 

bv alternating currents, 611 

. D'ynamos for (Digest), 317 ' 

• Maximum E M. F. for (Digest), 603 

minimum E M. V. lor (Digest), S3 

Elementary treati.se on (Digest, Ref,), 14 

in urethral stricture (Digest. Ref), 626 

of chlorides (Digest), 110, 133 (Digest, Ref.), 

157. 296, =54 

of glass (Digest). 265 

of water mains (Digest. Ref.), 528 

Limits of (Digest), 675. (Digest, Ref.), 554. 603 

of mixed salts (Digest. Ref,). 239 

of sulphate of copper (Digest, Kef,), 214 

Removal of naevi by (Digest, Ref.). 675 

Electrolytic corrosion of iron pipes 144 

installation. Large (Digest). 318 

production of alkali and bleach (Digest). 

407 

of bleach (Digest, Ref,). 369 

of cadmium yellow (Digest). 577 

of caustic soda (Digest). 157 

of chlorate of potash (Digest), 318 (Digest, 

Ref.), 369. 450 

of soda. Proposed works for (Digest. Ref. 1, 296 

of chlorine and soda (Digest), 369. 450 (Digest. 

Ref.). 239 

of soda (Digest) 407 > 

of sulphuric acid (Digest, Ref,). 403 

Electrolytes Measuring resistance of (Digest. 

Rel.). 81 

Thermo electric force of (Digest. Ref.). 526 

Electrolyzers (Digest. Ref,). 230 

Hermite high tension (Digest). 295 

Electromagnet. Constant-pull (Digest). 501 
Electromagnets for specific duties. Design of (E. 

Rl Carichoff. 122 
Electromagnetic induction, (Digest. Ref.). 265 

theory (Digest. Ref,). 623 

Electrometer. Ayrton-Mather (Digest). 650 

Capillary (Digest. Ref,). 180. 212 

Hydrostatic (Digest), 527 

Lippmann (Digest) 36 

Electromotive force and curent curves of alterna- 
tors (Digest). 624 (Digest. Ref.) 673 

Definition of (Digest). 405 (Digest. Ref). 367 

Direct measure of (Digest. Ref), 60 

Telephone measurements of (Digest, Ref,). 649 

Electro-optics (Digest. Ref,), 294 
Electiophoi-us (Di est, Ref,), 156 
Electrostatic rotation in rarefied gases (Digest). 35 
lical school. Russian military (Digest. 



tical apparatus (Digest. Ref.), 408 
!'-= 3;8 (Digest,, Ref), 478 

currents in (Digest. Ref,), 578 
" tshritt," G. Kaop 
rge of, 419 



Electrotech 

Ref), 408 
Electrotherapy 
Electrotherapeutics 

Central station _, 

"ElektrOtechnisc 

assumes editorial „ 

Electrozincing-Digest), 369 

Elektron or atom of electricity (Digest), 447 

Elevator controller. Automatic Switch Co., 271 

Hamilton, 62 

in Berlin (Digest), 603 

Inclined plane (Digest), 110 

Elliott-Lincoln Co,, four-poled motor. 480 
E, M. F, (See Electromotive force) 

Empire Electric Insulation Co.. new insulation, f 
Enamelling. Haswell process of (Digest) 450 
Energy. Electrical. Cost of producing. 181, 227 ( 
J. Arnold) 104, 120. 340 (M. Mevei) 236 

direct from coal. 587. 630 (Digest). 503. (. 

(Digest, Ref,). 344. 625 

direct from fuel (C. T. Reed), 637 

Engine, New vertical Bail Engine Co.. 347 

heavy duty Atlas Engine Works. 677 

■ regulation extraordinary, 143 

■ stop. Monarch Engine Stop Co.. 580 
" ' ' Efficiency of. 564 



Engines and boilers, : 

coupled with dv 

Ref,). 528 
Economic 



governing (Digest. 



isteful boilers. 

. ,„.„„.., Ref,), 343, 477 

r governed (Digest. Ref.), 239 

Stationary, 228 (H. " 



Hunting of governed (Digest. Ref.). 239 

Locomolive vs. Stationary, 228 (H. G. Wyn- 

koop), 264 

Old (Digest. Ref.). 240 

Protection for power house, 409 

Engineering education. 168. 182, 209 

and the state nniversity (W. S. Aldrich). 290 

Engineers. Consulting and contracting (Digest). 

110 
Consulting vs. contracting, 72 



English journalism. 95. 252 

Entropy iDigest. Ref). 84. ISO 

Etching glass bulbs (Digest). 238 

Ether. Movement of pure (Digest. Kef,). 447 

Ethers. Conductivity of (Digest. Ref.). 576 

Examination questions. City and Guilds (Digest, 

Ref ) 344 369 
Examination of British Telegraph Department 

(Digest, Ref), 529 
Exhibition. Antwerp (Digest), 603. (Digest. Ret.). 

408. 529 
Exhibition. Lyons (Digest. Ref.). 344. 449 

Motors and dvnainos at (Digest. Ref). 624 

Exhibition of 1900 at Paris (Digest, Ref,). 36 

Classification of group "Electricity" (Digest. 

Ref). 554 

■ Information regarding (Digest, Ref.), 318 

Experiment that failed. An. 107 

Explosive powders. Electrification of (Digest). 240 

Extra currents, production of (Digest, R»f.), 239 



Factories. Motors in (Digest, Ret,), 450 

• Electric power in (Digest), 529 (Digest, Ref.), 

266 
Falkenan, A, Biography and portrait of, 163 
Fatal charges from single leads (Digest). 554 
Fault. Localizing a (DigesI). 501 

current elimination (Digest). 342 

detector. High tension (DigesI), 267 

Faults in high tension net works. Localization 

(Digest), 650 
Feeder and main decision. 279. 284 
Feeder wire .splicer, Ohio Brass Co., 113 
Ferraiiti phenomenon. Explanation of (Digest. 

Kef). 237 
Fire alarm. Simple. 61 

system. FogI (Digest. Ref.). 267 

Fire damp (Digest. Ref), 84 

detector (Digest. Ref.). 240 

Fire room economy. 96 

Fixture. Combination, for public halls, I. P. 
Frink. 480 

Floating metallic films. Formation of (Digest. 
Ref,). 237. 265 

Fluorescence a phenomenon of ionic origin (Di- 
gest, Ref.). 36 

Flying machine. Electric (Digest), 84. 240 

Weller (Digest), 318 

Fly-wheel accidents in power houses. 355. 379. 487, 



525, 611 (A. V. Abbott), 401 (J. S. Badger). 401 
(I, S, Brown). 401 (A. H. Burnett). 600 (R. C. 
Carpenter). 549 (F, B, Corev), 500 (T, C. Coy- 
kendalll. 365. 500 (C. H, Davis). 401 (G. H, 
Davis) 445 (C, E. Emery), 401 (A. T. Farns- 
worlh). 525 (C, I. Field). 401 (J, J,Flalher), 498. 
523 (R. Fleming), 549 (G. T. Hanchett), 475 (M. 
Hnopes),401 (S. S. Howell). 445 (H W.Leonard). 
401 (C, H, Manning). 401 (W.D.Marks), 401 (G. 
E O'Neil), 445 (M, P, Rvder), 672 (L. W. Ser. 
ell). 401 (A. Sharp), 620 (T. C. Smith), 445 (W. 
Stuart-Smith), 621. 637 (F. Thompson), 500 .R, 
H. Thurston), 401. 549 (]. L. Wocdbridge), 401 

accumulators (Digest), 266. 318 

Fontaine Crnssi g & Electrical Co., double voltage 

dynamo. 505 
Fort Wayne Electric Corporation, alternating 

current dynamo. 136 

iron clad alternator. 372 

purchases Wenslrom Electric Company, 208 

sectional switchboard. 451 

vs. General Electric. 49 

France. Electrical industry in (Digest, Ref.), 651 
Frequency. Uniform (DigesI). 343 
Frequencies, Transforming. 251 
Frictional electricity. Origin of (Digest), 649 
Prink, I. P,, combination tixtuie. 480 
Furnace. Girard (Digest). 158 

Moissan. 251 (Digest. Ref,), 478 

Fuse arrester. Multiple. C. S. Van Nuis. 272 

Protecting (Digest). 449 

Fuses. Alternating currents and. 314 

copper. Table of diameters of, 627 

Destrnclive arcing of 500-voIt (W. E, Harring- 
ton), 474 

Magnetic blow-out. General Electrical Co.. 531 

Regulation concerning construction of 

(Digest. Ref.). 295 



Galvanometer. A vrton-Mather (Digest. Ref.), 448, 
553 

for telegraphers' Pocket (Digest, Ref.), 316 

Mirror (Digest). 60 

needles, Magnetizing and astaticizing (Digest). 

552 

New forms of (Digest. Ref.). 12 

Portable (Digest. Ref.). 180 

Thomson. Sensitive form of (Digest). 650 

Galvanometers. Construction of delicate (Digest), 

237. (Digest. Ref,). 266 

d'Arsonval, Copper and German silver coils in 

(Digest). 366 

Formulas for (Digest). 294 

Gas and electricitv. Equivalent price of. 307 
Gas battery (Digest. Ref.). 625. 651 

Dr. Borchers' : suggestion (L, S. Powell). 637 

Gas, Electricitv from (Digest), 603 

Gas engine. Charon (Digest). 181 

Competition (Digest. Ref.). 577 

Olin Gas Engine Co.. 160 

Gas-engines. Central stations run bv (Digest, Ref.), 
318 

Comparative tests of (Digest. Ref). 554 

Elastic coupings for (Digest, Ref,), 651 

Electric ignition of (Dig~est). 478 

for electric li.ghling, 24. (Digest), 37 

■ Regulating (Digest). 239 

Gas motors. Regulating (Digest), 407 

Gas rivalry. High candle-power (H. W. Frnnd), .570 

Gas traction (Digest), 368 

Gas vs. electricitv (Digest). 36 

Gases. Conductivity of (Digest. Ref.). 59 



Gauge cock. Safety automatic. Frank M. Ashley : 

Electric alarm and pressure. The E. G Be 

nard Co. 17 

Gay & Co.. E. A. Incandescent lamp support, 55i 

Gearing. Worm wheel (Digest). 61 

Gears New system of cutting. Gould and Ebe 

hardt. 676 
General Electric Co.. alternating current arc lam) 
410 

alternating current fan motor, 136 

at Atlanta Convention, 413 

direct connected dynamos, 17 

direct connected multipolar dynamos. 87 

electric haulage m a Michigan mine. 579 

■ forty-ton electric locomotive. 243 

huge generator. 652 

interesting raining installation. 629 

marine generating plant. 158 

magnetic blow-out, 531 

mine hoist. 216 

monocyclic system. 371 

portable alternating current meter. 65 

railway generator switchboard panel. 112 

slow-speed multipolar machines. 557 

small induction motors. 481 

. snap switch. 451 

General Electric Co.. of Berlin, Apparatus of (D; 

gest. Ref.). 267 
Gibbs & White, incandescent lamp adjuster. 185 
Gillilaud Telephone Co.. magneto-telephone e\ 

change. 652 
Glass. Luminescence of (Digest), 623 
Globes. Electric light. 487 
Glohe.s. Holophane (Digest. Ref). 576. 650 
Gold and silver. Extraction of (Digest). 110 

Electro-deposition of (Digest). 57", 625 

Gold, Extraction of (Di.gest). 625. 651 

leaf. Electrolytic (Digest). 14 

Government inspection in Canada (Digest, 



408 



ef.), 
land 



Austria (Digest, 



nent .standardizing stati 
(Digest. Rel.), 553 
Government testing bureau i 

Ref,). 156 
Governor, Electromagnetic (Digest. Ref.). 603 
Graphite' or carbon. Purifving (Digest). 240 
Grawinkel. C, Biographv of (Digest. Ref.). 110. 318 
Grip. Buffalo. Western Electric Co.. 89 
Gouhert Mfg. Co., steam separators for power sta- 
tions. 244 
Gould & Eberhardt. new shaper. 452 

• new system of cutting gears. 676 J '1 

Gun steel. Magnetic qualities of. 488 ■" 
Guttapercha, Substitute for (Digest), 625 

H. 

Harmonic analyzer (Digest. Ref.), 295. 316 
Harmonics. Origin of upper. 47 
Hail. Production of (Digest. Ref,). 108 
Hasson, W, F, C, Biography and portrait of, 485 
Hawks, H, C, Biography and portrait of, .=84 
Heater purifier and receiver Stilwell-Bierce & 
Smith-Vaile Co.. 216 

Heating appliances (Digest Ref.). 408 

by combustion and by electricity (Digest), 554 

cais electrically (Digest) 368 

Suggestions for (Digest) 450 

Lagrange and Hoho method (Digest), 268 

patent. Leonard. 64 

Helmholtz. H. (H. S. Carhart), 542. (M. I, Pupiii). 
541 

Biography of (Digest. Ref.), 344. 408, 603 

Death of. 251 

The man and the teacher (W. F. Magie and C. 

R. Mann). 329 

Hermite. process (Digest). 14 

high tension electrolvzer (Digest). 295 

adopted at Ipswich iDigest. Ref), 478 

Hertz, H,. Biography of (Digest. Ref,), 84 

Work of (Digest. Ref.). 12, 3=.-81. 212 '. 

Work of. and the results (Digest, Ref.), 649 

High & Co.. J. Grant, high tension switch. 626 

large capacity switch. 215 

large switchboard. 530 

High frequency currents, Phvsiological efl'ects of 

(Digest. Ref.). 240 
High tension vs. low (Digest). 61 
Hill Electric Co., W.S., large switch, 451 

switch and rheostat combined. 40 

Hine & Robertson, indicator for valve setting. 410 
Hope Electric Appliance Co.. high tension cut-outs. 

182 
Hubbard. Norman H., vacuum pump. 530 
Hublev Mfg. Co.. Cope come-along. 481 

trollev harp and wheel. 218. 452 

Hunt. A. M,. Biographv and portrait of, 485 
Hysteresis and induction curves. Method of deter- 
mining (F. Holden). 617 

Discussion at Philadelphia meeting of A. I. E. 

E.. 571 

Electrostatic (Digest). 180 

^'in magnetic metals (Digest), 156 

Neutralizing, 145 

Variation of. with temperature (Digest, Ref.), 59 

I. 

Ice, Dielectric power of (Digest, Ref.), 526 
Illumination. 380. (DigesI. Ref.) 602 

Comparison of sources of. 119 

Interior (Digest. Ref.), 650 

Imperial Electric Lamp Co., 409 

Imperial Institute. Object and work of (Digest, 

Ref.), 527, 673 
Imperial Telephone Works, telephone, 413 
Incandescence of lamps. Measuring degree of (Di- 
gest). 526, (Digest. Ref ). 576 
Incandescenrarc lamps. Manhattan General Con- 
struction Co.. 218 
Incandescent gas burners (Digest). 36 
Incandescent lamp adiiister. Gihbs & White. 185 

bulbs. Coloring (Disesl), 133 

bulbs. Silvering (Digest, Ref.), 553. 527 

filament litigation. 539 



vl 



INDEX. 



Incandescent lainf) filaments. Increasing refractory 
power of (Digest). 502 

General tlieory of. 513. £39. £40 (Digest. Rcf.). 

367 

manufacture (Digest). 82. (Digest. Ref.), 60, 156. 

180 
patent. Edison. Expiration of. 511 

Livgro Incandescent Lamp Co., 182 

of the future (Digcsl). 205 

Quanonne (Digest). 527 

Serial on (Digest. Rcf.). 602 

shades of feathers (Digest, Ref.). 238. 527 

Incandescent socket and holder. Improved Kdisou 

(Digest. Ref.). .i£3 . ^ 

socket attachment. Independent Electric Co. 

676 . . 

suit. Buckeye. Judge Rick's decision sustained. 

'8 

support. E. A. Gav & Co.. 557 

tests (Digest. Ref.). 367 

Incandescent lamps. Candle power of (Digest). 367 

Decorative use of (Digest). 212 

Economic age of. 168 (Digest). 180 

Efficiency of (Digest). 317 

Experiments with (Digest). 156 

Ignition produced by (Digest). 238 

Light and efficiency te.st of (Digest. Ref.), 13 

Mullijile filanieut (Dig-sl). 13 

Phosphorescence of (Digest), 601 

Reducing candle-power of (Digest). 367 

Their use and abuse (A. D. Page), 102 

Incandescent lighting, Co.';! of (Digest). ."142 

Series (Digesl). 295. (Digest. Ref.). 318 

Independent Electric Co, lamp socket attachment 

676 
Index ot scientific and technical literature (Digest) 

Ref.), 84. 110 
Indicator for valve setting. Hiue & Robertson. 410 
Inductance and capacity. 304 
and capacitv of suspended wires (E. T. Houston 

and A. E. Kennellv). ' 
coefficients. Simple 

(Digest). 649 



552, 



1 aerial li 



nethod for determining 
: (Digest), 62S, 674 (Digest. Kef.). 



■ of lines. 23 (G. M, Warner), 27. 122 
Induction and hysteresis curves. Method cf deter- 
mining (P, Holden). 617 

coercients of. Measuring with a telephone 

(Digest. Ref.), 673 

in loop circuits and electromagnets. Analogy 

between (Digest. Ref.). 180 
Mechanism of (Digest. Ref.), 212 

system, Rathenau (Digest, Ref.), 554 

Inductive circuits. Rise of current in (Digesf), 341 
Influence machines (Digest. Ref.). 60 

Improvement in (Digest), 601 

Installations, Rules and Regulations for (Digest). 

368 
Institution of Civil Engineers' "Poreign Abstracts" 

(Digest, Ref,), 503 
Insulator, High tension (Digest), -49 
— Line wire (Digest, Ref.T, 157 

New (Digest), 61 

Insulation. New. Empire Electric Insulation Co . 

504 
Instrumeuls, Alternating current mtasuri!ig 

■ (Dige.st) 673 
Direct reading (Digest), 59 

Hot wire (Digest,) 366 

for instruction (Digest. Ref.). 237 

Recording measuring. 635 (Digest. Ref.). 366 

Insurance inspection. Electrical. 144 

Interior Conduit and Insulation Co,, iron armored 

insulating conduit. 39 
service end cut out. 556 

telescopic iron armored insulated conduit. 160 

Inyentions. New electrical, 71. 84 

Inventors and inventions. 619 

- — Typical. 589 

lona Mfg. Co,. Factory of, 370 

specialties. 531 

Ions. Migration of (Digest. Ref.), 366 

Velocity of (Digest). 447 

Iron and steel. Discoveriu); flaws in (Digesll. 84 

cylinders, Maenetization of (Digest). 265 

Electrolytic (Digest. Ref.). 14 

Magnetic constants of soft (Digest). 366 

Instrument for testing (Digest. Ref,), 2o6 

Law of magnetization of (Digest). 212. (Digest. 

Ref,). 266 

Magnetization of (Digest). 35 

Measuring magnetic qualities (Digest). 81. 156, 

212 (Digest. Ref.). 266 

wires. Circular maEnetizalion of (Dige-st). 447 

Isolated plant at Arundel Castle, 260 

Large (Digest). 157 

ou an Austria n^farm {Digest, 'Ref.), 554 



Jeffrey Mfg. Co.. coal cutter. 411 
— — mine haulage locomotive. 629 
Jones & Son. J., door opener. 220 
funrnal bearing alarm. Electric He 

243 
Jnlien, E.. Death of, 80 



Kapp C, niogrnphy'of. 661 
Keller' K. K . Biography and 'portrait of. Ifi3 
Keystone Electrical Inslrnnient Co anuneter, .';3I 
Kirkegnrd. O . niographv and portrait of, 116 
Knott Mfg, Co,, coinniutator lubricatini* conlpunnd. 
87 



Kruppin (Digest. Ref.). 448 

Kundt. A,. Biography of (Digest. Ref.). 241 



Laboratory. Board of Trade (Digest). ■'06. 447. (Di- 
gest Ref,). 476. 501. 553, 673 

Government standardizing in Switzerland (Di- 
gest ReL). ,«3 

Central, in Paris (Digest. Ref). 316. 476. 554 

Electrical testiug in Austria (Digest. ReL), 212 

notes (P. I. Patten). 26. 261 

Laboratories, National. 420 

Lag and lead. Measuring (Digest). 266 

angle of alternating currents. 518 

Lag and lead. Magnetic (Digest). 81. 366 
Lamp, .'irayl-acetate (Digest). 650 

La Liimiere Eleclrique. Suspension of, 227, (Di- 
gest), 241 
Launch, electric. New French. 49 
Launches, electric. Recent (Digest. Ref.). 50.< 
Leadiug-in wires. Alloys for (Digest). 238 

Aluminium. (Digest), 650 

r.eads.' Calculation of (Digest, Rcf), 407 

for railway circuits (Digest), 1.25 

Mechanical calculation of (Digesl), 239 

Leakage between conical points (Digesl). .=52 
VEctairase Electtiqtte: a ne.v journal. 327, (Di- 
gest). 344 

L'Eiieigie Eleclrique: a new journal. 419 
1 efTel & Co., Jas.. double discharge turbines. 481 
Levden jar discharges (Digest. Ref.). 237 
Light, cold. 3J8, 512, (Digest) 601 

Cost of (Digest, Ref,), 477 

Diffusion of (Digesl). 317 

Electric, in war (Digest). 82 

from electric oscillations. 459, (H. Ebert) 467, 

(Digest) 341. 476, (Digest. Ref.). 405 

from citv refuse 280 

from high frequency currents (Digest. Ref. ). 

601 

of the future. 612 

Propagation of (Digest. Ref.). 575 

Sources of (Di.nest, Ref.), 265 

Standard of (Digest). -94, 316, 601, (Digest, Ref.). 

576 

Lighting at Zurich, Switzerland. 260 

from balloons (Digest), 238 

Gas (Digest, Ref.), 674 

in Great Britain (E. R. Stevens), 121, 148. '206. 



132 



ic clutches and brakes (Digesl). 214 
slants of soft iron (Digest, Ref ). 44' 
ve tracer (Digesl), 108 (Digest 



Ref.) . 108. 
(Digest. Ref). 59 



233 



Par 



628 



■ (Digest), 132, 295. 406 

installations (Digest. Ref.). 603. 625 

Municipal, in Gla.sgow, 3,W 

Municipal, in London, 444 

of workshops (Digest, Ref.). 295 

of workshops bv inverted arcs (Digest). 367 

Street (Digest, Ref.), 406 

Train (Digest), 213, 528, (Digest. Ref,), 239. 

318.577 
train. Lewis system of. 85 

train. Miner system of. 135 

U.seful information about (Digesl), 132, 213 

works. Design and specificalion of (Digest. 

Ref)). 449. 577 

woiks. Design and specificalion for (Digest. 

Ref.), 449. 577 

Lightning and balloons (Digest). 240 
Tester for teleph{ 



■ deflection by cathode 

dielectric (Digest. Ref.). 341 

field. Intense (Digest. Ref). 35. 156..649 

lag (Digest). 81. 366 

law. Froelich (Digest), 108 

liquids. Equilibrium of (Digest. Ref.), 405 

perturbation (Digest. Rff), 212 

phenomenon. Curious (Digest). 623. 673 

properties of alloys (Digest. Ref,), 180 

qualities of iron. Measuring (Digesl). 81. 156. 

212. (Digest, Ref), 266 

researches (Digest. Ref.), 366 

resistance. Simple equation for (Digesl), 35 

.otarv dispersion (Digest, Ref), 294 

shielding (Digest. Ref.) 294. 405 

testing machine (Digest. Ref.). 502 

Magnetism, Discharge of. 251 (M. A. Agelasto). 

256 

Effect of. on the dimensions of wires and 

rings (Diges:). 623 

Mirrors of (Digest. Ref.). 649 

Molecular theory of (Digesl). 294 

Physiological effect of (Digest). 344 

Tel-reslrial (Digest). 237 

Magnetization by Hertzian cur 

59. 81. 265 

by Hertzian currents and a 

(Digest. Ref,), 81 

by rapid electrical oscillat 

Changes of length due to (Digest). 

curves (Digesl). 315 

Effect of, on dimensions of wires and rings 

(Digest, Red), 81 

Effect of, on volume (Digest. Ref.). 180 

of alloys (Digest. Ref. I, 81 

of hollow iron cylinders (Digest), 447 

of iron (Digest), 35, 212, 405, (Digest. Ref,). 266 

Magneto signal bell. Manhattan Electrical Supply 

Co. 413 
Magnet.s. Tubular (Digesl), 366 
Mail box, Coe, 557 
express and freight service ou street railway 

cais, 440 

service by trolley. 307 

Mains, Calculation of (Digest!. 14 

Lighting (Digest. Ref.). 213 

Manganese. Electrolytic production of (Digest. 
Ref ), 478 

steel (Digest). 2.-7 (Digest. Ref.). 266 

Kanhatta ~ ' ~ .- ~- .-- 



214 



ircuit. (Digest. Ref.), 
amary of (Digest. 



arresters. Descriptive 

Ref). 503 

arrester. New (Digest). 407 

bolt. Photographing, 28 

bolt. Effect of (Digest. Ref.). 369 

bolts and water spouts (Digest. Ref.) 529 

Destruction of cables bv (Digest). 478 

discharge of great magnitude (Digest), 318 

flash (Digest. Ref.). 450 

Freak of (Digesl). 652 

Globular (Digesl) 675 

Protection against. 304 

rod testing apparatus (Digest Ref.). 132 

Lights. Spectroscopic comparison of different (Di- 
gesl). 295. (Dige.st, Ref), 575 

Line wire losses and over-compounding of dyna- 
mos. Relation between (F. B, Crocker). 574. (E. 
P. Roberts), .'58 
Lines. Italian and French laws regarding construc- 
tion of (Digest, Ref.). 157 
Linton & Soulhwick. new switches. 628 
Liquor frauds. Detection of (Digest). 182 
Livgro Incandescent Lamp Co.. iucandescent lamp. 

1S2 
Locomotive. Forty-ton. General Electric Co. 243 

Heilmann (Digest). 83. (Digest. Ref.) 213 

Mine Haulage, Jeffrey Mfg, Co,, 629 

vs. motor cars (Digest). ISO 

Locomotives, Electric, in France (Digest), 4D7 

electric. Tractive force of (DigestT. 368 

High speed, and power of (Digesl). 502 

Lodge & Davis Machine Tool Co., motor driven 

radial drill. 89 
Log. Electric (Digest. Ref.). 61 
London Slectric Supply Co-poration pas.ses into 

the hands of a receiver (Digest. Rcf.). 213 
Liinkenheiraer Co., single bell chime whistle, 320 
Lyons exhibition (See Exhibition) 



M. 



Macfarlanc. .\,, Biography and portrait of. ."-57 
Magnetariurn (Digesl, Ref,). ,=75 
Magnet coils. Healing of (Digesl). 212 
Magnelic action of a cylindrical current (Digest). 
156 

chain lowing. (Digest), 181. (Digest. Ref.), 268 

circuits. Forces in (Digest. Ref.). 212 



Its (Digest. Ref.). 

agnetic dielectric 

(Digest. Ref). 81 
"2. 673 



218 



al Construction Co., incandescent 



Manhattan Electrical Supply Co.. magneto bell. 

413 
Marine generating plant. General Electric Co.. 158 ■ 
Material and constiuction (Digest. Ref.), 157 
Mather Electric Co,, direct connected dynamo. 2)7 

Manchester slow speed motor. 112 

. multipolar dynamo, 134 

Measurements, pVecisiou of, 119 (Digest) 131 
Mechanical energy into electrical, Transfoiming 

(Digest), 59 

Medal. lobn Scott. Award oi. 365 

Medival eleclrical nomenclature. 335 

Mercury poisoning (Digest), 367 

Metallurgical operations. Eleclrfcitv in (Digest. 
Ref,), 268 

Metals, Precipitation of (Digest. Ref,). 240 

Marshall. N,. Biography and portrait o'. £84 

Mathematical analysis. Foundations of {A. Mac- 
farlanc). 648 

Mathematics and— mathematics. 593 

Meter. Brillie. (Digest. Ref,), 12 

. — - Broco (Digest). 108 

Continental Co.'s (Digest. Ref.), 553 

Duncan (Digest). 476 

Grassol (Digest). 35 

Olan recording. 214 

Waterhouse. electrolytic. 18 (Digest. Ref ). 14 

for alternating currents (W. S, Resor). 268 

Phase (Digest). 59 (Digest, Ref). 366 

Portable alternating current. General Electric 

Co., 65 

tesling (Digest, Ref,). 57b 

Meters. Eleclrolvtic. (Digest, Ref.). 81 

recording. Notes on (E, Oxiey). 518 

.synchronzing clocks for (Digesl), 60 

Microphone induclion coil.s. (Digest). 528 
— - Phenomena of (Digest). 577 

Midwinter Fair, Cost of light and power for (W. 
F. C. Hasson and A. M. Hunt), 471 

data concerning electrical features. 460 

Plant of power plant of. 27 

Mine drilling machine (Digesl. Rcf.1. 157 

Electric haulage in a Michigan. General 

Electric Co., 579 

haulage locoraolive. lefTrey Mfg. Co.. 629 

hoist. General Electric Co . 216 

Mines. .(Accumulator traction in (Digest. Ref.), 448, 
527 

Conductors for (Digesl. Rcf,). 295 

Firing (Digest. Ref,), 40S 

Successful application of electricity to opera- 
lion of, 594 

Mining, Electricity in (Digest). 528. 553. (Digest 
Ref). 343 

installation. Interesting, General Electric Co. 

629 

Motive power. Electricity as (Digest, Ref.). £29, 

539, 554 
Monarch Engine Slop Co,, engine stop. 580 
Moonlight tables for August. 1894, 28 

foi September. 1894. 110 

for October 1894. 241 

for November, 1894. 369 

for December. 1894, 503 

for laiiuary, 1895, 578 

Monocyclic system. General Electric Co.. 371 
Mortimer. C. H.. Biography and portrait of. 353 
Motor, Alernaling current. Elementary theory of 
the induction of (Digest). 212 

building. Amateur. 47 (G. E. Duntonl. 54. 77 

fan. Alternating current.. General Electric 

Co., 136 



I ND EX. 



Motor, Fan, Wagner Electric Mfg. Co.. 39 

Four-poled. EliottLincoln Co., 480 

generators (Digest, Ref.). .142 

induction. Theory of (Digest), 343 

Keely (Digest. Ref.). 241 

Manchester .=low speed, Mather Electric Co.. 

112 

Measuring efficiency of large (Digest). 81, 108 

polyphased, 120 

Porter. 183 

Synchronous. Discussion of (Digest). 36 

svchchrouous. New (Digest. Ref.). 82 

sVslem. .lUernaling current (Digest). 025 

non-synchronous. Test of (Digest), 317. 673 

.M.itors, Alternating current at Lyons E.vhibition 

(Digest, Ref.). 553 

alternating current. Calculation of (E.Arnold), 

48 

alternating current. Device for maintaining 

(Digest. Ref.V 502 

and dynamos at Lyons Exhibition (Digest, 

Ref.). 624 

and generators. Measuring armature losses 

nd etSciencv of (Digest). 575 

1 of (Digest). 503 
of. in factories (Digest. Ref.). 4=0. 
current for continuous current 



Appli 

Applicati 

Calculating 

(Digest). 502 

installed in Switzerland in 1813. 361 

multiphased. and transformers. Graphical pre- 
determination of (Digest. Ref.) 476 

Non-synchronous, foi high voltages (Digest) 

533 

polyphased. Some facts about (L. Bell), 124 

Rotary field 636, 660 (Digest. Ref.). 624 

rotary 6eld. Notes on (S. P. Thompson), 643 

Single phased. Tests of (Digest) 342 

small. Application of (Digest). 132 

Small induction. General Electric Co . 481 

Small. Porter Standard Motor Co., 65 

three-phase. Starting (Digest), 623 

Two-phased. 1 

Two-phased. E.xperiments on. (L. Duncan. S. 

H. Brown. W. K. Anderson and S. Q. Hayes), 8 
vs. belts (Digest), 240 

vs. mechanical transmission (Digest). 265 

Motors. Petroleum (Digest. Ref.). 83 

Municipal and national ownership in England, 228 

central stations (Digest"), 503 

lighting in Glasgow. 330 

lighting in London, 444 

pant, Hempstead (Dige.st. Ref.), 448 

Muscle making. Electrical. 122, 544 



Nashold Cleat Co.. self-locking cleat. 580 

Nassau Electrical Co., primary battery, 63 

Nitional Electric Co., dvnamo, :;20 

National laboratories, 420 

National school of electricity, 588, (H. S. Carhart), 

648 
National Society of Electrotherapeutists, Annual 

meeting of. .331 
Navigation. Trolley (Digest. Ref.), 448 
Networks for agricultural districts, 252 
Neuralgia, Treatment of trigeminal (Digest, 

Ref ). 84 
New York Street Railway Association, Annual 

meeting of, 306 
Nickel and cobalt. Electrolytic (Digest, Ref.), 344 

Critical point in (Digest), 649 

plating baths. Eleven 

Ref.), 240 

Nomenclature (Digest). 59 
Medical electrical. 335 

(See also Symbolsand Abbreviations) 

Northwestern Electrical Association, Second 

annuil meeting ot, 96. 99 



■ipts for (Digest. 



Oakman, H. B.. Biography and portrait. 92 
Ocean, Temperature of, 549 
Ohm. International (Digest). 12 

Theoretical (Digest). 60 

Ohio Brass Co.. feeder wire splicer, 113 

flexible pole bracket, 242 

trolley, 159 

trolley sling. 411 

trolley wheel. 64 

Oil insulation for feeders (Digest). 477 

Oiling system. Automatic, Wilson-Whiling- 

Davis Oiling Co.. 184 
Olau. J. W., Biography and portrait of, 224 
Olin Gas Engine Co., gas engine, 160 
Organ, Electric (Digest, Ref.). 268 
Oscillations. Hertzian. Reflictions and resonance 

from (Digest. Ref ). 341 

of small wave length and their reflection from 

metals (Digest, Ref.), 341 

Over-compounding dynamos in parallel, 355 (Digest, 
- Ref.), 577 

Relation between line wire losses and (F. B. 

Crocker). 574. (E. P. Roberts) 358 

Oxygen and hydrogen. Manufacture of (Digest. 
Ref ). 214 

Magnetic rotary dispersion of (Digest, Ref.), 131 

Ozone Generator (Digest), 318 

Practical application of (Digest), 529, 675 (Di- 
gest, Ret.). 603 



P. 

Paint, Acid proof (Digest). 240 
Pantelegraph (Digest. Ref ). 257 
Partrick & Carter Co.. annunciator, 160 



.Patent for sale, 578 

" system, English (Digest). 240 

Pelzer Mfg. Co., southern transmission plant, 350 
Periodic currents. Form of (Digest, Ref.). 212 

curves. Determining form of (Digest. Ref). 

156. 180 

functions. Analyzing (Digest. Ref.), 81 

Permeability. Instrument for measuring (Digest) . 

212 
Petroleum motors (Digest. Ref.). S3 
Pettingeil-Andrews Co.. new home of. 270 
Pickling (Digest. Ref.), JIO 

bath. Electric (Digest). Si 

Phase difference. What shall be the measure f 
(H. J. Pvan), 475 

meter (Digest), 59 (Digest. Ref.). 366 

regulation, 419 (Digest), 368. 448. 502, 528 

Phenomenon, New (Digest), 35. 526 

Peculiar. 611 (M. W. Hassan). 613 

Philadelphia Traction Co.. Electric system of ( . 

S. Hering). 383, 421, 463, 491 
Phoenix Telephone Co. telephone. 411 
Phosphorescence (Digest). 59, 81 

at low temperature (Digest). 81 

Photo-electric action of light (Digest), 131 

phenomena in selenium, Rapidity of Digest) 

265 

researches (Digest), 156 

Photo-electricitv (Digest, Ref.), 108 
Phoiograph. Synchronic (Digest), 240 
Photographing, Light for (Digest), 448 
Photography, Colored (Digest). 61 

Electric light for (Digest). 527 

Photometer. Drossbach (Digest). 406 

for incandescent lamps (Digest. Ref.), 156 

Photometric magnitudes and units (Digest. Ref.), 

575 

standards (Digest), 81 

■ symbols. 512 

units and quai.tities (Digest). 131. 180. 394. 40.=, 

476, 526, £75, (Digest. Ref.). 553 

Photometry, (Digest. Ref.) 12. 212 

A new (Dige.st. Ref ). 367 

and pupilometrv Tii^^pstl 

of diffused retUctn.Ti ]u- 

Theoretical anil -vi.iiin 



; (Digest. Ref.). 601 



the 



al .'e 



Physical Journal. Piupo.scd new. 589 

quantities (Digest, Ref.). 81 

Pike. C. W.. Biography and portrait of. 163 
Planimeter. Hatchet, 144, 264 
Platinized grass resistances (Digest). 81 
Platinum and its metals (Digest. Ret.), 554 
Pliers. Insulated, Brombacher's Sons. Jacob, 135 
Plow. Electric (Digest). 625 
Poetical warning. A, 549 

Poincare, H., Biography and portrait of, 145 
Polarization (Digest. Ref.). 625 

ExplanatioM of (Digest, Ref.). 61 

Galvanic (Digest). 157 

Polarized Electricity. 460 

Pole Bracket. Flexible. Ohio Brass Co.. 242 
Poles for overhead lines. Deflection of (Digest). 83 
Polyphased currents. Measurement of. (ABlondel), 
72, (A. D. Lunt) 107 

Svstems (Digest. Ref.). 181 

Transformation (B. Ford), 28, (G. M. Warner), 

77 

Porcelain muflaes. Electric (Digest. Ref.) 240 
Porter Standard Motor Co.. small motors. 65 
Potential determinations (Digest. Ref ). 601 

Electrical, and energy (659) 

Potentiometers for alternating currents (Digest.) 

405 



Stations. Management of. 355 
ss, Hvdraulic. for covering insulated tables 



Prii 



273 



Appliance Co., rail 
Electricity 



ay joints and 



the Sound steamer. 73 
of power by electr 



■•Priscilla. 
Prize for th< 

ity. Giffard (Digest). 133 
Prizes ai the Paris Exposition (Digest. Ref.). 241 

for paper offered by Institute of Civil Engin- 
eers of London (Digest. Ref.), 408 

for 1895-5 (Digest, Ref.). 318 

offered by a French society (Digest. Ref.). 369 

offered by Industrial society of Muelhause 

(Digest), no 

Projectors (Digest), 108, 343. (Digest. Ref.). 82. 405. 

5«2 
Propagation of electric and magnetic perturbations 

(Digest. Ref.). 447 
Prussian blue and Berlin green (Digest). 651 
Public policy. Queston of (A. R. Foote). 101 
Pump. Improved vacuum. N. H. Hubbard, 580 

Self-regulating (Digest. Ref.). 529 

Puoilonietry and photometry (Digest. Ref.). 81 
Pupil of the eye.-Measuiement of (Digest). 131 



Quilt, Electrical (Digest). 241 



Radiation electrical. Measurement with (Digest, 
Ref), 341. 448 

Ellipticallv polarized electric (Digest, Ref.), 

212 

Rail bond. Johnston Car Equipment Co.. 219 

Robinson (Digest). 524 

Railroading. High speed (Digest). 213 
Railroad trains. Protection of (Digest ). 407 
Railroads, Electric. 380 

Railway. Alpine. (Digest) 674 

Budapest (Digest). 60. S3. S.53. (Digest, Ref.), 

238 



.Railway panel. Railway generator. General Elec- 
tric Co.. 112 

Brussels (Digest. Ref.). 448 

Chemistry. Ger.. 460 

Douglas- Laxev (Digest), 238, 267 

Dresden (Digest. Ref.). 368 

Havre (Digest. Ref.). 407 

Kiew (Digest. Ref.). 180 

rpooi (Digest) 343,367. 406. (Digest. Ref.). 



267 



553. ST 



Lyons (Digest. Ref.). 109. 407 

Ml. Saleve (Digest. Ref ). 238 

Poughkeepsie and Wappinger Falls. 479 

South London (Digest) 213 

South Staffordshire iDigesl). 213. £53 

Waterloo City (Digest. Ref.). 450 

circuits (Digest. Ref). 181 

circuits. Leads for (Digest). 625 

circuits. Use of --booster" on. 438 

conduit system. Sachmann (Digest). 577 

Elevated.' in Berlin (Digest. Ref.). 448 

Elevated, in Chicago. 40 

expenditures. Classification of. 436 

plants. Efficiency of (A. C. Balcli) 



(48 



nd bonds. Price Railway .-^ppli; 



journal. New; --The Trolliv." 344 

networks in New Jersey. 47' 

number of The Electric World. 379 

on ice (Digest). 602 

overhead. Hanlon (Digest. Ref.). 527 

plant. Large. Siemens & Halske Elec'.ric Co.. 

135 

plants. Notes on economy tests of (G. H. 

Davis). 567 

power stations. Notes on management of (G. 

T.Hailchetl).335. 359. 393, 442. 495. 522. 547. 573. 



Sectiona 

407. 448 

Single post elevated. 87 

statistics of the world (Digest). 317 

Su.spended (Digest). 477 

system. Behr. High speed (Digest). S3 

svstem Philadelphia Traction Co.s. 459 (H. S. 

Hering). 383. 421. 463. 491 

svslem. Suspended (Digest. Ref.). 368 

Terra Haute Electric. T-rail track construction 

of (R. B. Harrison), 435 

Underground, Budapest (Digest), 60, S3, £53, 

(Digest, Ref.). 238 

Underground conduit (Digest. Ref.). 502 

Underground gravity (Digest). 448 

Underground. Vienna (Digest. Ref.). 477 

Railwavs, Agricultural, .S66 

ana central stations (Digest). 60. 83 

at Hamburg and Lyons (Digest. Ref.). 36 

cable and electric. Comparative efficiencies 

of (Diuest). 343 

City and .suburban. 441 

Comparative cost of horse and electric lines in 

Germany (Digest). 36 

Conduit; paper before N. V, Electrical Sociely 

and discussion. 513 

Discussions on (Digest). 574 

in Budapest (Digest). 602 

in Europe (Digest). 60. 83 (Digest. Ref.). 238. 

267 

in Europe at end of 1893 (Digest). 524. 674 

in Europe, Mileage of electiic, 604 

in Germanv. 443, (Digest. Ref.). 36. 133 

in the United States and Canada (Digest. Ref.). 

133. 477 

in Vienna (Digest. Ref). 448 

Light (Digest. Ref.). 577. 602. 624 

Mechanical traction on (Digest. Ref.). 343, 502 

Municipal purchase of (Digest, Ref.) 602 

of Atlanta. 391. 441 

Roller bearings for (Digest), 109 

Standing loads on. 380 

Three-wire svslem (Digest). 5.7 

Transfers on. 439 

Trips per inhabitant in seme large cities (Di- 
gest). 448 

Working expen.ses of (Digest). 317, 502 

Rain, Artificial (Digest. Ref..) 84 

Rapid Transit (C. W. Parks), 667. 
in Boston. 95 

in cities (Digest). ISO 

in New York. 4.59 

Rat did it. A. 5S8 

Ravs. Ellipticallv polarized (Digest. Ref.). 552 
— - of electiic force. Refraction and dispension of 

(Dlge-st), 575 
Reactance. 191. .355. 376. 564 (A. Macfarland). 475. 

(Digest). 405 

Concernine (A. Bloudel). 381 

Definition of (C. P. Steinmetz and F- Bedell). 



565 



J. Housto 



On the definition of the t 

and A. E. Kennelly). 381 

Recording measuring instruments. 535 
Rectifiers (Dige.st). 368. 448 602 
Reflectors and reflection (Digest). 317 

White. 400 

Refuse destructors (Digest) 37. (Digest. Ref.). 318 

Disposal of (Digest. Ref.). 52H 

for geneiating steam, Diilization of (Digest. 

Ref.). 449 

Light from. 380 

Registering device (Digest. Ref). £54 
Relav. Alternating current (Digest). 366 
Resonance (Dige.st. Ref. I. 294 

analysis of alternating and polyphased cur- 
rents (M. I. Pupin). 51 

and interference (Digest. Ref.). 265, 315 

and reflection (Digest. Ref.). 649 

discussion at Philadelphia meeting of A. I. E. 

E.. 571 

Resistance alloys (Digest. Ref.). 342 

box (Digest, Ref.). 405 

Resistances. Construction of (Digest), 366, 448, (Di- 
gest. Ref.). 406 

:Mea-iiireinent of compounded (Digest), 552 

Platinized glass (DigestI, 81 

vs. choking coils (Digest). 5:^ 



INDEX 



Kesuscitation from electric shocks, 227, 328, 563, 

(Uigesl), So3 
Keview of rcccni developments in the application 

of cicclricilv (Dige.-il. Ret,), 554 
Reynolds, P. M., Biograpliv and portrait of, 584 
Kheostat, Cance (Digest), lib. (Digest, Ref.), 109 

Convenient lamp ((J. A. Hoadley), 4 

Wire for (Digest). 470 

Ring, Self-induction of (Digest, Ref.), 552 
Ritter. I, W.. Biographv of (Digest. Ref.), 503 
Road.s, Klcctricity on common (Digest), 2«. 
Roof. Movable (Digest. Ref.), 6.=2. 675 
Rope driving (J.J. Flatlier), 288 
Roth & Eck, dynamo, 348 
Rubies. Artificial (Digest), 240 
RuhmkorfT, Spelling of (Digest), 603 
Rule for current and lines of /orce, 356 
Rules and regulations for running of leads. French 
(Digest, Ref,), 449 



s. 



Safety fuses (Digest), 13 

Sag in span and trolley wires (K. 

of copper lines. 4()0 

Salts. Conductivity of solutions 

gest. Ref). 406 
Sanitation. Electrical. I.TO 
Saturn's rings (Digest), 14 
Sceneograph. 84 

Sealing liottles electrically (Digest). 318 
Searchlight, Rushmore. 297 
Seismic, magnetic and electric phenomena. 52 
Self-induction, Coefficient of (Digest, Ref), 265, 341 

Coefficients of. Calculating (Digest, Ref.), 108 

Measuring (Digest), 526. (Digest. Ref ), 108. 132 

of armatures. Measuring (Digest). 576 

Shaper. New (Gould & Eberhardt, 452 
Shears. Movable (Digest). 344 

Ships, Eltctricily on (Digest. Ref.). 240. :66. 674 
Short circuit caused by lightning (Digest). 133 

Continuous, 145 

Siemens & Halske Electric Co.. large railway 
plant, 135 

mammoth armature star, 18 

sine form of curves of alternating E. M, F.. 4C3 

Signalling through space, 192. (B. O. Ellis). 551. 

(E. A. Grissinger), 570, 574,(T.D.Lockwood).525. 
(Digest). 239 
Signals. Patenall system of railroad (Digest.Ref.),5S4 

Railway (Digest. Ref), 157 

alternators (Digest) 132, (Digest. Ref,), 



(Digest), 623, (Di- 



al Philadelphia meeting 



266 

Equivalent: a 

of A. 1. E, E. 

Sine form of curves of alternating E. M. F.. 107, 
143. 279. 291 (E. Arnold) 315, (L. Bell). 211. 339, 
(A. Blondcl). 293, (F. W. Dunbar), 154. (L. Dun- 
can). 154. (R. A. Fessenden). 264. 315.(;. Flem- 
ing). 339. (E. J Houston). 154. (J. F, Kelly). 130. 
(A. E. Kennelly). 154. (H. J. Ryan), 177, (C. F, 
Scott), £71. (Siemens & Halske), 403. (C, P, 
Steinmet.1). 177. (Dige,st\ 527 

Single phased into three-phased currents. Trans- 
forming (Digest). 82 

Slide rule wire calculator. 627 

Smelting process, Taussig (Digest, Ref.), 450 

Soaj), Manufacture of (Digest), 240 

Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers. 
Meeting of. 544 

Solar electrical energy not transmitted by radia- 
tion. 126 

Solutions. Conductivity of (Digest, Ref.). 601 

Electrical repulsion of (Digest. Rel.). 249 

under pressure. Resistance of (Digest). 341. (Di- 
gest. Ref.). 406 
Spans of soft copper wire (Digest). 213 
Spark photographing (Digest. Ref.). 36 
Specific and inductive power ot wires (Digest, 

Ref.). 212 
Specific inductive capacities of water, alcohol, etc, 

(Digest), 650 
Speed indicator. Electrical (Digest). 503 
Stage. Electricity on (Digest. Ref.). 450 
Standard of light (See Light). 
Standards. Adoption of, by British Government 

(Digesi, Ref.). 294 

Electrical (Digest. Ref.). 448 

Low resistance (Digest). 266 

of measurements (Digest). 57S 

Practical (Digest). 266 

Static discharges. Injurious. 200 

Steam cut-off. Electrical (Digest. Ref.). 110 

separators for power stations, Goubert Mfg 

Co.. 244 

turbine (Digest Ref.). 407 

turbine. Seger Digest). 83 

Steel. Cast, and cist iron for dynamos (Digest). 238 

Magnetic qualities of gun, 488 (Digest, Ref.), 

Permeability of (.M. Osterberg and M. Mun- 

roe). 31 

vs. iron for dynamos (Digesi). 447 

Steinmetz. C. P.. Biography a.idportrait of, 25 
Stilwell-Bierce & Smilh-Vaile Co.. heater, j.urificr 

and receiver, 216 

turbines for Wooiisocket. R. 1., plant, 318 

Storage battery (See Accumulator) 

Street railway (See Railway) 
Su^imarine boat (Digest). 625 
detector 466 (Digest). 529. (Digest, Ref.). 503 

navigation (Digest), 213 

Subways for elcclrial conductors, 660 

New York city, 666 

Sugar, Purification of (Digest). 265, 295, (Digest, 

Ref.). l.=,7 
Sulphuric acid. Concentration (Digest), 61. 503 
Sunoineter (Digest). .37 
Suspension, Telescopic (Digest, Ref.). 502 
Sweet Electric St Mfg. Co.. limit switch. 158 

.station limit switch, 578 

Switchboard, Automatic telephone (Digest, Ref,), 



Switchboard for alternating systems. Sectional, 
Port Wayne Electric Corporation, 451 

iu a Budapest station (Digest, Ref.). 528 

Large, J, Grant High fit Co., 530 

Switch and rheostat. W. a. Hill Electric Co., 40 

block and cut-out, lona Mfg. Co. 5ol 

High tension. J. Giant High St Co., 626 

Knife, Taylor St Clark, 218 

Knife-blade, Electrical Engineering & Sup- 

ply Co., 273 

Large, W, S. Hill Electric Co.. 4S1 

Large. C. S. Van Nuis. 37U 

Large capacity J. Grant High, 215 

Limit, Sweet Electric St MIg, Co,, 158 

Melzg.r (Digest. Ref.). 157 

New multiple (P. E- Marchand). 39 

Plug (Digest. Ref ). »3 

Snap. General Electric Co.. 451 

Station limit. Sweet Electric & Mfg. Co., 578 

Track, Ash. 452 

Switches. New. Linton St Soutbwick. 628 
Symbols and abbreviations. 167. 356, 540, 544, 568 (E. 
I. Houston and A. E Kennelly). 600. (A. Mac- 
larlaue). 446 (Digest). 367, 553 (Digest, Ref.), 
601 

- - for physical quantities and abbreviations for 



Tachometer, Amsler (Digest). Ref.; 652 
Tanning, Electric (Digesi, Ref.). 110, 158, 240 

Humy. system of (Digest), 83 

Tarifl bill. New. 191 

schedules and electrical manufacturers. New. 

197 

Taxation. System of, 436 
Taylor St Clark, knife switch. 218 
Teeth, Electrical extraclion of (Digest). =03 
Telegraph and telephone statistics for Austria for 
1893 (Digest. Ref.). 369 

and war lu the East (Digest, Ref.). 267 

between Egypt and the Cape (Digest. Ref.), 83 

between India and Europe (Digesi. Ref.), o7 

building. Fire iu (Digest. Ret ). 6:1 

bui.ding. fire in Germany (Digest. Ret.). 603 

cable in the St. Golhaid tunnel (Digest, Ref.). 



109 



uch 



ud British submar 



companies. 

(Digest. Ref.). 267 

luvenliou of (S. Vail). 3 

lines ot the world (Digest). 267 

printing (Digest. Ref.). 157 

signals. Photographic recording of (Digest). 554 

station. First (G. W Pearce). 3 

statistics (Digest). 503 

Submarine (Digesi. Ref.). 625. 675 

Telegraphs. Indian (Digest. Ref.). 577 
Telegraphic coinicctiou with China (Digest), 407 
Telegraphing and telephoning over the same line 

(Digest, Ref,). 213 

without metallic conductors (Digesi), 449, £54. 

£77 

Telegraphy and telephony. Cable (Digest). 109 

and telephony in Cochiii-Cbina and Cambodia 

in 1S93 (Digest. Ref.). 478 

and telephony. Domestic (Digest. Ref.). 603 

and telephony. Simultaneous (Digest. Ret.). 61 

Atlantic (Digest. Ref.). 407 

Duplex (Digest Ref.). 37 

Incident in the early days of. 177 

Induction (Digest). 181. 239 

in Great Britain (Digest, Ref.), 449 

Introduction of. £43 

in Queensland (Digest. Ref.). 52^ 

Progress iu (Digesi). 478 

Speed of submarine (Digest, Ref ), 478 

to the Far East. Submarine (Digest. Ref.). 181 

Trans-.^llanlic (Digesi). 449 

Telephone apparatus (Digest. Ref.). 267 

apparatus. Columbia Telephone Mfg. Co.. 64 

between Madrid and Paris, Proposed (l>igest, 

Ref.), j69 

Bridge (Digest, Ref.) 157 

building ot National Telephone Co (Digest. 

Ref.). 625 

circuits. Induction in (Digest. Ref.). 503. 577 

circuits. Influence of railway circuits on 

■ (Digesi). 477 

circuits. Lightning arrester for (Digest, Ref.). 

214 

circuits. Railway and (Digest, Ref.). 554 

company reaches a subscriber, How a (W. L. 

Hedenberg). ;3 

English government and (Digest. Ref.). 267 

exdange. Magneto. Gilliland Telephone Co., 

exchange practice. Modern (J. E. Keelyn). 214 

Imperial Telephone Works. 413 

induction coils (Digest). 61 

induction coils. Efficiency of (Digest). 182 

induction coils. Researches with (Digest). 343 

in Hungry (Digest. Ref.). 407 

in the courts (Digest). 477 

line. Berlin-Vienna (Digest, Ref.). 651 

line. Military (Digest). 267 

London and Berlin (Digest. Ref ). 267 

- - loops. Inductionless (Digest). 157. o74 

measurement of E. M. K. (Digesi). 649 

Minimum current audible in (Digest) 343. 

(Digest. Ref.). £03 

Morse relays as (Digest) 213 

New form of (Digest), 603 

oscillations. Photographing (Digesi. Ref.), 448 

patent. Berliner declared void. ()35 

patent. Judge Carpenter's opinion, 06J 

opinion on Berliner decision, 664 
enon. Peculiar, 252 (W, w. Vincent), 358 

rnoenix Telephone Co.. 411 

Quanlilative theory of (Digest, Ref.), 343 

situation. ()60 

stations. Switchboards for (Digest, Ref.). 6;5 

switchboard (Digesi. Ref.). 449 

switchboard, Western Telephone Construction 

Co.. 89 



phe 



Telephone switch for suburban lines (Digest, Ref. ) 
267 

system in Arlberg tunnel (Digest, Ref). 3 69 

systems (Digest. Ref.). 267 

Theory of. and minimum current in (Di gest. 

Ref.). 407 

transmitter. Cottrell. 11 

tiansinittcr. Berliner, declared void. 635, 662 

vibration. Photographing (Digest). 267 

vs. telegraph (Digest. Ref.). 214 

wires. Underground (Digest). 477 

Telephones. Disturbances in due to railway cir- 
cuits (Digest). 181 

in railroad service (Digest). 61 

without batteries. Subscribers (Digest). 109 

(Digesi. Ref ). 503 

Teleohony (Digest, Ref ). 318. (see Digest Sept. 15) 

Duplex (T. R. Roseburgh). 307 

Long distance (Digest. Ref.). 343 

Multiple (Digest. Ref.). 133 

Studies in (Digest. Ref). 267 

Telephote (Digest. Ref.). 109 
Terms. (Digest. Ref.). 316 

Terrestrial magnetism (Digest. Ref.). 212. 237 
Tesia effects with influence machines (Digesi) 673 

with siiuDle apparatus. 258 (H. M. Martin and 

W. H. Pa'lmer). 198 

Tesla. N.. Interview with, in N. Y. World. 97 
Tesla currents. Researches with (Digest, Ref.), 265 
Testing set (Digesi. Rel.). 502 
Theatre arc lamp (Digest. Ref.). 527 

Electricity in (Digest. Ref.). 450 

light regulator (Digest). 477 

Theory. 24 

Another electrical. 587 

Therapeutics. Electricity in (Digesi). 110 

Thermo couples of metals and solutions (Digest. 

Ref.). 552. M9 
Theimodynamics. A question of (F. W. Richart), 

and lO. T. Hanchett). 446 
Thermo-electric force between electrolytes (Digest. 

Ref.) 601 
Thermostat. Naglo (Digesi). 554 

ueter. Direct reading platinum (Digest). 



i (Digest). 406 
systems. 



Leads 



266 
Therinonieters as ethomete 

Testing (Digest). 212 

Three phased and single-phased 

for (Digest). 449 

currents. Transforming single- phased into 

(Digesi). 82 

distribution system (Digest. Ref). 1£7 

Three-wire system. Disadvantages of (Digest). 13 

Discussion of (Digest). 502 

iiistallatitns. Regulation of (Digest. Ref.). 674 

on trolley lines (Digesi). 527 

with a single dynamo (Digest). 13 

Tic-douloureux. Electrical treatment (Digest. 

Ref.). 110 
lime distribution (Digest. Ref). 109. 133. 449 
Tin from tinned iron (Digesi), 450 
Tinning (Digest), 240 

Tower for overhead wires (Digest, Ref.), 449 
T-rail track constrpctiou of Terra Haute Electric 

Railway (R. B. Harrison), 435 

can it be satisfactorily used on paved streets, 4. 6 

Trains. Apparatus for indicating departure ol 

(Digest. Ref.). 214 
Transit systems. Suggestions for (S. D. Mott) . 128 
Transition point. Determining (Digest), 406 
Traction co-efiScients (Digest). 602. 6.50 
Thermo-electric currents. Demonstrating the e x - 

istence of (Digesi). 649 
Thermopiles (Digest). 651 
Time distribution in the United States (Digest 

Ref). 6£1. 675 
Traction. Electric (Digest, Ref), 602 

Cost of. 397 

Discussion of (Digest). 674 . 

in Berlin (Digest. Ref.). £77 

in France. 424 

in Germany (Digest. Ref.). 602 

in the Paris sewers (Diges'. Ref.), 448 

with special reference to installation of 

elevatea conductors (Digest, Rel.), £77 

Traction. Gas (Digest). 36. 368 

on railways. Mechanical (Digest. Ref.), 343 

Seiial on (Digest), 157 

Steep-grade (Digest). 624 

Train lighting (See Lighting) 

Tiansformer curves, predetermiuatinu of (Digest, 
Ref.). 60. 213 

design. Principles of (Digest), 601, 624 (Dige-sl, 

Ref.), 576 

Graphical (A. P. Trotter). 148 

losses (Digest). 476 

systems (Digest). 60. 82, 108, 180, 213 (Digest. 

Ref). 132. 295 

testing (E. Oxley). 593. 648 

with a condenser iu parallel with asecondarv 

Action of (F. Bedell and A. C. Crehore). 127. 

176. 234. 363 

Transformers and inuHiphased motors. Graphical 
predetermination of (Digest. Ref.). 476 

Cooling (Digest). 266 

Current rushes in (Digest). 60. 108. 180, 212 

Impedance (Digest). .576 

open circuit loss in (Digest) 673 

Transmission of power (Digest). 13 

Alternating Current (Digest. Ref.). 109 

Award of prize of Industrial Society of Muel- 

hause for (Digest). 157 

continuous current (Digest). 83 

Diphased (Digest), 36. 406 (Digest. Ref.). 109 

Electrical, 4,S8 (L. Bell). 489. 519, 545, 617, 645, 

669 

in the Transvaal (Digest, Ref,), 448 

Multiphased. 611 (R. D. Mershon). 614 

Series (Digest). 1.'3 

system for continuous alternating currents 

(Digest), 82 

• to ships (Digest). 295 

Transmission of power plant (Digest, Ref.), 239 

A southern. Pelzer Mfg. Co.. 530 

at Menier Farm (Digest, Ref.). 3)7 

at Montmorency Falls. Quebec. 242 

in Sweden, Proposed (Digest). lO'J 



IN de:?^ 



Transmission of power plant, Signiaringen (Di- 
gest). 3-13 

Polvpliased (Digest). 448 

Triumpli Hlectric Co.. factory of, 532 

Trolley and trolley wheel, J. H. Bunnell & Co., 21S 

Ohio Brass Co.. 159 

balloon (Digest), 344 

harp and wheel, Hublev Mfg. Co.. 218. 452 

lines (Digest Ref.). 238 

navigation (Digest. Ref). 448 

sling. Ohio Brass Co.. 411 

svsteiu. Double (Digest. Ref.). 238 

wheel. Ohio Brass Co.. 64 

wire clamp. Central Electric Co.. 532 

wire. Long (Digest. Ref.). 477 

Turbine. Double discharge. James Leffel & Co., 481 

High pre.«sure (Digest. Ref.). 449 

supporter. Electro-magnetic. 39 

tests, Dayton Globe lion Works Co.. 242 



riidergr 



cduits 



Chi. 



lidncto: 
a. 340 



mderwriters' rulf.«. 264 {A. H. Burnett). 1=5 
fMiion of German electricians. Second an 
meeting of. 25 

Proceedings of (Digest. Rel.). 075 

Unipolar induction iDigest). 447 

machine. Another inopeiative. 107 

rnits. physical. Serial on (Digest, Ref.), 050 

Standard IDigest, Ref,;, 310 

(See also Photometric Units, and Symbols 

Abbreviations) 
Vacuum, Rotation in (Digest. Ref.), ISO 

tube experiments (ijigest), ISO 

tubes (Digest), 526 

Valve. Automatic exhaust relief. Knowles S 

Pump Works. 219 
Valves for steam and water pipes. Electric 
operated (Digest. Ref.), 625 
Van Nui;. C. S. Large switch. 370 

multiple fuse arrester. 2'2 



V. 



Varnish. Manufacture of (Digest). 24cl 
Vehicles, self-contained. Competition of. 021 



Ventilators. Hlectric (Digest. Kef.). 408 

Vessels Indicating position of (Digest. Ret.). 157 

Vision. Theory of (Digest. Ref.). 12 

Vulla's fundamental experiment (Digest;, 875 

Voltaic chain (Digest) 294 

circuits. Alloys in (Digest. Ref.). 181 

Voltameter (Digest. Ref.). 206 

Voltmeter and ammeter for amateurs. How l 
make (G. E. Dunton). 2SS. 338 

Hot wire recording (Digest, ^ef.), 156 

Voltmeters and ammeters for alternating curren 

(Digest), 260 

and ammeters. Registering (Digest. Ref.). SE2 



w. 



Wagner Electric Mfg. Co.. fan motor. 39 
Walker .Mfg. Co.. street railway controller. ,=05 
Watchmans controller (Digest, Ref.) 67S 
Water courses. Locating by means of electricity 
(Digest). 240 

Electiolytiic decomposition of (Digest. Ref.). 

61. 110 

level indicator (Digest. Ref.). 478 

mains, Electrolysis of (Digest. Ref.). 528 

Purification of (Digest), 214. 250. 408 (Diqest 

Ref.). 296 

Resistance of pure (Digest. Ref ). 

Water power plant at Buchanan. Mich.. 556 

at Woonsocket. R. I.. 348 

Wattmeter. Drillie (Digest. Ref.). 60 
Waves, electric Detector of (Digest). 12 

in iron wires (Digest). 552 

Mechanical effect of (Digest. Ref.). 180. 237 

Propagation of (Digest. Ref.). 205 

Propagation of, in ice (Digest). 501 

Hertzian (Digest. 35). (Digest Ref.). 59. 205 

Welding. Bernardo system (Digest). 181 

Experiences with Thomson system (Digest). 181 

Information on (Digest. Ref.). 408 

Lagrange & Hoho process of (Digest). 651 

patents. Thomson. Decree sustaining. 012 

Wenstrom Electric Co.. direct connected outfit. OS ■ 

iron clad dynamo. 183 

Western" Electric Co.. Buffalo grip. 89 

enters the railway field. 214 

Western Telephone Construction Co.. telephone 
switchboard, 89 



Westinghouse Electric & Mfg, Co., electric lighting 

on coal boats. 297 
Wheastone bridge with alternating currents 

(Digest). 00 

with condensers (Digest). 342 

Wheeler Condenser & Engineering Co.. condenser 

and feed water heater. 450 
Whistle. Single bell chime. Lunkenheimer Co.. 32o 
Wild West show. Electricity at, 253 
Willyoung. E. G., Biography and portrait of. 163 
Wilson-Whiting-Davis Oiling Co., oiling system. 

184 
Wimshurst machines. Theory of (Digest). 44S 

(Digest Ref). 476 
Windlass. Combination. George Cutter. 218 
Wire. Band (Digest). 157 

cables. Government test of. 133 

calculator. Slide rule. 627 

computing (Digest) 14 

coupling (Digest) 239 

cuKer. Safety. Brady Mfg. Co.. 159 

Double (Digest). 449 

— '- gauge. New (Digest). 528 

for rheostats (Dige.st) 470 

Galvanizing (Dige.st Ref.) 651 

losses, over-compounding of dynamos and 

regulatjon of P. D. in multiple arc circiyts 



Wi 



P. Roberts). 592 
nderground (Digest Ref.) 
:hart (Digest Kef.). 133 



449 



regulations (Digest. Ref.), 025 

Ship (Digest), 83, 109 

table. Graphical (Digest. Ref.). 369 

Woodbridge, J. L. Flv-wheel accidents i 

houses. 403 
Worcester Polvtechn 
World's Fair award; 



Ziegler. A. A.. Biograjihy and portrait of. 44 
ieigler. O.. Biography and portrait of, 44 
Ziegier Electric Co.. new home of. 270 
Zincing process (Digest. Ref ). 408 
Zinc. Purification of (Digest). 290 

ores. Magnetic treatment of (Digest). 675 

Zincs. Amalgamating (Digest). 290 



AUTHOR INDEX. 



Abbot. A. V. Fly-wheel : 
402. 



uts in power hous 



Agelasto. M. A. Discharge of magiieiisin. 250. 

Aldrich. W. S. Engineering education aud the state 
university. 290. 

Anderson, w. K. Experiments on two-phased mo- 
Arnold. B. J. Cost of producing electrical energy. 
104. 120, 340. 

Arnold, E. Calculation of alternating current mo- 
tors. 48. 

Sine form of curves of alternating E. M. P.. 315. 

Badger, J. s. Fly-wheel accidents in power houses. 
401. 

Balch, A. C. Efficiency of street railway generating 
plants. 648. 

Bedell, F. Action of a transformer with a con- 
denser in parallel wi'.h a secondary, 127, 170, 234, 
363. 

Consumption of alternating arc carbons, 013. 

Definition of reactance. 565. 

Study of residual charges of condensers and 

their dependence upon temperature. 314. 

Bell. L. Electrical power transmission. 489. 519, 545, 

017, 045, 009. 
Sine form of curves of alternating E. M. F. 

211, 339. 

Some-facts about polvphased motors. 124. 

Blondel. A. Concerning reactance. 381. 

Measurements of polvphased currents. 72. 

Sine form of curves of alternating K. M. F.. 293. 

Biowu, J. S. Fly-wheel accidents in power houses, 

403. 
Blown. S. H. Experiments on two-phased motors. 8. 
Buckerer. A. H. Consumption of alternating arcs , 

072 
Burnett. A. H. Fly-wheel accidents in power houses. 

000. 

Undei 

tahoon. J. . . 

Carhart. ri. S. H. von Helniholtz. 542. 

National school of electricity. 648. 

Carichoff. E. R. Design of electromagnets for 

specific duties. 122. 
carpenter. R. c. Fly-wheel accidents in power 

houses. 550. 
Carter. C. H. Designing e'ectric light stations. 551 
Caziu, F. M. F. Electric canal tugboat. 345.452. 
Corey, F. B. Fly-wheel accidents in power houses, 

.■iOO. 
Coykendall. T. C. Fly-wheel accidents in power 

hou.ses, 365, 499. 
Craven. I. B. Economy of power house operation. 

308. ' f f , 

Crebore. A. C. Actio 

denser in parallel 

363. 
Consumption of alternating i 



Crocker. F. B. Relation between line wire losses 

and over-compounding of dynamos, 574. 
Davis, G. H. Accidents to flywheels in powej 

houses. 445. 
Notes on economy tests of electric railway 

plants. 507. 
C. H. Fly-wheel accidents in power houses. 

402. 
Desmond, C. Centrarslations of Chicago, 29. 
Dougherty. C. Portable electric deck planer. 38. 
Cunbar. F. W. Sine form of curves of alternating 

E M. F., 154. 
Duncan, L. Experiments on two- phased motors. 8. 

Siue forms of curves of alternating E. M. F.,154. 

Dunton, G. K. Amateur motor building. 54. 77. 
How to make a voltmeter and ammeter tor 

amateurs. 285. 338. 
Dyer. P. M. Best method of treating accidents. 472. 
Ebert. H. Light from electric oscillations. 407. 
Ellis. B. O. Signalling through space. 551. 

ery, C. E. Fly-wheel accidents in power houses. 



402, 



vhirls. 305. 

wheel accidents in power 



Escher. R. T. Electric < 

Farnsworth. A. J. Fly- 
houses. 525. 

Fesseuden, R. A. Sine form of curves of alternating 
E. M. F., 204. .',15. 

Field, C. J. Fly wheel accidents in power houses. 402. 

Flather. J. J. Fly-wheel accidents. 498. 523. 

Rope driving, 288. 

Fleming. J. A. Sine form of curves of alternating 
E. M. F.. 339. 

Fleming, R. Fly-wheel accidents in power 

houses, 551. 

Foote. A. R. Question of public policy. 101. 

Ford. B. Polyphased transformation. 28. 
•Foster, H. A. Central station bookkeeping, 525. 

Frund. H. W. High candle power gas rivalry. 570. 

Goelet. A. H. How to deal with apparent death 
from electric shock. 229. 

Grimshaw. R. A. Dresden electric plant. 409. 

.inger, E. A. Signalling through space, SOO, 



can Association for 



574. 

Hale, W. H. History of . 
the Advancement of Sci 

Hall. K. The architect aud the electrical engineer. 
600. 

Haiichett. G. T. A question of thermodynamics. 446, 

Flv-wheel accidents in power houses. <t75. 

h6w to make a dynamo excite itself. 262. 

Notes on management of railway power sta- 
tions. 330, 359. 393. 442, 495. 522, 547, 573, 590, 

Practical compounding of dynamos. 494. 

— — Sparkin.g of closed coil dyiiamoes. 06S 

E. Destructive arcing of 500-volt 



fus 



474. 



ng rapid changes 



Harri^ion. R. B. Trail track construction of Terre 

Haute Electric Railway. 435. 
Hassou. M. W. Klectncilv on canals. 4. 

Peculiar phenonieuoii. 613. 

u. W. F. C. Cost of light aud power for the 



Mid 
Hayes. S. Q. Exper 



471. 



_ ents on two-phased motors. 8, 

Hedenberg. W. L, How a telephone company 
reaches a subscriber, 53. 

Hemingway, A. F. Over-compounded dynamos in 
parallel. 647. 

Hering. H. S. Electric system of the Phila. Traction 
Co.. 383. 421. 463. 491. 

Hoadley. G. A. Convenient lamp rheostat. 4. 

Holden. F. Method of determining induction and 
hysteresis curves. 617. 

Holt. J. H. Earth as an electrical conductor. 290. 
310. 

Hoopes. M. Fly-wheel accidents in power houses, 
403. 

Houston. E. J. Definition of term reactance. 381. 

• Electro-dynamic machinery, 50, 123. 149. 174. 

205. 231. 289. 309. 337. 362. 398. 444, 408, 4%, S20. 
540, 597, 644. 670. 

Inductance and capacity of suspended wires. 6. 

Siue form oi curve of aUernating E. M. F.. 154. 

Symbols and abbreviations. 000. 

Howell. S. S. Accidents to fly-wheels in power 
houses. 445. 

Hunt. A. M. Cost of light and power for the Mid- 
winter Fair. 471. 

Johnson. M. H. Best proportions of armature dia- 
meter and length. 287. 

Kecley. D. H. Distribution with equalization of E. 
M. F., 365. 

Keelyn, J. E. Modern telephone exchange practice. 

Kenuelly. A. E. Definition of term reactance. 381. 
Electro-dvnamic machinery. 50. 123. 149. 174. 

205. 231. 259. 289. 309. 337. 362. 398. 444. 468, 4%, 520, 

546, 597, 644. 

Inductance and capacity of suspended wires. 6. 

Sine form of curves of alternating E. M. P.. 154. 

Symbols and abbreviations. 600. 

Kinsley. C. Study of residual charges of condensers 

and their dependence upon temperature. 314. 
Lanphear. B. S. Current and lines of force. 595. 
Leonard. H. W. Flv-whcel accidents in power 

houses. 403. 
Lockwood. T. D. Signalling through space. 525. 
Lunt. A. D. Measurement of polyphased currents. 



107 
Macfarlane. A. Foundations of mi 

lysis. 64S. 

Reactance. 475. 

Symbols and abbreviations. 44 

Magie. W. P. H. von Helmholtz 

th» teacher. 329. 



thematical j 



INDEX 



Maim. C. R. H voii Helmlioltz; the man iiiid Ihe 

Icacher. 330. 
Manning, C H. Fly-wheel accidents in power 

houses. 402. 
Marchand. P. E. New niulliple swilch, 3'). 
Marks. W. D. Ply-wheel accidents in power 

houses. 403. 
Martin, H. M. Tesla eflecls with simple apparatus, 

198 
Merrill. E. A. S.ne in span and trolley wires. 569. 
Mershon. R. D. Notes on niultiphased transmission 

of power. 614. 
Mever, M. Cost of producing electrical energy. 236. 
Miller, K. O. How to make a dynamo excite itself. 

.140. 
Motl. S, 1). Harmonic call bells, 287. 

Suggestions for transit systems. 128. 

Munroe, M. rermeabiliiy of steel. 31. 

O'Neill. (J. E. Accidents to fly-wheels in power 

houses. 446. 
Osterbcrg. M. I'ermeabilitv of steel. .11. 
Owens, H- B- Test of closed coil arc dvnanio. 150. 
Oxlev. E. Notes on recorcling meters.' 51R. 

bxley, E. Transformer testing. 593. 648. 

Page, A. I>. Incandescent lamps: their use and 

abuse. 102. 
Palmer. W. H. Tesla effects with simple apparatus!. 

198. 
Parks. C. W. Rapid transit. 607 
Patten, 1". J. I.abo atory notes. 26, 261. 



iVMrce, G. W. First leleeraph station. 3. 

Pierce. A. W. K. Electrical difference oi potential: 

an analogy. 672 
Pember. K. H Arc light regulator 408. 
Perkins. F. C. Suggestion tor Buffalo's electrical 

carnival £90. 
Powell. L. S. Dr. Borchet'sgas battery: a sugges- 

lion, 637. 
Pupin, M. I. H. von Helinholti. Ml. 
Resonance analysis of alternating and poly- 
phased currents. 51. 
Reed. C. /. Eleclricitv direct from coal. 637. 
Kesor, W. S. Meter for alternating currents. 268. 
Richart, F. W. A question of thermodynamics. 446. 
Roberts. E. P. Relation between line' wire losses 

and over-coni|)Ounding of dynamos, 358. 
Wire losses, over-compounding of dynamos. 

etc.. 592. 
Rosebnigh. T. R. Duplex telegraphy. 30". 
Rvan. H. J. Alternate current working, 382 401. 

Sine form of curves of alternating E. M. F.. 177 

What shall be the measure of phase difference 

475. 
Ryder. M. P. I'ly-wheel accidents in power 

houses, 072 
Scott. G. J. Alternating currents in direct current 

armatures and their bad eft'ect on machines 314. 
Scott, C. K. Sine form of curves of alternating E. 

M. P.. 571. 



Serrell. L. W. Fly-wheel accidents in power houses. 

403. 
Sharp. A. Flv-wheel accidents in power houses. 620 
Skinner C. A. Te.t of closed coil arc dynamo. 1=0. 
Smith. T. C. Accidents to fly-wheels in power 

houses. 672 
Steinmelz. C. P. Definition of reactance. 565. 

Sine form of curves of alternating E. M. F.. 177. 

Stevens. E. R. Lighting in Great Britain. 121. 148. 

206. 233. 
Stuart-Smith, W. Fly-wheel accidents in power 

houses, 621. 
Thompson. C. F. Fly-wheel accidents in power 

houses, 500. 
Thompson. S. P. Notes on rotarv field motors. 643. 

Some advantages of alternating currents. 208. 

Thurston R. H. Fly-wheel accidents in power 

houses. 549. 401. 
Trotter. A. P. Graphical transformer, 148. 
Vail- S. Invention of telegraph. 3.77. 
Vincent. W. W. Peculiar phenomenon. 358. 
Waddell. J. Electrical difference of potential: an 

analogy. 589.672. 
Warner. G. M. Inductance of lines. 27. 

Polyphased transformation. 77. 

Wiener. A. E. Practical notes on dvnamo calcula- 
tions. 11. 32. 57. 79. 93 129. 153. 210. 497. 521. 549. 

572. 598. 615, 646. 
Wvnkoop, H. G. Locomotive vs. stalionarv engines, 

264. 



The Electrical World. 



Vol. XXIV. 



NEW YORK, JULY 7, 1894. 



No. 1. 



PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY BY 

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1883 " 63 








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1884 " 83 








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1885 " 100 








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The first issue i 


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Vol. XXIV. NEW YORK, JULY 7, 1894. No. 1. 

CONTKNTS. 



Editorial 1 

Invetilion of the Telegraph, by Stephen Vail 3 

The First Telegraph .Station, by G. Wilfred Pearce 3 

Electricity on the Canals, by M. W. Hassan 4 

A Convenient Lamp Rheostat, by George A. Hoadley 4 

A Central Station on the Pacific Slope 5 

The Inductance atid Capacity of Suspended Wires, by E. J. Houston 

and A. E. Kennolly 6 

Experiments on Two-Phased Motors, by L. Duncan, S. H. Brown, 

W. P. Anderson and S. Q. Hayes 8 

Practical Notes on Dynamo Calculations. — VIII, by Alfred K. Wiener II 
Digest of Current Technical Electrical Literature, compiled bj' Carl 

Hering 12 

New Books 15 

The New Home of the Central Electric Company IS 

.An Amateur's Practical Work 16 

A Compact Plant 17 

Electric Alarm and Pressure Gage I" 

The Waterhouse Electrolytic Meter IS 

.A Mammoth Armature Star 18 

DEPARTMENTS: 

Financial Intelligence 19 

Special Correspondence 19 

News of the Week 20 

Trade and Industrial Notes 3! 

Business Notes 21 

JUiistratcd Record of Patents 21 



OUR NEW DRESS. 

The new dress in which the present issue of The Electrical World 
appears, will, we tru.st, meet with the approval of our readers. 
Though somewhat smaller than the type from which the last volume 
was printed, the fonts here used approach more nearly in size those 
of the majority of technical papers, and will give an impression not 
less legible, we believe, than heretofore, and more in keeping with the 
size of the page. The less number of pages in an issue, while mak- 
ing the semi-annual volumes less unwieldy in size, will yet contain 
about ten per cent, more matter, thus bringing a welcome relief to 
the increasing press on our columns. 



THE ELECTRICAL WORLD AT HOME. 

In a supplement to the present issue, a profusely illustrated de- 
scription of the new home of The Electrical World is presented in 
the belief that its readers will be interested to knew something 
about the way a modern technical journal is conducted. Starting with 
humble quarters at No. 9 Murray street, it has thrice outgrown its 
offices and been compelled to seek new and more commodious accom- 
modations, until finally, after years of wandering, it has returned and 
found an abiding place in the magnificent new Postal Telegraph 
Building, next door to its first home. The W. J. Johnston Com- 
panj-, Ltd. , has now not only comfortable but elegant quarters, and 
jjossesses every facility for the disposal of its large and constantly in- 
creasing business. It may prove interesting to some of the readers 
of The Electrical World to follow its historj-, which is briefly traced 
in the supplement, from its birth man}' 3'ears ago, through the 
vicissitudes of its early days, down through the first years of electrical 
development, to its majority, into which it entered a few months 

ago. 

COMPETITION WITH CENTRAL STATIONS. 

An interesting question recently came up before the Mas.sachusetts 
Board of Gas and Electric Light Commissioners, in regard to the 
right of the owners of an isolated electric light installation to run 
wires under a public highway to supply a neighboring building with 
current. In the specific case considered authority had been granted 
to the owner of a building by the Boston Board of Aldermen to lay 
pipes in an underground duct to supply another building with steam. 
When the trench was opened, in addition to the pipes for which 
authority had been given, another one was laid to carry electric wires, 
and the Board of Aldermen subsequently passed an order giving per- 
mission to use it for the purpose intended. Upon appeal to the State 
Board of Gas and Electric Light Commissioners, objection by a public 
electric lighting company to such use was sustained, on the ground 
that a business like that of transmitting electricity through 
the streets of a city must necessarily be transacted by a regulated 
monopoly and that free competition is impracticable. "It is clear, ' ' 
the opinion states, "that if isolated plants are permitted to exercise 
public franchises over limited areas in the city, the burden to each 
consumer of maintenance of the general companies will be enhanced ; 
for such a removal of its customers, as would certainly happen by the 
multiplication of businesses like that conducted by the appellees in 
this case, would of nece.ssitj' add to the cost of light to the whole 
community." The soundness of this argument cannot be ilisputed, 
for any general system of suppl)-, whether of gas, water or electricity, 
would be impossible if through private competition the more profit- 
able portions of territory were withdrawn. On the other hand it 
ser\'es to draw attention to the great power that may be conferred by 
a franchise, and to the fact that a company holding such a grant has 
not only the character of a commercial enterpriee but also that of a 
tru-stee for the public in the exercise of the powers conferred. 



TWO PHASED MOTORS. 

We print in full elsewhere the paper by Dr. Duncan and several 
of his students which was read at the Philadelphia meeting of the 



THE ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



Vol. XXIV. No. 1. 



American Institute of Klectrical Knfjincers, antl gives an account of 
experiments with a two pha.setl motor. This forms another of tlie 
original contributions to the .subject of inultiphased phenomena which 
Dr. Duncan is in the custom of making, and demonstrates once more 
the great vahie of liis contact method of obtaining alternating cur- 
rent curves. It will be noted that one of the conclusions of the experi- 
ments is that it is of great importance to design rotary field appar- 
atus so that both the ajjplied and counter R. M. K. 's shall follow the 
.sine law. It is but a few years since a well known English elec- 
trician ridiculed the idea that there was an advantage in having 
alternating curves follow the sine law, but the deductions of Kennelly 
and these ex periments both prove that the advantage is a real one 
and moreover of great practical importance, particularly, as shown 
by Dr. Duncan, in the case of large multiphased motors. It is also 
pointed out that self induction has a beneficial effect in damping 
fluctuations in the armature current, but it is not made clear whether 
there would be a balance of advantages to justify designing armatures 
with a very high self-induction. Two important points, however, 
in designing are brought out, relating to the conditions for securing 
the sine fonii of curve above referred to. It is shown that to satisfy 
the.se conditions projecting pole pieces for the field windings must 
be avoided, and the armature windings must be numerous, this latter 
requirement being only practically possible in larger machines. ( In 
this connection we call attention to an abstract in the Digest ot a 
(Urinan paper on some experiments with alternators to determine the 
form of their current curves and the conditions influencing the same. ) 
The result of the experiments on larger motors, referred to at the 
conclusion of the paper, will be looked forward to with much inter- 
est, particularly as there has been a great lack of experimental data 
with which to test the various mathematical theories that have been 
advance<i on the subject. Few of the latter, w-e venture to predict, will 
be shown to have much practical value on account of the inherent 
difiiculties offered to such a treatment. 



STORAGE BATTERY IMPOSSIBILITIES. 

Occasionally we read in newspapers predictions of the possibilities 
of the coming storage battery, and some enthusiasts have even 
prophesied that when "perfected" ocean steamers will be propelled 
by this popularly misunderstood apparatus. While, of course, every 
one with an iota of electrical knowledge recognizes the absurdity of 
such a claim, yet an illustration of how absurd it is may be of 
interest, and to furnish this we will apply the necessary calculations 
to the case of the new Cunarder Campania. The best trans- 
atlantic time of which we have a record made by this ship, whose 
displacement is 18,000 tons, was 5 days, 12 hours and 15 minutes, 
during which the average speed was 21 knots, corresponding to 
about 26,000 average horse power and a consumption of coal for the 
trip of about 2,700 tons. Assuming storage batteries of SO pounds 
to the hourly horse power, the entire weight of batteries to do the 
.same work, and allowing for no reserve, would be 76,750 tons of 
2,240 pounds, or more than four times the entire displacement of 
the .ship. To determine the weight per horse power that a storage 
battery should have to compete with steam in the case under con- 
sideration, we will assume that the entire weight of the boilers and 
machinery of the Campania is 3,750 tons, which is probably near 
the actual weight. Adding the coal consumption for a trip, 2,700 
tons, we have 6,450 tons as the entire weight of the electrical plant. 
Assuming the weight of the electrical propelling machinery' to be 1,500 
tons, we have finally for the total weight of the battery 4,950 tons. 
With these data we find that the weight of a battery, allowing for 
no reserve, would have to be 3.16 pounds per hourly horse power. 
How .small this is can be appreciated from the fact that a ISO- 
ampere hour cell would weigh on this ba.sis only about 1 '4 pounds, 
really about the weight of its lugs. A sinular calculation would 
.show the impossibility of storage batteries displacing locomotives, 
yet the writer knows of a company formed several years ago which 
spent several thousand dollars in attempting to perfect a battery for 
such a use. Much of the mi.sconception in regard to the power of 
the storage battery must be ascribed to the sensational manner in 
which it was introduced to the public by a very great scientist, his 



statement in regard to holding "one million foot-i)ounds of energy" 
in his hand not yet having lost its effect. The great value of the 
storage battery in its proper field, which is of vast extent and as 
yet scarcely entered in this country, should be sufficient to satisfy 
its most sanguine friends. Only harm can come from making 
claims beyond its power to fulfil, and much harm in this way has 
lieen done, aside from the absurd instances we have here considered. 



CANDLE POWER OF ALTERNATING ARC LAMPS. 

In the Digest is an account of some elaborate experiments made 
in Germany with alternating current arc lamps, which brought out 
several points of much interest. It is stated that the (juantity of light 
from an ordinary alternating arc depends upon the mean value of 
the current as distinguished from the square root of the mean square 
value. It follows that since the energy of the current is propor- 
tional to the latter, the efficiency of such an arc is greater the nearer 
the current curve approaches a rectangular shape. This, however, 
would lead to extreme inductance effects, as well as give rise, it is 
stated, to disagreeable noises, and the final conclusion of the experi- 
menters is that the best ideal is a true sine curve. Another of the 
conclusions of the paper is that direct currents are more efiicient for 
arc lighting than alternating currents. Taking a 450 watt ( 2000 c. 
p. nominal ) arc lamp as a basis of comparison, we find that the 
mean spherical candle power of the same alternating lamps on three 
different machines was respectively 823, 907 and 970; while with the 
same energy and a direct current, 1292 candle power was developed 
with a direct current lamp. What is astonishing about these figures 
is the quantity of light produced from 450 watt lamps, and which, it 
.seems, is even greater than represented, as a considerable loss in the 
reflector of the photometer is apparently not included. At the 
Philadelphia meeting of the American Institute of Electrical Engi- 
neers, several speakers, of whom one, Prof. Anthony, had made 
many hundred photometric measurements of arcs, concurred in up- 
holding a statement that a 450 watt arc, enclosed by a clear glass 
globe, would not ordinarily give a mean spherical candle power of 
500. As the absorption of the reflector of the photometer in the 
German experiment is stated to be 30 per cent. , which is greater 
than that of a clear glass globe, the disparity is even greater than 
indicated by the candle powers in the two cases, though this 
amounts to 160 per cent. We cannot question the accuracy of the 
photometer measurements of Prof, .\nthony, nor have we any reason 
to doubt those of the German experimenters. Neither can we 
ascriije the differences to lamp mechanism, or to adju.stment; the 
latter in any case would be kept as nearly normal as possible. It would 
seem then that the only explanation left is that the disparity must be 
considered as due to differences in the carbon employed. It has 
long been known that the quantity of light from an arc materially de- 
pends upon the quality of carbon used, though we are not aware that 
any compatative experiments have ever shown anywhere as great a 
difference as above noted. We have been informed, however, by 
an arc light station superintendent ot wide experience, that it is not 
unusual to come across carbons that will show a difference of SO per 
cent, in the amount of light produced. As this is a matter of much 
importance to superintendents of arc stations and users of arc lights, 
we trust that one of our college laboratories will take advantage of 
the excellent opportunity it offers for investigation and experiment. 



Melon Electricity. 



A correspondent of an English contemporary claims, apparently 
seriously, that if twelve ripe melons are connected in series, with 
platinum wirt;s inserted at the top and bottom, suflicient current is 
obtained to ring a bell. He adds that only a ripe melon gives a 
"strong current, " and adds that cucumbers, apples, pears, carrots, 
etc. , also give current, but not nearly as much. He makes the 
useless theoretical deduction that a battery of 10,000 melons will give 
enough current to run an electric motor of two brake h. p. We 
might add that if he had used copper and zinc wires instead of 
platinum, and had selected sour melons, the results would have 
been much more encouraging. 



July 7, 1894. 



THE ELECTRICAL W^ORLO. 



Invention of the Telegraph. 



To the Editor of The Electrical World : 

Sir: — Please accept my thanks for your courtesy in printing, in a 
recent issue, my communication. I did not intend to further tres- 
pass upon vour columns, but I trust 3'ou will allow me the space in 
which to respond to the letter you published from Mr. Edward L. 
Morse. 

Primarily, I desire to state emphatically that it is not the desire 
of the family of Alfred Vail, or of any of his friends, to claim any 
credit or game for his name than that to which, by all known princi- 
ples of right, and fair, honest dealing, he is absolutely entitled. 
Neither is there any desire or intention to deprive S. F. B. Morse 
of the smallest degree of the credit which, to his name, is honestly 
and rightfully due. 

Morse, in 1837, had constructed a rude wooden apparatus, b}- 
means of which he was able to record pencil marks (dots), in varying 
combinations (upon a moving fillet of paper), which, by laborious 
reference to a code or dictionary, were translated into intelligence. 
Previous to September, 1837, when he entered into a partnership 
contract with Alfred Vail, he had filed, in the Patent office, a caveat 
for his patent, in which, of course, were specified the features of his 
inventions. By the terms of the contract just mentioned it was stip- 
ulated that Alfred Vail should "devote his personal services and 
skill in constructing and bringing to perfection, as also in improving, 

the mechanical parts of said invention without charge for 

such personal services to the other proprietors, and for their common 
benefit. ' ' He was also required to construct, at his own expense, 
and exhibit before a Conmiittee of Congress, one of the telegraphs, 
"of the plan and invention of Morse," and assume the expense of 
exhibiting the appar.^tus and of procuring patents in the United 
States, and in consideration he was to receive one-fourth of all right 
in the invention in the United States. 

An impartial investigation of the claims of Morse, as found in his 
caveat of 1837, will reveal the fact that not a single one of the feat- 
ures therein specified, and upon which rest his claims to being "the 
inventor" of the electric telegraph, is to be found among the constit- 
uent features of the invention as it exists to-day and identical with 
that apparatus as it came from the bands of Alfred Vail in 1838, and 
later, in 1844, in no ways changed except in slight modification of 
form and size. 

No one who has familiarized himself with the history of the inven- 
tion, during the years following the time at which Morse and Vail 
left New York and went to Morristown, N. J., to continue (at the 
Speedwell Iron Works of Judge Stephen Vail, the father of Alfred) 
the experiments begun in the former city, need be told whose brain 
and mechanical skill wrought the changes, which, in following out 
the conditions of his contract, devolved upon Alfred Vail, and 
which eliminated completely from the apparatus all of the features 
that constituted the basis of Morse's first caveat for a patent. 

A careful reading of the terms of that contract will show that, no 
matter what he might contribute to the improvement and perfection 
of the device of Morse, it must be done ' ' without charge and for the 
common benefit of the proprietors," thus debarring him absolutely 
from taking out in his own name any patents for the independent 
creations of his brain. Everything he might do must be considered 
as a part of the patent granted originally to S. F. B. Morse. Is it 
difficult to understand how Alfred Vail became a cipher in so far as 
any public knowledge of his part in the invention was concerned? 

Had he been disposed to assert his rightful claims to recognition 
as the real "inventor" of all of the so-called "improved Morse 
telegraph," he could not have done so and conscientiously observe 
the terms of his contract. Had not this detergent influence pre- 
vailed, business policy would have prevented him from raising an 
issue as to who was the inventor while innumerable suits brought 
by the patentees against infringements were in the courts. Unfor- 
tunately, Alfred Vail died before the expiration of the patent and 
while extensive legal contests were still pending. 

In my possession is a paper upon which is written in my father's 
own writing the following statement, showing jjfetty conclusively 
the reasons why to the name of Morse has been given the credit for 
the invention of the recording receiver, the sounding key and the 
dot and dash alphabet, when it was not he who devised them, but 
.\lfred Vail, who was debarred by his contract from claiming pub- 
licly the credit to which he was entitled: — 

"This lever and roller were invented by me, in the sixth story of 
the New York Observer o?a.Q.ft, in 1844, before we put up the tele- 
graph line between Washington and Baltimore, and the same has 
a/ways been used in Morse's instnitnent. I am the .sole and only 
inventor of this mode of telegraph embossed writing. Professor 



Morse gave me no clue to it, nor did any one else, and I have not 
asserted publicly my right as first and sole inventor because I 
wished to presers'e the peaceful unity of the invention, and because 
I could not, according to my contract with Professor Morse, have 
gotten a patent for it. " — Alfred Vail. 

Mr. FMward L. Morse cites the fact that the Supreme Court 
upheld Morse's claims. That is quite true, but he forgets that the 
suit was not one brought by Morse to substantiate his claims against 
other claims made by Alfred Vail. The suit was, "Morse and 
others versus O'Reilly and others," for infringement, ancK has no 
bearing whatever on the point at issue, for all of the inventions of 
Alfred Vail were unknown to the Court, having been absorbed, 
according to the contract, by the Morse patent, the one in contest. 

As a matter of fact. Chief Justice Taney did not sustain all of 
Morse's claims, and refused to recognize the eighth claim, as speci- 
fied in his patent, condemning it as untenable. Alfred Vail sought 
in court to obtain the justice which he knew was due him from his 
copartner and associate, for that supposed friend had led him to 
believe, as he so often expressed it: "I am confident that Professor 
Morse will do me justice. " He passed from earth in Jaimary, 1859, 
thirteen years and more before the death of Morse, and the justice 
awarded him by Morse may be judged of by the following inci- 
dent: — ■ 

On the morning of the 10th of June, 1871, Morse was the recipient 
of a public reception at the Academy of Music, in this city, and 
before an audience that thronged that edifice delivered an address 
upon the telegraph, lasting an hour or two. No more fitting 
opportunity could have been presented than then — probably his last 
public appearance, and, too, when his remarks were to have a 
world-wide circulation — for this aged man to recognize in magnani- 
mous terms the part that his long since deceased and unhonored 
associate had had in the invention, the fame and honor of which he 
had unhesitatingly accepted as his alone. 

Did he allude to Alfred Vail? He did, and in these terms: "The 
telegraph found a friend, an efficient friend, in Mr. Alfred Vail, of 
New Jersey, who, with his father, furnished the means to give the 
child a decent dress, preparatory to its visit to the seat of govern- 
ment. " No connnent is necessary. That was all this old man, 
standing on the brink of the grave, could say of the friend and 
associate to whom he was indebted for all in the electric telegraph 
that bore the name of ' ' Morse. ' ' 

Four weeks prior to the day of Morse's death (the following 
3ear), a member of the family of Alfred Vail sat b}- the side of his 
sick bed, and during the visit of two hours, Morse frequently said: 
"The one thing I want to do now, is justice to Mr. Vail." 

That justice was neither rendered by him before he died, nor 
since by any of those whom he left behind. 

New York City. STEPHEN V.\IL. 

The First Telegraph Station. 

To the Editor of The Electrical World : 

Sir: — The first telegraph .station established in the world was blown 
down by the fierce gale of last week. It was a gigantic tree in the 
forks of which Morse and Smith placed their first crude apparatus for 
the line extending from Smith's house to the tree where Morse 
received the first message sent by an aerial line. The tree was used 
because the rustics of Cumberland County, Maine, refused to lend their 
barns or houses as a receiving station for a wire thai in their opinion 
conveyed messages tromthe abode of the powers of darkness, and the 
Selectmen of the town were berated in town meeting for allowing 
the founders of telegraphy to stretch wires along the highway 
where man and beast were exposed to danger and death from light- 
ning catchers. Men still living in the town remember a sennon 
preached against Morse and Smith in which the)' were termed impious 
wretches who would be eternally confounded for seeking to pry into 
the secret places of the Almighty. So much opposition was made to 
the aerial wires that underground conduits were laid, and that so 
skillfully, and of such good materials, that a piece which I dug up 
ten 3ears ago was as good as the best made to-day, whilst the house 
conduits made by the same parties of tarred paper and used m several 
houses near by is of much better quality than several brands on tlie 
market to-daj-. 

I happened to be in the vicinity of the tree when the gale uprooted 
it, and purchased it, so if any electrician would like a piece of it 
he can have it so long as the supply (four cords) will hold out. 

New Brunswick, N. J. G. WILFRED I'E.I.RCE. 



The Host Powerful Light in the World. 

An electric light is to be placed in the Fire Island lighthouse, 
off New York, the candle power of which is estimated to be 

450,000,000 candles. 



^ 



XHE ELECXRICAI. WOKI.I). 



Vol.. XXIV. No. 1. 



Electricity on the Canals. 



BY M. VV. HA.SSAN. 

I have been much interested in the subject of introducing elec- 
tricity as the motive power on our canals, especially the Erie, in 
New York Stale, and have read all Uie various plans that have conic 
under my notice, as published. The .siinplest one is the double 
trolley, nsinj; the propeller wheel in the water, the chief objection 
to which is the wash of the banks causqjjr by the propeller, which 
would tend to weaken the banks and cause breaks. I take the 
liberty of enclosing a sketch of a .sy.stem which is an adaptiition of a 
telpher system, which was illustrated and described in your i.ssue of 
December 20, 18<J0. 

The poles are placed in the middle of the canal and support two 
working conductors and two trolley wires. The conductor and 
trolley wire on the right of the pole are for boats going eastj^and 
the conductor and trolley wire on the left of the ])ole are for boats 
going west. I have shown but one of the working or hauling con- 
ductors, in order not to complicate the sketch, but the other is a 




Electric Canal Boat Sy,stem. 

duplicate of the one shown. The conductor. A, is ridged spirally 
or screw shaped, and the motor inside of the clyinder, B, has a 
cylindrical armature, which is grooved to fit the conductor. A, and, 
turning in one direction, propels the boat forward, and reversed 
propels the boat backward. The frame, C C, and stanchions, D D, 
support the motor, so that its weight rests upon the boat, and not 
upon the conductor, A. The trolley, E, completes the circuit from 
the conductor, A, which acts as a return from F, after the current 
traverses the motor. The hooks, G G, support the hauling cable, 
A, ami have an opening sufficiently large to permit the passage of 
the frame, C C, and too small to allow the cable. A, to work out of 
its place. The hooks, G G, are insulated, and through them pa.ss 
the motor. All that is necessary upon the boat is the switch, and 
perhaps a rheo.stat similar to that of a motor car. It is well for the 
boat to have a rudder, but it need not be used while the boat is 
being pulled, for the boat is guided by the cable, as the frame, C C, 
and cylinder, 15, may be of any suitable length, even to the length 
of the boat, which will insure a steady pull and even purchase on 
the cable. The boat can also be lighted the same as a motor car, 
as the wire connections to the switch come down the stanchions, 
1)1), to the boat and can be run into the light circuit also. 



A Convenient Lamp Rheostat. 



nv GEORGE A. H0ADLB:V. 

I'robably inilliing is of more value to the young engineer than the 
ability to adapt the materials at hand to the work to be done, and 
there is no place where this is more called for than in an average 
electrical laboratory. lu order to combine a lamp rheostat with a 
method of ,stud\'ing the principles of parallel and series lighting, the 
following lamp board was devised, and has been foimd of very goJat 
service. The only materials required can be found in any labora- 
tory or lighting station, and consist of ten lamps and sockets, four 
binding posts, a yard of good-sized copper wire for connectors, and 
a base board, 6 inches wide and 30 inches long. 

Believing that any instrument is better cared for and more care- 



fully used if well made and tastefully finished, a black walnut 
board, 1 inch thick, was used for the base. This was carefully 
planed, saTid jiapered, filled and finished with hard oil. 

In the sketch, the dotted lines show the connecting wires that are 



id rO eO eO *6 3(6 ^6 '6 

__i 1----1 1 i i--A-0- 




Lamp Rheostat. 

fastened in grooves on the under side of the board. The binding 
posts are designated by letters, and the lami)s by numbers. 

By connecting with binding posts, A and B, a single lamp can be 
thrown in, or parallel circuits of from two to eight lamps can be 
used. 

In the work done with this, the sources of E. M. F. at hand were 
a dynamo giving 120 volts, and storage batteries giving 40 volts. 
The lamps at hand were 40-volt lamps, of a resistance of 60 ohms. 

By coupling, as indicated in the .sketch, a rheostat and an am- 
meter in .series with the tenninals, A and B, while a voltmeter is 
coupled as a shunt with the same terminals, and a second voltmeter 
is also coupled as a shunt to the terminals of the dynamo, a most 
instructive study can be made of the problem of parallel distribu- 
tion, including the relations between potential difference at the termi- 
nals of the dynamo, fall of potential due to the lamps, rheostat, 
ammeter and leads, and the parallel resistance of different numbers 
of lamps. 

By coupling at terminals, A and C, lamps 1 and 9 can be put in 
series, and the essential differences between the voltages, resistances 
and currents used in series and parallel distribution can be very 
clearly demonstrated. 

By coupling at the terminals, C and D, three lamps can be thrown 
in in series, giving the maximum resistance of 180 ohm.s. By 
throwing lamp No. 9 in series with the different parallel arrange- 
ments of the first eight lamps, a new group of resistances is intro- 
duced, and by throwing in bot i lamps Nos. 9 and 10, a still wider 
range is given. 

The following table .shows the possibilities when the lamps are of 
uniform resistance. For the sake of Convenience, the arrangements 
are placed in the order of their resi.'itances. Lamps of different 
resistances may be used, and with these the number of combina- 
tions and resistances is very greatly increased. 



Arrangement. 


Lamps in Circuit. 


Resistance. 


Current. 


^ 


9, 10 & q. 


180. 


.222 


b. 


9, 10 & r. 


ISO. 


.2b6 


c. 


9. 10 ft s. 


140. 


.285 


d. 


9. 10 ii I. 


135. 


.295 


e 


9. 10 it 11. 


132. 


.303 


f. 


9, 10 It V. 


130. 


.308 




9. 10 ft w. 


12K.6 


.311 


Ii. 


•>. 10 it X. 


127.S 


.314 


i. 


9it q. 


120. 


.333 




9 it r. 


•)0. 


.444 


k. 


9 ft s. 


80. 


.500 


1. 


9 it t. 


75. 


.533 


ni. 


9 ft u. 


72. 


.555 


11 


9 ft V. 


70. 


.571 


o. 


9 it w. ^ 
9 & X. ^ 


(.S.d 


.583 


P- 


07.S 


.592 


<1- 


1 


<iO. 


.666 




1. i 


30. 


i.3.a 


s. 


1. 2. 3 


20. 


2.000 


t. 


1. 2, 3. 4 


15. 


2.666 


11. 


1. 2. 3, 4, S 


12. 


3.333 


V. 


1. 2, 3. 4, S. 6 


10. 


4.000 


w. 


1, 2. 3, 4, S. 6 7 


8.6 


4.666 


X. 


1, 2, 3, 4, S, 6, 7, 8 


7.S 


5.333 



The fact that all changes are made by simply snapping on • the 
lamps, makes this board a very satisfactory one to use. 
Swarthmore College, SwartUmore, Pa. 



XHE ELECXRICA^L WORLD. 



A Central Station on the Pacific Slope. 



The California P^lectric Light and Edison Light & Power Com- 
pany has three stations, two of which are located in the heart of the 
Inisiness portion of the city, and the third on the sonth side, near 
the water front. Stations A and B, in the center of the city, are 
in the same building, but the operation of the two is entirely sepa- 
rate. Station A was the original arc station, and was .started before 
incandescent lighting had taken its place in the world. At present 
it contains thirteen 60-light arc dynamos, divided between machines 
of the Brush and Thomson -Houston types, and nine 1,000-light 
alternating dynamos (2,000 volts) — six Brush and three Slattery. 
The arc switchboard is an old and primitive affair in which the 
electrician takes no pride. It is soon to be replaced by a steel fire- 
proof board of modern design. 

.Station B is devoted entirely to the operation of arc djnamos, of 
which there are sixty-two, divided between Brush and Wood types, 
the Brush being 60-Iight and the Wood 80-light. They are used to 
a considerable extent for furnishing power bj' means of constant- 
current motors. 

There are in all 2,500 arc lamps in circuit, the longest circuit 
being twenty-eight miles. 

Station C is the Edison station, and is modern in all its appoint- 
ments, as will be seen from the views given. The dynamos are of 
the Edison multipolar type, direct driven by triple expansion engines. 
There are at present installed one engine of 400 h. p., driving two 
100 kw. dynamos, and three 800 h. p. engines, each driving two 
200 kw. dynamos of fourteen poles each at 180 revolutions. 
Foundations are built, ready to receive two more of the larger units 
when the output of the station makes their use necessary. The 
smaller engine is sufficient for the present day load. 

The foundation for all the dynamos consists of a solid block of 
concrete, covering the whole area of the dynamo room and extend- 
ing five feet below the surface. Extra thicknesses of five feet are 
built up at the immediate location of the engines. This foundation 
rests on sand and is entirely disconnected from the walls or floor of 
the building, so there is very little vibration. The small amount 
can be judged from the fact that in taking the views given, the 
camera was standing on the gallery immediately over a running 
engine, and the exposure was three-quarters of an hour. The 
sharpness of detail is evidence of the ab.sence of vibration. 

In accordance with the latest practice, the switchboard is placed 
on the gallery overlooking the dynamo room. It is fenced off at 
both ends by means of lattice-work iron doors, these being provided 
mainly to keep out strangers who ma)* be permitted to see the 
station. The boards are of white marble, with the instruments, 
switches, etc. , on the face and all busbars and connectors on the ■ 
back. The busbars are made of 3x>2-inch bars, but where extra 
capacit)- is required, two or three such bars are. secured together. 








I'? ' 1 

tnnir,i|rWri 

mm ^'* l!"'*iil^ 



St.^tion "C, " Showing Direct Coupled e;ngink.s anij Dyn.\mo.s. 

with faces in contact, instead of being separated to permit cooling. 
They are calculated on a basis of 1,000 amperes per stjuare inch of 
.section. For making connection with the dynamo leads, taking olT 
feeders, etc. , the connectors are given a length equal to the width 
of busbar, so that the area of contact is 9 square inches. The 
greatest current passing through such a contact is 2,000 amperes or 
222 amperes per square inch of surface. The connectors are of 
bronze, and are supposed to carry about 600 amperes per inch, 
though the current density seldom reaches this figure. 



Nothing in the nature of equalizers, boosters, etc., is used for 
regulation, the electrician being of the opinion that the constant 
loss incident to the use of these can be better applied as interest on 
the capital invested in extra copper. Extra feeders are put in, and 
the regulation effected by means of them and the field rheostats. 
Work begins at light loads with the rheostats thrown in the fields, 
and a man stationed at the switchboard, in plain view of the volt- 
meters connected with the feeding centers. As the load comes up 
and the pressure falls, resistance is thrown out of the fields, until it 
is so far exhausted that the pressure cannot be kept up. Then, 
when any feeding center shows a pressure below normal, extra 
feeders are cut in, so as to reduce the drop, and at the same time 
the rheostat is inserted in the field, so it can be used for regulation, 
as before. Obviously, by having a sufficient number of feeders 
properly calculated, good regulation can be maintained by this 
means, provided the attendant is sufficiently watchful. 




St.M'ion "C, " Showing Switchboard. 

Weston station voltmeters are used, each one being provided with 
red and blue lamps, and contacts arranged so one or the other will 
light up if too great a variation from normal pressure is permitted. 

In the office of the electrician is a group of Bristol recording volt- 
. meters, connected with the various feeding centers, by means of 
which an approximate record of the larger pressure variations is 
kept. They cannot, of course, register with extreme accuracj- even 
the larger variations, and must fail to record small ones altogether, 
as the friction is appreciable. But for this purpose extreme accu- 
racy is unnecessary. 

There are also two other recording voltmeters, employing an 
eutirel)- new principle. They are made after the designs of the 
electrician, Mr. F. Iv Smith, and have never been described. They 
are very sensitive, and as the design is novel and ingenious, a 
description of them will not be uninteresting. 

Referring to the view, a duplicate construction will be .seen, one 
for the positive and the other for the negative side of the three- 
wire system. The Weston voltmeters shown are not connected with 
the recording meter, but simpl}' show the actual voltage. 

Considering one side only, th» dial shown is rotated once every 
twenty -four hours by means of clockwork within tlie case, and the 
pressure is recorded on it by mentis of red ink carried in a well on 
the end of the hand. Underneath the Weston meter will be seen a 
round disc of ebonite, pbout 8 inches in diameter, carrying at the 
top a lamp and at the bottom a helix. These are in series, and are 
connected through pressure wires to the feeding center, which is 
the standard to which all the others are regulated. The lamp burns 
at about half-poAcr, and is used because any variation of pressure, 
in virtue of which the current through the lamp changes, causes a 
con.siderabIe variation in the resi-stance of the filament, and hence 
makes the current change a maximum for any given change of pres- 
sure. A core within the helix has the lower half of iron, and the 
upper half of brass. It is supported by two verj- flexible brass strips 
shown, which akso fonn part of electric circuits. Near the ends of 
the core are two binding posts, with adjustable contacts, and in the 
normal position of the core the two strips lie just clear of these con- 
tacts. The motor shown is a small Edison slowspeed, series-wound 
motor, connected to run in either direction. The vertical rod 
shown is revolved by the motor through bevel gears, and revolves 
the disc through worm gearing, as shown. A wire is stretched 
between the disc and the hand on the dial, and when the disc 
rotates, the hand moves through a small arc and makes the record. 



c, 



XHE ELECa^eiCAI. WORLD. 



Vol. XXIV. No. 1. 



The core of the helix tends to fall by gravity until the lower 
strip comes against the lower contact, which tendency is opposed by 
the current through the helix, which draws the core upward until 
the upper .strip makes contact. 

The motor is connected with the .service mains in the building, 
the relays shown being inserted to break the circuit. The current 
through the .strip contacts simply controls the current through the 
relay, and only a battery current is necessary, thus reducing the 
spark, which would soon destroy the accuracy. 

If the pres-sure falls below normal, the action of the helix is 
weakened and the core drops until the lower c<mtact is closed, thus 
allowing current to pass to the motor in such a direction that the 
disc is revolved clockwise until a balance is obtained. This move- 
ment is registered on the dial. If the pres.sure rises, the core is 
drawn upward until the upper .strip makes contact, when the motor 
revolves the disc counter-clockwise. Thus the slightest variation of 
pressure will cause the motor to revolve, and as considerable power 
is available for overcoming the friction, the in.strument is very sen- 
sitive. In place of gravity, the action of the helix can be balar.ced 
against a flat spiral spring such as is used in Weston instruments. 

Mr. .Smith has applied this principle to an engine governor and a 
revolution indicator. Methods for doing this are obvious. 

The only other arrangement of special importance connected with 
the .station is the method of obtaining water for condensing pur- 
I)oses. I,eading into the arc station near the water front is a culvert 
(the length of which is about one-eighth of a mile), which discharges 
water b\- natural flow into a well beneath the station. Powerful 




RKGI.STliRINC. NOl.TMHTER. 

pumps then foice it through iron pipes to the incandescent station, 
where it passes through the condensers and thence to the sewer. 
The saving by condensation is far more than the cost of forcing the 
water, interest on condensing plant, etc. 

The arc dynamos are belted in groups from long countershafts, 
and cannot be slowed down singly. Some are .shut down by short- 
circuiting the fields and some the armatures, the latter inethod being 
preferred. When the new switchboard is put up for Station A, 
arrangements will be made so that if an armature is bunring out, 
and it is desired to throw the load on another machine, the act of 
plugging in the second will short-circuit the field or armature of the 
first. 

The arc and alternating lines are all overhead, but for the low- 
tension system Edison tubes are used, these being the only subway 
circuits in the city, except a few for telephone service. A long 
gallery leading under the street carries the feeders to the tube ends. 

There are altogether about .SO, 000 16- c. p. lamps wired in the 
city, the farthest from station being about 5 miles, the greatest dis- 
tance for the low-tension system being l}i miles. 

The original station. A, has 1,400 h. p. of horizontal boilers, but 
the other two stations use vertical tubular boilers, as taking up less 
floor space. Station B has 5,600 h. p., and Station C, 7,000 h. p. 
Jones under-feed stokers are used and are said to give excellent 
results. 

The company has recently adopted the jiractice of wiring build- 
ings and charging only the actual co.st. This means that the house 
owners can have the work done at the lowest poivsible rate, as the 
company's facilities are better than those of private contractors. It 
is expected many will take advantage of the good terms offered, 
and that there will be a consequent large increase iu the station 
output. 



The Inductance and Capacity of Suspended Wires. 

HV KDWIN J. HOISTON .\NU A. K. KIIN.MU.I.V. 

The inductance and capacity of conductors employed in transmitting 
continuous currents do not u.sually call for consideration. For 
example, those who have designed, installed or operated Edison 
systems of incandescent lighting do not usually have occasion to 
inquire into the inductance or capacity of their circuits. On the 
other hand, where intennittent or alternating currents are employed, 
as in telegraphy or alternating current transmission, the inductance 
and capacity of the circuit often form important factors in their 
operation, and thus claim the attention of the electrical engineer. 

Some of the problems connected with telephony and with the dis- 
tribution of power by alternating currents, demand a knowledge of 
the inductance and capacity of the conductors, in addition to their 
resistance and insulation. To meet this demand in the case of 
overhead wires, the tables and cun'es w-hich follow have been con- 
structed. 

Before considering these tables and cur%-es, a few remarks on 
capacity may be acceptable, a subject which gives rise to much mis- 
understanding. 

The capacity per mile of 5280 feet each of a pair of parallel wires 
(Fig. 1), of radius, a, suspended in air at an interaxial distance, d, 
is in microfarads 

0.01942 (1) 

1 ^ 
log 

a 

For example, if two bare but insulated No. 6 B & S. wires, each 
0.081 in radius, are suspended in air at an interaxial distance of 24 
inches, their capacity per mile will be 

0.0194 2 _ 0.01942 _ 0.01942 _ „ 007858 microfarads, 
lotr =^ log 296.3 2.47173 
0.081 

111 other words, if a battery of one volt E. M. F. were connected 
with its terminals to one mile of each of these wires, one wire would 



Fig. 1. 

have 0.007858 coulomb of positive, and the other wire, 0.007858 
coulomb of negative charge. (Fig. 1. ) 

This formula assumes that the distance between the wires is large, 
compared with the radius of the wire, as, indeed, is the usual case 
with overhead conductors. When, however, the wires are brought 

so close together that - is a .-iniall number, their capacity is 

slightly greater than that given bv the fonnula. The correction 

d ' d 

amounts to .5 per cent, when - = 10 and 2.6 per cent, when —^5 

When, as in telegraphy, a ground return circuit is employed, and 
the conductor is situated at an elevation h above the conducting 
surface of the ground, the capacity of that conductor is just twice 
as great as though the ground were removed and a return wire 
placed parallel at an interaxial distance 2 /; from the conductor. 
Thus in Fig. 2, if A be the conductor of radius a situated at the 
elevation // above the I'o/idurfitig ground level 6' /., the capacity 
will be the same as if the ground were entirely removed and a 
duplicate or similar return wire /> were employed as the return 
circuit oi A a.t a. distance // below G L or 2-/i from A, so that 
since the capacity of A with the imaginary wire I> would be 
O.qi J4- ,„icrofarads per mile, the capacity of A to ground 
log — - 



will be 



0.03884 



microfarads. 



(2) 



log - 

c 

Thus, a No. 



wire of radius 0. 0.S72 inches, sus- 
fect, or 240 inches above the ground, 



9 A. W. 
pendcd at a distance of 20 
should have a capacity of 

0.03884 _ 0^03884 _ 0.03884 
^ j»80^ log 8391 3.9238 
°^ 0.0572 

Since, however, the measured capacity of suspended wires is often 
50 per cent, greater than their capacity calculated in this way, it 



^O.OO'Kt micro, per mile. 



Jui.v 7, 1894. 



THE ELECTRICAL WORLO. 



has sometimes been supposed that the insulators upon which the 
wire is supported account for the excess. While the presence of the 
insulators, with their pins and supporting cross arms, nmst add to 
the capacity of the wire, a closer examination shows that even 
where iron poles and brackets are used, with iron pins in the in.su- 
lator connected with the ground, and where the outer .surface of the 
insulator is covered with a film of moisture, the capacity of the line 
can only be increased from this cause by about 1-SOOths of a micro- 
farad per mile; while under ordinarj' conditions the additional 
capacity due to insulators can only be a small fraction of this 
amount, and is for all practical purposes negligible. 

The excess of the measured capacity over the capacity calculated 
by formula (2) appears to be entirely accounted for by the presence 
of neighboring wires, supported on the same poles, as shown by 
Mr. Oliver Heaviside, in 1880. 

If a wire be suspended on poles among a number of other parallel 
wires, its capacity will not be effected if these wires are all perfectly 
insulated, but if they are grounded or imperfectly insulated, its 
capacity may be more than doubled bj' their presence. 

It is commonly supposed that when two parallel wires are sup- 
ported on poles, their capacity, when insulated from the ground, as 



A 
I 
I 

I 
B I 



FiG.S. 2 A.ND 3. 



in Fig. 1, depends largely upon their distance above the surface 
of the ground. Thus, if the two wires have in free space or at an 
indefinitely great distance above the surface of the earth, a capacity 
of 0.00786 micros per mile, according to formula (1), and each would 

have a capacity to ground of + -p ^ — — = 0. 0103 microfarads per 

0061 
mile, according to formula (2), therefore, as represented in Fig. 3, 
it might be supposed that the total capacity between the wires 

at 20 feet elevation would be 0.00786 + ' ^ = 0.01387S microfar- 
ads per mile. 

Such, however, is not the case, and as long as the insulation of 
the wires is maintained, their elevation above the surface of the 
ground has practically no effect upon their capacity. Thus, while 
formula (1) gives their capacity per mile for an infinite elevation, 
as 0. 00786 microfarads, their capacity per mile for S feet elevation as 
0.00788 microfarads, and their capacity per mile fori foot elevation, 
as 0.008362 microfarads, descent to within S feet of the ground only 
increases the capacity by about X' of 1 per cent. , and descent to 



within 1 foot of the ground only adds about 6.4 per cent. Similarly, 
the presence of other grounded wires in the neighborhood has verj' 
little influence on the capacity of the insulated pair. For all prac- 
tical purposes, therefore, the capacity of two overhead insulated 
wires is assigned by formula (1), and is not affected by the prox- 




FiG. 4. 

imity of the ground or of other wires. Their induction is also for 
each wire: 

/ = 0.0805 + 0.741 log -'^-- millihenry s per mile. (3) 



For No. 6, A.W.G. wires at 24" log 



: 2.47173 as previously 

observed, so that / = 0.0805 + 1.8315 = 1.912 millihenry per mile. 

The inductance of the loop formed by both wires would be twice 
this amount, or 3.824 millihenrys per mile. 

An iron telegraph or telephone wire has about 12 millihenrys per 
mile more inductance than a copper wire, so that for each pair of 
iron wires we may take 

/ = 12.08 + 0.741 log millihenry per mile approx. (4) 

The following tables and curves (Fig. 4) indicate the capacity and 
inductance of insulated, overhead wires, in microfarads and milli- 
henrys per mile of 5,2S0 feet. 



TABLE OF INDUCTANCES PER MILE OF 5,280 FEET OF COPPER WIRE WHEN SUSPENDED IN PARALLEL PAIRS— MILLIHENRYS. 



c 


«• 0000 
0.460" 


000 
0.40%" 


00 
0.3648" 



0.3J49" 


1 
0.2893" 


2 
0.2576" 


3 
0.2294" 


4 

0.2043" 


5 
0.1819' 


6 
1620" 


0.1443" 


0.128S" 


0.1144" 


0.1019" 


0.09074" 


0.08081" 






944 


982 


1.019 


1.056 


1.094 


l.l.il 


1.168 


U206 


1.243 


1.2,80 


1.317 


1.355 
















1.242 


1.280 


1.317 


1.354 


1.392 


1.429 


1.466 
















1 260 


1 298 


1 335 


1.372 


1.410 


1.447 


1.485 


1.522 


1.5S9 


1.5% 


1.634 


1.671 


















1 465 


1.502 


1.54 


1.577 


1.614 


1.652 


1.6,89 














IS 




1 521 


1 558 


1.5% 


1.633 


1.671 


1.708 


1.744 


1.781 


1.820 






















1.688 


1.72S 


1.7M 


1.800 


1.838 


1.875 


1.912 
























1.797 


1.835 


1.871 


1.910 


1.947 


1.984 


2.021 
















1 745 


1 784 


1 818 


1.856 


1,893 


1.931 


1.968 


2.005 


2.043 


2.079 


2.117 


2.155 


















1.949 


1.986 


2.023 


2.061 


2.099 


























2.023 


2.058 


2.095 


2.132 


2.169 


• 2.208 


2.245 




















2 042 


2.079 


2.116 


2.154 


2.192 


2.229 


2.266 


2.303 


2.340 


2.376 


















2.128 


2.166 


2.203 


2.240 


2.277 


2.312 














96 


2.023 


2.059 


2.097 


2.134 


2.172 


2.210 


2.246 


2.283 


2.321 


2.358 


















TABLE OF CAPACITIES PER MILE 


OF 5,280 


FEET OF WIRE WHEN SUSPENDED IN PARALLEL P.\IRS— MICROF.iRADS. 




T) 


0000 


000 


00 





1 


i 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 












3 
6 
<) 
12 


0.01741 
0.01371 
0.01222 
0.01130 


0.0166S 
0.01324 
0.01182 

n, 01 008 


0.01597 
0.0128 
0.01147 
01068 


0.01533 
0.01239 
0.01114 
0,010.-!9 


0.01475 
0.01200 
0.01082 
0.01012 


0.01420 
0.01164 
0.01052 
0.009862 
0.0090.W 


O.lll.^.l.'l 
iiU.il 
O.llllli^ 
O.UO'K.14 
0.1X)8842 


11.111322 
11 (lllI'lT 
ll.iKl'I'W 
0.009384 
0.008646 


0.01278 
0.01067 
0.009736 
0.009154 
0.008458 


0.012.18 
0.01038 
0.009491 
0.008948 
0.00827 


0.0119'l 
0.01011 
0.00921.5 
0.0(V874 
0.00810 


0,01163 
0.IX10S5S 
0.1XI'XU4 
0.00,8548 
0,007934 


0.01129 
0.00'Hi07 
0.008,836 
0.00.834.2 
0.007776 


0.01097 

0.009378 

0.1X18,838 

0.01.1818.8 

0.007623 


0.01067 

0.00915 

0.008451 

O.OOSOIS 

0.0O7470 


0,01038 
0.008M2 
0.00827 
0.007851 
0.007328 


24 




iiixnxM 










0.0083<^ 


0.008188 


0.008018 


0.007858 














O.Od'llx 
O.dOSXS 
0.008374 
0.008034 
0.007780 
0.007578 
0. 007410 


y. -,- 








0.008032 


0.007864 


0.007728 


0.007SS8 


0.007415 


0,007274 


0.007136 








3b 
48 
60 
72 
84 
% 


, 


, 


II 1)1 IS ^"9 






n 007777 


0.007622 


0.007477 


0.007332 


OOO?!')-) 


0.007eVi6 










o.nii.Mi'i(, 
0.(K17S7 
0.(«I7(.23 
0.007432 
0.007270 


, 


,„" "» 






|K)7410 


0.007262 


0.007130 


0.007000 


0.0»XvS77 


0.1X16758 


0,(106737 








" 


0,lHI75lj4 

0.007154 
0.007008 




,, ,„,"i-4 




0.007014 


0.006888 


0.0067M 


0.006646 


0.»XX»5.V» 


0(H427 








o! 007292 
0.007136 


0.110703 
0.00688 


CHI7II70 
0.006.S9.S 
0.006758 


ll.lKH.'as 
0.1KI6780 
0.006642 


0.006815 
0.006662 
0.006530 


0.0066% 
0.006550 
0.00M24 


0.006584 
0.00(r»47 
0.006319 


0.0(Hv»75 
0.0063.17 
0.006218 


0.(KX>3(k8 
0.0(X>231 
0.006116 


0,IKl62<o 
0,tHX.132 
0.006020 


0.006037 
0.005930 


0.005941 
0.005S37 


0.00S8S 
0.005749 



THE EI.KCTRICAI. WORLJU. 



Vol. XXIV. No. 1. 



Experiments on Two=Phase<l Hotors. 



BY LOUIS nUNCAN, S. H. BROWN, W. 1'. .VNDKKSON AND S. Q. 
HAYKS. 

Within the last few years rotary field motors have been greatly 
iinprovefl, and the conditions for successful design are moderately 
well understood. The problem has been attacked mathematically, 
and results have been obtained, which, while interesting, have not 
l)een submitted to the test of experiment. The mathematical treat- 
ment is difficult, unless many essential phenomena are omitted; 
indeed, it is only lately that the solution of the case of a motor 
.supjjlied from a constant potenti.il circuit has been undertaken, and 
as this is the condition of actual ])racticc, tlie results, even with 
their evident limitations, are important and interesting. The phe- 
nomena that occur in the armatures of these motors are of special 
importance, but they have not yet been sub:nitted to experimental 
investigation. 

The experiments of which this article is a description were in- 
tended for the purpose of developing a method of obtaining the 
current and electromotive force curves of multiphase motors, and 




DIAGRAM OF CONNECTIONS 

Fig. 1. 

of applying it to a two-phase 2-h. p. Tesla motor kindly furnished 
by tlie Westinghouse Electric Manufacturing Company. While the 
results are probably correct for the machine tested, yet as the motor 
was small, with inward projecting pole pieces, the results will differ 
considerably from those that would have been obtained on a larger 
machine, or one without projecting pole pieces. It was impossible 
for us to get any other machine, and the development of a method is, 
we think, of as great importance as the results themselves. 

In a rotary field motor, if the resultant field is not exactly uni- 
form, but presents some irregularities, then if the difference between 
the speed of the field and the .speed of the armature is not a nnilti- 
ple of both, the armature electromotive force will not in general 
be a periodic curve, because if we consider an armature coil enclos- 
ing a maximum number of lines of induction, then when it again 
includes the maxinunn number the field will be in a different posi- 
tion with respect to the poles, and its maximum value m.-iy be 




Fig. 2. 

different. Or, to put it another way, if the difference of the .speeds 
of the field and armature is not a multiple of both, then any par- 
ticular anuature coil will not have the same relative position with 
respect to l)oth the field and the pole pieces in its successive posi- 
tions of maximum induction. It is necessary, then, in order to 
obtain periodic armature currents, that some fonii of gearing be 
employed. 

»A paper re.-\d at the I'hilailtlphia meeting of the American Institute of Klec- 
trical Kugineers. 



If large machines are to be tested where it would be inconvenient 
to transmit a large amount of jjower by gearing, the motor may be 
loaded until the desired speed of te.st is approximately attained, 
when a very light gearing between the dj-nanio and motor will 
serve to keep this speed constant, the gearing serving simply to 
check any small tendency toward a change of speed. In our own 
experiments, the power to be transmitted was small, and the con- 




FiG. 3. 

struction of the motor was such that we had no room for a gearing 
and for a coupling to a load. We consequently geared the motor to 
the dynamo, the motor energy being given back to the dynamo. 

The apparatus experimented on consisted of a 2S-h. p. two-phased 
(Unamo, an ordinary constant current machine, .supplied with four 
(4) collecting rings, and one (1) two-phase, S-pole, 2-h. p. Tesla 
motor. The electromotive force of the dynamo, as may be seen 
from the curves, was practically a sine curve. In our work the 
motor was not run up to its full capacity, as we were limited by the 
amount of power the gearing would safely transmit. We cannot 
better describe the armature winding of the motor than by quoting 
part of a letter written me by Mr. Charles F. Scott, of the Westing- 
house Company: — 

"The one you have, has, however, 41 slots. The odd slot was 
placed in this motor so that the relation of the annature teeth to 
the field poles was different in different parts of the circumference. 



A - 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 


,Syi - -'^Av- IJ 1^?'-* voia« J1\,'k« 


. L,„^.''!'>\:n armature^cu^e^ -i-\,' 


\J ' Vl* 6 t;o ? GEARING i\l\l 


k' V "" ■ ^ 


,/ V S- .- ?■"" 


' -kl- ^\ ■ n 




on DjnimV D.s4'\ ^ ,. ' * 


" .«i> a: xt lulfl.l«r\j«J 0! >'i-uj »-.vo i«,jJ^.o,j » ju, ;v 40 «. Yl""'"'!"""")"^'"'- »,-V)SJ 


= --^ •• s V •:; J - i- 


-- t- ^ i^ _ v ■' 


^-. it-^v^"^ it 


\ v.. A\' I 


• L A i^-i\. -J / • 


\ ^Va l\\f ~fW\'T-U- ~ ' 




1 





Fm. 4- 

and the forty (40) incipient dead points which might have occurred 
were avoided by the addition of the extra slot. The winding con- 
sists of four ( 4 ) layers. The first and third are exactly similar and 
coincident in the slots occupied, and the second and fourth are 
similarly related. The four coils in each layer are connected in 
series and short circuited. ' ' 

The idea was to make the mutual induction of an annature coil, 
with respect to the poles, a sine curve. Of course, with a limited 
number of slots it is impossible to have the mutual induction of the 
field and armature exactly a sine curve. Hut it is pos.sible to verj- 
nearly accomplish this, e.specially in large annatures, and the im- 
portance of it is beginning to be appreciated. Mr. Scott, of the 
Westinghouse Company, was one of the first to ajipreciate the im- 
portance of the armature winding and the proper method of doing 
it, anil he deserves much credit for his quiet and persistent work, 
which luLS resulted in the production of exceMent motors, instead of 
voluminous papers. It is, of course, true that the period of the 
armature current is the sum of the periods of the field and the 
armature. As we wished to obtain the curve of the armature cur- 



Jn.Y 



XHB ELECXRICAL WORLD. 



9 



rent by the contact method, it became necessary to get contacts 
whose period was the sum of the field and armature periods. Tliis 
was obtained by aji arrangement of apparatus shown in Fig. 1. In 
the figure, S and S' are the two sprocket wheels which gear the two 
machines together and give them the desired relative speeds. S" 
and S'" are two others, which gear the graduated discs which carry 
the brushes.- D and D' are the two instantaneous contact di.scs, 
one mounted on each shaft, and a, b, c, a', b' are the wiping 
brushes. K is a condenser, and B a charging battery; b and c 
make the circuit through the battery and condenser once ever}' 
revolution, thus keeping the condenser charged. When a and a' 
make sinniltaneous contact, the battery circuit is broken and the 
condenser is discharged through the movable coils of the dynamom- 
eter, which are all connected in series. F and F' are the motor 
fields; R and R' the rings of the motor and dynamo respectively. 
E is a double-pole, double-throw .switch, to which are connected 
the terminals whose potential difference curves are desired. M is 
the motor armature, and A is a switch in the circuit of the current 
instrument. B' is a battery which sends a steady current through 
the large coils of a dynamometer. This dynamometer is used as a 



eter which has been described before, and which was invented by 
one of us for obtaining such curves. It con.sists of a stationarj' coil 
carrying the current whose curves are to be obtained, and a movable 
coil through which passes an instantaneous direct current, obtained 
by making the circuit on the armature discs before described. If 
this instantaneous current occurs when the alternating current is 
zero, we will get no deflection of the instrument. If it occurs when 





Fig. S. 

correcting instrument, and the resistance in the condenser circuit is 
regulated to keep its deflection constant. If the brushes are set 
together on the contacts, and then the two machines revolve with a 
given speed ratio, say 4 to 3, the brushes will again be simnltaneon.sly 
on the contacts when the machines have made respectively 4 and 3 
revolutions. If the ratio was 7 to 6, the machines would make 7 
and 6 revolutions before the contacts would again be coincident. 
In this way we obtained the needed instantaneous current. 

After obtaining one point on the curve in this way, and wi.shing 
to obtain another point, we must shift our brushes through angular 
distances proportional to the speed ratio of the two machines; other- 
wise they would npt make simultaneous contact again. Having 
shifted them in this ratio (say, if the ratio is 6 to 7, we would shift 
10 degrees on the dynamo discs, and 6-7th of 10 degrees on the 
motor di.sc), we obtain another point on the curve. To accomplish 



the alteruating current is maximum, we will get a maximum 
deflection, and in general the deflection will be proportional to the 
instantaneous value of the alteruating current. The dynamometer 
used had a long period, and was well dampened, and we had no 
difficulty in reading, even when the period of the armature current 
was as much as one-quarter second. 

If very efficient machines were to be tested, where the period of 
the armature is very large indeed, then some electrometer method 
or a telephone method would be used, or the deflection of a gal- 
vanometer needle in the field of the current could be easily photo- 
graphed. 

The curves we have obtained are as follows: The electro-motive 
force applied to the armature; effective electro-motive force of the 
armature; the counter electro-motive force of the armature; the 
armature current; the value of field electro-motive force and current 
for open and closed annature circuit. These for ratios of 3 to 4 and 
6 to 7. 




Fig. 8. 




Fig. 6. 

this easily, we gear the brushes together in the same ratio as the 
armatures are geared, as is shown in Fig. 1. Our gearing, both for 
the brushes and armatures, consisted of sprocket wheels and chains 
and was very satisfactory. 

As the machine we tested was small, and was run much below its 
rate.d electromotive force, it was not of course particularly' efficient, 
and as the armature efficiency is approximately the ratio of the 
armature speed to the field speed, this ratio was comparatively 
small, thus enabling us to use for measuring it a form of dynamom- 



We also obtained the various currents and electro-motive forces 
when the armature was held stationary, with and without resistance 
in the outside circuit. There are really three distinct sets of curves 
— those relating to the 3-to-4 gearing, those for the 6-to-7 gearing, 
and those in which the armature was stationarj-. The angular 
positions do not correspond for the first two sets. For the second 
and third they very nearly correspond. This is due to the fact that 
we did not at first clearly appreciate the importance of permanentlv 
fixing the relative positions of the armatures of the two machines. 
Afterward we made marks on each annature, and if for any reason 
we took off the gearing, we replaced it so these marks came opposite 
points which we fixed on the frames of the two machines. It 
should also be remarked that the curves for the two sets of arma- 
ture coils marked A and B should not in general present the same 
irregularities, as their relative positions, with respect to the poles 
and the resultant field, are different. The dynamo being a fonr- 
pole machine, this must be taken account of in calculating the 
angles on the base line. In Figs. 3 and 4, the contact positions 
should be multiplied by two. The length of an armature curve, 
in terms of the position of the dynamo brush, should be 360x4-2= 
7,200, in the case of the 3 to 4 gearing, and 360x7-2^12,60 for the 
6 to 7 gearing. We have not the same confidence in the results of 
the 3 to 4 gearing as for the 6 to 7 gearing, the latter being taken 
from several sets of observations, which checked very well. 

The curves of the applied electro-motive force (Curves V and VI, 
Fig. 3, and II and VI, Fig. 7) are obtained in the following man- 



THE EIvECTKICAU WORLD. 



Vol.. XXIV. No. 1. 



iier: The armature was held stationary, while the field revolved at 
its normal rate. The reading of our electro-motive force dynamo- 
meter then gave us a point on the electro-motive force curve. The 
armature was then moved through a given angle, while the brush 
on the dynamo disc was moved through an angle corresponding to 
the ratio of gearing of the two machines. What we obtained was 
the electro-motive force applied to the armature when there was no 
current (lowing through it and when the gearing was 3 to 4 or 6 to 
7, according to the relative movement we gave the motor armature 




Fig. 10. 

and the dj'uamo brush. It should be remarked that all of the 
armature curves marked electro-motive force curves are obtained 
when the armature circuit is open, and therefore do not correspo:id 
to the actual condition of affairs when the armature is closed, as 
they do not contain the effects of armature reaction and self- 
induction. 

The effective electro-motive force of the armature given in Curves 
III and IV, Fig. 3, and III and IV, Fig. 7, were simply measured 
by opening the armature circuit and getting the potential difference 
on the motor terminals when the motor was geared to the dj'uamo 
with ratios of 6 to 7 and 3 to 4. The difference between these 
curves and the curves of impressed electro-motive force is the 
counter electro-motive force, and is given by Curves I and II, Fig. 
3. and I and IV, Fig. 7. We could have obtained the counter elec- 
tro-motive force by supplying the fields with continuous currents 
whose ratio to one another would be that of the two-phase currents, 
and varying the relative values of these currents as we vary the 
point of contact of our instantaneous current. This would have 
been a laborious task, and was not necessary. It was not possible 




Fic. 11. 

to obtain tlu-sc (juantilics liy direct ob.servation when the aruiature 
circuit was closed and when the machine was running under normal 
conditions. 

In F^ig. 4 is given the annature current of the motor with a gear- 
ing of 6 to 7. If we compare these curves with those ob- 
tained when the gearing is 3 to 4. we will .see that the current 
is more irregular with the higher efficiency than with the lower. 
Again, comparing the curves of effective electro-motive force for the 
two gearings, we see again that the irregularity is greater with the 



higher efficiency. If we consider that the current would follow this 
curve of effective electro-motive force, but for the armature reactions 
and self-induction, we can see that these effects have their good as 
well as evil side. The effective electro-motive force is of course the 
difference between the applied and the counter eleclro-niotive forces, 
and if these are irregular their difference becomes the more irregu- 
lar as they are the more equal in value, that is, as the efficiencj' of 
the motor is higher. .So that, while in this machine, whose maxi- 
nuim armature efficiency was made about 87 per cent. , the irregu- 
larity is considerable, it would be very much exaggerated in a 
larger motor whose annature efficiency might be 97 per cent, or 98 
per cent. ; and in this ca.se great care should be taken to produce a 
perfectly regular field. The effect of the armature reaction and self- 
induction is to decrea,se these irregularities. 

If we consider for a moment the theory of the two-phased motor, we 
will remember that the armature efficiency is theoretically ( leaving 
out losses in the field iron )p ^ p\ where p and ^' are respectively the 
angular velocities of the field and of the motor armature. We will 
also remember that the lag of the annature current behind the 

effective electro -motive force is taken as tan = — If 

we look at the curves, however, obtained with the motor experi- 
mented on, we will see that the annature current is irregular, and 
therefore the actual heating would be greater than that calculated 
from sine curves — that is, the armature efficiency is always less and 
the drop in speed is alwajs greater than the theoretical value, and 
may be very much less if the armature current is irregular. As has 





-'' "^-111 i 1 TC-LAluoio'n: 11 /^ -^ 




vM M M'^pf r°ri''i 1 1 — -/ -■ ■' 




/ Vi lELlCURRtNT AND ^M ^, / 


-*> 


V X 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 / 


t V Af MATURE SI ATIONARY / 


-70 


\\. \ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 , 


\ \ A and 8. armattjfs short-clrcw.tat / 


-» 


\ aU ^mw„ oi>!,o -«i.<! L _|_ 




,"'j^. ^i^ ± I 


-^ A v. 4_ 4 "v L 


-*l) 


^:/^ X itit 2 


-^ t- )- ^ ^ X 4 




<■ \/^ I \ .. ^ t J 


J \t \_ i it-^ J 




/ ^ \ y / i 




, .^f\^,^\ .--V--j\ / / / 


>_ 


^■3 A -pfi V ^ ilt V ^- 


. it 4:^3:?^^ 3 ^S ^ ' IZ. 


\\ 0^ Ir \ ^.' \r-<r f ^\ 




<. /L^^ \ \ ^^ \ 1 "-^ f\ >^ T 1 


j' "t-^ \ \ ^•^ \ 1 1 -^^r^ 1 




\ \ ' '^V'T*"^ ^ / "— 1 /j — ' 




\ \ \ I / 1/ ! i 1 




'I V \ f\ ^ / 1 




:Z '4- ^ -t 7t\y X zz 


.u 


n - I- \ N I / \ / / 


. \ \\ / /\ jy 




,', - r ' , ^ y \ N /-'^ 


^ 




\ \ / ' ' / 


V ^ / ■ ! 


-™ 


\ \ / 1 i 


\ \/ 1 / 


-«, 


\ X ! 


\ A\ y 




^. / ^ / 


\ A \ r \ y 




N^,^ M .^ 



Fig. 9. 

been pointed out, this fliictuation in the annature current would be 
exceedingly great if the self-induction and annature reaction of the 
motor did not tend to wipe it out, the effect of the self-induction 
l)eing to damp the most the waves of shorter period — that is, the 
irregularities. 

It seems to us that the most important curves we have obtained 
are those of applied and counter electro-motive forces, effective 
electro-motive force, and the annature current. They show at once 
the great importance of designing a machine whose applied and 
counter electro-motive forces are both sine curves, and the method 
may be easily used to experiment on actual machines and to find 
out if this condition is fulfilled. .Again, the comparison of tlie 
effective electro-motive forces, with no annature current, with the 
fall of potential due to the annature current, shows us that there is 
some beneficial effect from .self-indiu-tion in the armature. The 
principal results show that the special machine does not give us 
regular currents and electro-motive forces, but it is to a large extent 
due to the fact that in these small machines considerations of econ- 
omy make it necessary to wind the field coils on spools, instead of 
winding them through slots cut in the field iron. 

In designing a motor to give absolutely regular electro-motive 
force curves, we mu.st take two things into account: The field due 
to the dynamo current must be regular, and the armature winding 



July 7, 1894. 



THE ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



11 



must be such that it will give a regular electro-motive force in a 
regular field. To satisfy this condition in the field windings, pro- 
jecting pole pieces shou'ld certainly be avoided. To satisfy the con- 
dition in the armature would require an infinite number of armature 
windings, but it can be practically satisfied in the higher machines 
with a reasonable number of windings. It must not be under.stood 
that it is specially easy to accomplish this. Figs. 5 and 6 give us 
the input of the motor at full load and with an open armature, with 
a 6 to 7 gearing. Figs. 9 and 10 show the field and armature 
electro-motive forces and currents when the armature is stationary, 
and in one case short circuited, and in the other case has outside 
resistances in its circuit. Fig. 11 gives in arbitrary units the induc- 
tion through a coil wound around one of the pole pieces, under the 
conditions stated. 

We do not wish to add to an already lengthy paper a prolonged 
discussion of the curves we have given, especially as we hope to be 
able to experiment on a larger machine, the results from which will 
be of much greater importance; but we think that the curves we 
have given show that the design of rotary field motors requires care- 
ful experimental study, and we believe that such a study may be 
easily made, even for machines of large capacitj'. 



Practical Notes on Dynamo Calculations.— VIII. 

By ALFRED E. WIEXER. 

d. — Total Energy Loss in Ar»iaiuie. 

The total energy transformed into heat in the armature is the sum 
of the energies consumed by the winding, by hysteresis, and by 
eddy currents: 

Wa.^We,+.Wb+ We .(42) 

/fa = total watts absorbed in armature; 

Wa. = watts consumed by armature winding, formula (35); 

ail = watts consumed by h\steresis, formula (39); 

7Ve = watts consumed by eddy currents, formula (41). 

For comparison, in the following Table XXVIII. , the energy losses 
due to In-steresis and eddy currents, expressed in various units of 
the metric as well as the English system, are compiled: 

TABLE XXViri.— SPECIFIC ENERGY DISSIPATION IN ARMATURE CORE. 



Magnetic 
Density. 


Hysteresis Toss for sheet iron 

at frequency of 1 magnetic 

cycle per sec. 


Eddy current loss for .030" 

(.075 era.) lamination, at 

1 cycle per second, proportional 

to frequency. 


ui 


Lines 


















t; 


of 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 




Force. 
Per sq. 


cm3 


cu. ft. 


kg- 


lb. 


cm-'' 


cu. ft. 


kg- 


lb. 






















inch 


Watts. 


Watts. 


Watts. 


Watts. 


Watts. 


Watts. 


Watts. 


Watts. 


2000 


12900 


.ooa)7 


1.98 


.0091 


.0041 


.0000004 


.011 


.000051 


.000023 


.'(100 


19350 


.00013 


3.68 


.0140 


.0077 


.0000009 


.026 


.000119 


.000054 


•HXX) 


25S«I 


.00020 


5.75 


.0265 


.0120 


.0000016 


.046 


.000212 


.001X196 


5(HX) 


32250 


.00029 


8.20 


.0378 


.0171 


.0000025 


.071 


.000327 


.000148 


(itKK) 


3X7(X) 


.000.-9 


11.03 


.0508 


.0230 


.0000036 


.102 


.000471 


. 01X1213 


VOX) 


4SL50 


.00050 


14.15 


.0652 


.0295 


.0000049 


.139 


.0(X1640 


.000290 


WXXI 


SUM 


.00062 


17.S 


.0806 


.0305 


.0000064 


.181 


.000833 


.tXI0377 


■XKXI 


S.S050 


.00074 


20.9 


.0963 


.0431. 


.(XXXX181 


.229 


.1X11054 


.000478 


IIXXX) 


M.51X) 


.00087 


24,6 


.1133 


.0513 


.0000100 


.283 


.001303 


.000590 


lUXX) 


709S0 


.00102 


28.3 


.1303 


.05<» 


.0000121 


.343 


.001580 


.000715 


12000 


■nnyo 


.00118 


33.1 


.1524 


.0690 


.0000144 


.408 


.001878 


.000850 


l.MXW 


83850 


.00134 


37.9 


.1745 


.07'X1 


.0000169 


.479 


.002204 


.000998 


14(XK) 


<X).3(X) 


.IX)1.50 


42.7 


.19(* 


.0890 


.0000196 


.555 


.(X)25S3 


.001157 


l.^dlHl 


01,7.50 


.IX1H.S 


47.5 


.2193 


.09'X) 


.0000225 


.637 


.002923 


.001328 


luKBI 


IIC.JKI 


11111x7 


52.9 


.2440 


.1103 


.0000256 


.725 


.00.1340 


.001512 


17IBI0 


1II9(,5II 




58.3 


.2680 


.1212 


.000028'; 


.818 


.003770 


.001708 


ISIKKI 


lll.UHl 


(K)2''5 


63.7 


.2932 


.1328 


.0000324 


.917 


.00422C 


.001911 


IWOO 


1225.50 


.1X1246 


69.6 


.3200 


.1450 


.000036! 


1.022 


.00471C 


.1X121.0 


2001X) 


12901X) 


.00267 


7S.6 


.3480 


.1575 


.0000400 


1.133 


.005225 


.002362 



77. — Radiating Surface of Armature. 

The radiating surface, or cooling surface, of an armature is that 
portion of- its superficial area which is in direct contact with the 




a. — Radiating Surface of Drum Armatures. 

In drum armatures the dead portion of the winding forms two 
"heads" at the ends of the cylindrical body, and the external area, 
extending over the cylindrical part, as well as over these two conical 
heads, is the radiating surface of the armature. In order to calcu- 
late the cooling area of a drum armature, it is therefore necessary 
to first determine the size of the armature heads. 

The length of the heads, /•"■ Fig. 17, depends upon the diameter 
of the armature, the size of the shaft and the height of the winding 
space, and can be found from the empirical formula: 

4— /fe? X < + 2 X /,„, (43) 

where: Ai ^ length of armature heads, in inches; 

k-. = constant, depending upon the size of the armature (see 

Table XXIX. ) ; 
d" = external diameter of aimature, in inches; 
Att = height of winding space, in inches. 
The coefficient k-, in this formula varies with the slope of the 
head, and this, in turn, depends upon the ratio between the diame- 
ter of the armature and the thickness of the shaft. For in large 



h-iH-t 



Fig. 17. 
surrounding air, and which consequently gives off the heat gener- 
ated in the winding and in the iron core. It is evident that the 
shape and the construction of the armature and the arrangement of 
the field determine the size of this radiating portion of the armature 
surface. In drum armatures, for instance, only the external surface 
is liberating heat, while in ring armatures, according to design, 
either the external .surface only or any two or three sides of the cross 
section, or even the entire superficial area may act as cooling sur- 
face. 




Fig. 18. 



Fig. 19. 



machines the shaft bears a smaller proportion to the armature 
diameter than in small ones, and therefore in large armatures there 
is comparatively much more room between the shaft circumference 
and the body periphery than in small armatures, and .since the 
diameter of the head must never exceed that of the armature itself, 
it is evident that the slope of the head is smaller, and consequently 
its relative length is larger in the smaller armature.s. The following 
Table XXIX. gives the values of this coefficient for the various sizes 
of drum armatures: 

TABLE XXIX.— LENGTH OF HEADS IN DRUM ARMATURES. 



External Diameter 
of Armature. 


Value of 
k. 


Averag^e Length 

of heads. 

Ih 

Inches. 


Up to 6" 


.60 to ..50 


lh=.SS X da" -1- aba 


•' " 12" 


..55 to .45 


= .50Xdtt"-f 2ha 


" IX" 


.50 to .40 


=.4S X da" -^ 2 ha 


" " 24" 


.45 to .35 


=.40 X d«" -) 2 ha 


" " 30" 


.40 to .30 


= .35 X da" -1-2 ha 



As to the diameters at the ends of the heads, that of the front 
head, (/i,, at commutator end of armature, is generallj^ made from 
0.75 d'^ to rf^', while the diameter of the end washer of the back 
head, (/h, ranges in size from 0.5 d,^io 0.75 d^. Taking rfj, =0.9 </„ 
as the average diameter of the front head, and rfj, = 0.6 </„ as 
that of the back head ( Figs. 18 and 19) we obtain the following 
formula for the radiating surface of a drum armature: 



Oa = rf^ X n 

or, approximately: — 

Oa^ 



X(..1.4XJ.^.(4")^' 
flf^ X jr X /' /a -f 1.8 X /,, "^ 



(44) 



Oa = radiating surface of armature,[iii square^^inches; 
d" a = external diameter of armature, in inches; 

= rfa + 2 X Aa ; 
/a = length of armature body, in inches, formula (12); 
/h = length of armature head, in inches, from formula (43). 
(To be continued. ) 



An English Electrical Invention. 

A recent Knglish patent has the following title: "Improvements 
in Portland cement in union with petroleimi ; for the incandescence 
of electric gases; in man's, animals' and birds' excrescences in air, 
land and water. ' ' 



12 



THE ICLECTRICAI. WORI^IX 



Vol.. XXIV. No. 1. 





♦»»•>" 







bDLDS 



% ^(MZHT..,. 




^ y>. 



_- .^g0UPc..^^ 



N^' <\>^^^^'^l llrL^^ --.1-=-.^-' VvVtv!'^' •- ■>- 



KI.KCTRO-PHYSICS. 

/;'()/((• ()/■ //cr/r.— The lecture of Prof. Lodge is continued in the 
r,ond. "Klec. ,"]une 15; a number of interesting experiments are 
described, and illustrations given. It is written in a rather abbreviated 
style, and assumes a knowledge of the subject. 

I| Dilcctin- of JClcclric ]Vaves.— In ^n editorial on Prof. Lodge's 
lecture, the Lond. "Elec. Rev.," June IS, describes an instrument 
(illustrated in the Lond ."Elec.," June 15), which he has devised, which 
is called a coherer; two knobs so close together that the air gap is not 
able to stand any such voltage as an electroscope can show, will actually 
cohere when a spark passes between them, and the joint thus completed 
closes the circuit of an electric bell and battery. On this phenomena 
he founded a theory of vision, in which the retina of the eye is supposed 
to be furnished with cohesive contents which allow an electric current 
to flow in the nerves when acted upon by the electro-magnetic waves of 
light; mechanical vibration supplied by the tissues restores the sensi- 
tiveness of the contact at intervals of a tenth of a second ; a model was 
constructed to illu.strate the theory. 

Theory of I'ision.See abstract under " Detector of Electric 
Waves. ' ' 

UNn\S, MEASUREMENTS -\ND INSTRUMENTS. 

Sfirriyic. Coiniiif/ifi/j'.—A paper by Mr. Teichraueller, read 
before the Union of German Electrical Engineers, is published in full 
in the "Elek. Zeit.," June 'i. He discusses the three different ways in 
which specific conductivity is given, namely by reference to pure copper 
considered as 10() per cent. , by reference to mercury and by representing 
it in mhos per unit length and cross-section and concludes in favor of 
the latter; although this method was the one used least, he believes it 
was due to the want of a name of the unit, which has now been sup- 
plied; he concludes in favor of expressing coudnctivities in mhos and 
specific conduetivites in meganihocentimeters ; the number for copper 
will have values of about 0.58 and 0.5')5; these values are based on the 
absolute system but depend on the value of the ohm. The arguments in 
the article are contained more at length in an article by the same author 
abstracted in the Digest April 2H. He recommends that the society take 
action by appointing a committee to consider and report on the subject. 

(ialvanoHieh-r.—A paper by Messrs. du Bois & Rubens, describ- 
ing .some new forms of sensitive galvanometers, is published in the 
"lilek. Zeit.," June '), including several illustrations and a table of 
constants. 

Pholonulry. — .\\\ article by Mr. Henry on the pupil and photo- 
metry is begun in "La Lum. Elec," June y, the present portion being 
devoted to the pupil and its measurements. 

Brillif Mrlcr.—.\ well illustrated description of the improved 
form of this nuti r, wliieli is one of the principal meters used in I'rance, 
is given in "I,a I.uni. Eke.," June '). 

DYNAMOS AND MOTORS. 

Ciirrcut CiiiTrs of Allirnalors. — A paper by Messrs. Roessler & 
Wedding, read before the Union of (Urman Electrical En- 
gineers, is published in full, together with numerous curves, tables and 
illustrations in the "Elek. Zeit. ," June '). The object of the paper is 
'o show the inflnence of the shape of the curves on the candle-power of 
alternating arc lamps ; the second part of the paper, which is devoted to 
arc lights, is abstracted below under "arc lights." Three machines 
were tested, the curve of the alternating current being measured by the 
usual method of making momentary connection between a fixed brush 
and a mov.ible contact piece which may be placed in any position with 
respect to the field. The method used is described in detail. Three 
machines were used, a four-pole Ganz, the armature of which consisted 
of four radial magnets terminating opposite the pole pieces; a Wechsler, 
consisting of a sort of a Gramme ging winding, the ring revolving 
between opposite poles of four pairs of magnets ; the third, a machine 
of Siemens & Halske,'in which the armature and field magnet coils were 



all radial. The results for the Ganz machine showed a very abrupt 
increase in the voltage, followed by an almost equally abrupt, and an 
apparently long period of practically no voltage, the latter forming 
about two-thirds of the whole wave. In the Siemens machine the 
increase is gradual, the voltage remaining nearly constant for about half 
the period, and then falls again, including a slight rise just before fall- 
ing; for the Wechsler machine the curves were between the others and 
corresponded very closely with a sine cun-e. A number of conclusions 
are drawn from these, among which it is claimed that the large aii-gap 
in the Wechsler machine is that to which the approximate sine curve 
is due, there being no abrupt changes as in the others, and it is con- 
cluded that a large air-gap is a very good feature when a sine curve is 
desired ; the flat part of the curve of the Siemens & Halske is due to 
the very large pole piece, in which it differs from the Ganz machine. 
.\nother conclusion is that with alternating current arc lamps, electro- 
motive forces of a different phase than that of the acting voltage do not 
arise. 

Unipolar Dynamos. — The Lond. "Elec. Rev.," June 15, contains 
an editorial on non-polar dynamos in America, presumably criticising 
the recent in.stitute paper of Prof. Crocker and Mr. Earnley, in which, 
however, the main features of the paper are not considered ; it is claimed 
that the suggested designs will be found to be old, and to have been 
often proposed. Foncault currents are said to exist without doul>t, 
because the armatures of such machines get warm on open circuits ; 
armature reaction takes place to a great extent, as is claimed to have 
been proven some time ago by direct experiment. It is claimed that 
the efiiciency of the non-polar dynamo and storage battery transformer 
combination could not possibly be higher than mi per cent. 

ARC AND INCANDESCENT LIGHTS. 

Alleriialing Cnnenl Arc Lam/>s. — A paper by Messrs. Roessler 
& Wedding, read before the Union of German Electrical Engi- 
neers, is publi.shed in full in the "Elek, Zeit., " June 'f. The first part 
of the paper treats with the curves of different alternators, and is 
abstracted under "Dynamos and Motors." The second portion treats of 
the arc lamp. The influence of the character of the eunent curves on 
the regulation of the lamps is discussed; a differential lamp was used, 
with both shunt and series coils ; it was found that the regulation had 
to be altered very considerably when the lamp was used with three 
different machines described in the first part of the article, and when 
continuous currents were used it was not possible to effect !i regulation, 
as the pull and the heating of the coils then became too great. The 
shunt coil affects the regulation for different curves of current by virtue 
of its self-induction, and because the pull exerted by these currents will 
be different, which batter will also be the case with the series coils; it 
is concluded that if an arc lamp is to be adapted for a number of differ- 
ent machines it is better to use the iron of the coils at as low a satura- 
tion as possible. The photometric tests are described in detail, the 
results being given in tables and curves; the lamp was in each case 
adjusted so that it would burn with the greatest constancy, when it was 
found that the maximum variation of the voltage was less than 0.3 volts; 
the voltages used were between 2S..S and 31.1; the lamps were measured 
with a white reflector, and the light was measured only below the hori- 
zontal plane. When run with the Ganz machine the mean spherical 
candle-power per watt, below the horizontal, \vi\s 0. 71(>; with the 
Wechsler machine it was 1.03, and with the Siemens & ll.alske, 1.078; 
owing to the sudden change in the curves of the Ganz machine the 
energy was not so well utilized to produce light ; by virtue of the gradu- 
ally changing sine curve the increase in the light for the Wechsler 
machine was about 44 per cent, or for the same current, voltage and 
light, three lamps would have to be used with the Ganz machine, and 
only two with the Wechsler. With the Siemens & Halske an increase 
of 6 per cent, in the light was obtained, with an increase of 33 per cent, 
in the frequency. The ratio of the simple mean of the current to the 
square-root of the mean square is 0.b56 with the Ganz machine, 0.W7 for 
the Wechsler, and 0.<)11 for the Siemens & Halske. For a true sine 



XHB ELBCTRICAIv WORLO. 



13 



curve it would be O.<)00; the difference between the first two is about 28 
per cent. J while the photometric nieasureiuents show a difference of 30 
per cent., from which it is concluded that the generation of light in the 
ordinar5- alternating current arc depends on the mean value of the cur- 
rent as distinguished from the square-root of the mean of the squares. 
The above ratio w-ill be unity when the curve consists of two rectangles, 
one above and the other below the line, for which the development of 
light would then be a ma.ximum, which curve is approached by the 
Siemens machine ; but there are objections to designing machines with 
such curves; a very loud and disagreeable noise accompanied the run- 
ning of the lamps with the Ganz machine, while with the Siemens machine 
this noise ceased, but the humming of the alternating current became 
greater; but with the Wechsler machine the lamps burned silently. 
Taking this noise into account, it is concluded that the best ideal is a 
true sine curve. In conclusion they show that the energy in a continu- 
ous current lamp is much greater than in an alternating current lamp for 
the same current strength. In the former 2.84 mean spherical c. p. were 
obtained per watt, which was partly due to a very thin carbon, and 
partly to a greater consumption of energy ; with about the same consump- 
tion of energy this figure was 2.65, showing that the efficiency in a con- 
tinuous current lamp is very materially higher; pait of the difference is 
due to the 30 per cent, loss in the reflector. With two continuous cur- 
rent lamps in series on 110 volt mains, 1,528 c. p. were obtained, while 
with 4 alternating current lamps in series on 110 volts, consuming about 
the same energy, 1,175 c. p. were obtained, showing that even under 
these conditions the continuous current arc is the more efficient. 

Mulliple Filament Lamps. — According to a statement in the 
Lond. "Elec," June 15, expeiiments with these lamps are said to have 
shown that there is practically no afterglow when the current is shut 
off, as there is with single filament lamps, and that the English Admir- 
alty have therefore directed that the multiple filament lamp be adopted 
for mast head flashing lanterns on all the higher class ships. 

Life and Efficiency Tes/s oj Iiicandesceni Lamps. — A translation of the 
article abstracted in the Digest June 9, is published in the Lond. "Elec. 
Rev.," June IS, giving also the table of results. 

ELECTRIC RAILWAYS. 

Accnmulaloy Traction. — According to a coriespondent in the Lond. 
"Elec. Rev., " June 15, one ton of batteries of the Theryc-Oblasser 
tj'pe, in a certain trial test ran a car 46.5 miles at 1M to 9>J miles per 
hour. 

CENTRAL .STATIONS, PLANTS, SYSTEMS AND APPLIANCES. 

Electrical Engineering in England. — A paper by Mr. Kapp, 
read before the Union of German Electrical Engineers, is pub- 
lished in full in the "Elek. Zeit.," Jtme 5. After discussing the his- 
tory, the early development and the different conditions in that coun- 
try and elsewhere, he gives, among others, the following figures. At the 
present time the number of lamps operated with alternating current, as 
compared with continuous cuirent, is as 4 to 5; as a mean of 18 continu- 
ous current stations he finds that every kilowatt-hour sold per year rep- 
resents an investment of capital in the installation of about $1.12: a 
mean for ten alternating current stations gives $1.30; these figures were 
for the past year, but the stations are not fully loaded; making a correc- 
tion for an increased number of lamps without increasing the machinery, 
the figures will be 0.72 and 1.10 respectively; the greater cost of the 
alternating current station is due to the fact that the distances of the 
transmission are greater ; these figures include all the costs, but for new 
stations constructed at the present time, and assuming the complete 
output of lamps, he estimates that the following figures are fair means ; 
for continuous currents $0.62 for the first part of the installation, and 
$0.50 when the station is completed, and for alternating currents, $0.88 
and $0.62 respectively. For an equal amount of light the capital required 
in the largest gas works is about one-third as great, while for small gas 
works it is about equal to that for an electrical installation. The aver- 
age time of lighting of the lamps in the last year was 480 hours. On the 
basis of 50 watts per lamp there were, during the past year, 825,250 lamps 
connected to 84 stations, the total power of which was 74,700 indicated 
h. p. ; out of these 467,000 are in lingland ; to light London completely 
with electric lamps would require from 4 to 5 million lamps, therefore 
the lighting at present is one-tenth of this. The total capital invested 
is about 30 million dollars, not including four million invested in the 
Deptford station ; the cost of municipal works per lamp is .smaller than 
that for private companies' plants. The average price charged for the 
current is about 12 cts. per kilowatt hour, and the average receipt pet 
50 watt lamp installed per year, is $2.50 to $3. Electricity for electro- 
chemical purposes is not used much in England ; transmissions of power 
for longer distances is not common, but the" application for coal cutting 
machinery is quite common. He states that, strange to say, the multi- 
phase system is not meeting with favor in England, and many of the 
companies will have nothing to do with it. 

Power Dfslribution.—ln. the concluding part of Mr. De Seguu- 
do's article, in the Lond. "Elec. Eng.," June 15, he discusses, among 
other things, the Van Rysselberghe system, to be used in Antwerp (in 
which power is distributed hydraulically and transformed into electrical 
energy at small distribution centers), some figures are given, and it is 
stated that there is no doubt that power can be produced and delivered 
hydraulically at a smaller cost than electrically, and that the reason is 
that a more efficient engine can generally be used, and it can be worked 



more efficiently, as it always works at full load to full stroke, and there 
is also a much greater efficiency in distribution through pipes. In dis- 
cussing gas engines he dwells at some length on a combination of elec- 
tric light and gas interests, which he thinks would solve the problem of 
electric supply in many cities. He recommends using the gas works as 
an already constructed power station, and establishing distribution 
.stations at suitable points in the town, where the electric currents aiV- 
generated by means of gas engines. The following figures are given, 
taken from the weekly records of a plant at Bradford supplying 300 
lamps ; the total cost per kilowatt-hour is 4 cts. , the price of the gas being 
about 80 cts. per 1000 cb. ft. ; allowing 5 per cent, for loss in mains, 
and 0.6 cts. per kilowatt-hour for depreciation in plant and buildings, 
it brings the cost up to 4.8 cts., adding a liberal allowance of 1.2 cts. per 
kilowatt-hour for management expenses, the total cost will be 6 cts. per 
kilowatt-hour delivered, which is a lower figure than that usually 
realized in practice by any purely electric supply company working 
under those conditions. He discusses the light efficiency of gas burned 
in a burner, which, according to Prof. Tyndall, is 0.317 percent., and 
shows that when used in a gas engine and dynamo, the efficiency is 
increased 2.5 times, notwithstanding the three-fold transformation. He 
believes that in a sj'stem such as that proposed the cost of maintenance, 
superintendence and management will be less than under conditons of 
independent electric supply. 

Three- Wire System witli a Single Dynamo.— K paper by Mr. 
von Dolivo Dobrowolski is published in full with illustrations in 
the "Elek. Zeit.," June 9. He describes his ingenious device 
(described and illustrated in the Digest, Feb. 3, and referred to May 
12), in which the neutral wire is connected to the armature through self- 
induction coils. In addition to what was given in that abstract, he states 
that such machines can also be used as motors, and, therefore, as equal- 
izers, in which capacity they may be used to advantage in installations 
in which it is desired to omit the neutral wire for the more distant dis- 
tricts. The neutral wire of this district is extended only to this motor; 
with the circuits unequally loaded one-half of the armature acts as a 
motor and the other as a dynamo. Such a machine will operate only 
when the difference between the two circuits is not too great in propor- 
tion to the output of the 'dynamo. If the loss of voltage in the dynamo 
at full load is 4 per cent, the voltages in the halves, when the differ- 
ence between the two loads is 10 per cent., will be only 0.4 per cent, 
different from the mean, besides 0.5 per cent, additional in the self- 
induction coils. It is not possible in this system to increa,se the voltage 
on one side, as is possible with two dynamos, but the same result can 
be accomplished by inserting resistances in the main line to absorb a 
few volts; or it can be accomplished by inserting a small dynamo in the 
neutral wire, which will regulate both sides. It need regulate for only 
half of the difference of potential, and will be sufficient to proportion 
its wires to carry one-tenth of the current in the outside circuit. 

Three- If'ire System.-*-The article by Mr. Claude, abstracted in 
the Digest June 23, under "Advantages of Constant Voltage," is con- 
cluded in "La Lum. Elec," June 9. He discusses the disadvantages 
inherent in the three-wire system, concluding that in any case the regu- 
lation for constant voltage cannot be accomplished as perfectly as in the 
simple system. He shows that in case the drop in volts in the neutral 
wire for the extreme lamp is greater than the loss in one of the outside 
wires, the apparently paradoxical result may be that the voltage is higher 
at the extremity of the line than at its origin. He cites another case in 
which some arc lamps were run between the outside mains, and in 
which the voltage in one of the circuits suddenly fell to zero, and after 
a few minutes rose again to its normal value ; it was found that one of 
the brushes of one of the machines did not touch the commutator, which 
was the cause of the trouble ; the total charge had thereby I)een thrown 
on the other dynamo, increasing its output to a point beyond the char- 
acteristic, thus reducing the voltage to zero, and the arc lights had then 
only 100 volts, which was not sufficient to start the arcs, but they formed 
a connection between the outside wires which reversed the faulty dyna- 
mo, after which the dynamos were running simply in multiple arc. He 
calculates that the actual cost of the wire for the two-wire system at 100 
volts, is only 25 to 30 per cent, higher than that for three wires, and as 
the cost of the wires is only about one-fourth of the total cost of the 
installation, this increase corresponds to only 7 per cent, increase in the 
total; this, though .small, is often considered sufficient to justify the 
adoption of the three-wire system, notwithstanding the poorer regula- 
tion. He suggests using a simple two-wire system at 200 volts, and con- 
necting two lamps in .series, believing that the regularity in the voltage 
will then enable the lamps to be run more brilliant and more economi- 
cal ; also that the output of a station will then probably increase rapidly, 
as it enables a reduction in the selling price to be made. Such a system 
is particularly applicable to the alternating current, in which a small 
self-induction coil can be arranged to be cut into the circuit to replace 
one of the two lamps in series, 

WIRES, WIRING AND CONDUITS. 

.Safely L'lises. — A paper by Mr. Feldmann, read before the Union 
of German Electrical Engineers, is published in full in the "Elek 
Zeit.." June 9. Regarding the safety factor in fuses he states that in 
America, a factor of 2 is usual, but that it should be different for 
different kinds of circuits; for overhead wires, for instance, it could 
very w'cll be 2.5, and even 3, but for underground cables it is much loo 
high for alternating currents, when the current is used for electro-mag- 



14 



THE EIvECTRICAL WORLD. 



Voi,. XXIV. No. 1. 



iielic i)urposcs, the fuses should be calculated, not for the working cur- 
rent, but for the total current, including the working and the wattless 
current, which, in some cases, may be very great; when used only for 
inductionless apparatus a factor of 2 can be used for secondary circuits, 
and 2.5 for the primary, it being preferable to have the secondary fuse 
blow first ; when several transformers are used for several consumers, 
the possibility of short circuits is greater, and he suggests 2.5 for the sec- 
ondaiy, and 3 for the primary. When there are a number of large trans- 
formers supplying mains in common, the factors should be taken still 
larger, dcpendingon the equality of the voltage of the different trans 
formers ; the same is true of fuses for dynamos in parallel. Regarding 
the size of the fuses, he states that the minimum fusing current is pro- 
portional to the 3-2 power of the diameter and inversely proportional to 
the 4th root of the length, and that the size of the radiating surfaces of 
the clamps affect the fusing current very greatly; in two cases the sur- 
faces, were as 1 to 5, and the fusing currents for otherwise identical 
conditions were as 1 to 1.35; when one of two like fuses was cooled to 
10° C, and another heated to 60° C, the currents were as 1. 1 to 1, showing 
the influence of extf-rnal temperature. Lead is most unsuitable for such 
fuses as it o.\idizes, the oxides forming an infusible tube. Mr. Preece 
recommends platinum, which melts like wax, while tin and copper 
melt with an explosive action; the most common alloy is lead and tin- 
with or without bismuth and antimony; iron is quite unsuitable; he 
recommends highly the Scliuckert fuses, made of a band cut into a num- 
ber of thin strips connected at their ends and bent apart so as to allow 
access of the air ; also the Cockburn fuses of tin, with 5 per cent, of 
phosphor, and a weight suspended from the middle part. These are said 
to differ in their fusing currents only by 5 to 10 per cent. They are 
especially to be recommended for small currents, as the wiie may be 
taken slightly larger. The weak point of fuses lies in the poor contacts. 
Prof. Heim found that the loss of volts due to these contacts varied from 
0.06 to 0.4 volts, and for poor contacts these might be much greater. In 
conclusion he recommends that the Society adopt the uniform practice 
of marking fuses with their fusing current, and not with a safe carrying 
current, because the latter differs for different conditions. 

CalculaticiH of Mains. — An article by Mr. Frick on a simplified 
method for calculating the distribution of current in networks of con- 
ductors, is begun in the "Zeit. fuer Elek.," May 15. The article does 
not admit of being abstracted ; a table is given serving as a guide for 
preliminary determinations ; it gives the relation between the cross-sec- 
tion of the wire, the load in amperes per metre, considered as being 
uniform, and the resulting allowable distance between the feeding points 
for the three-wire system and a maximum loss of 3 volts; the formula 
for the calculation of this table is given; having made preliminary 
determinations with the aid of this table, the distribution of the current 
through the network for a given amount of current may then be deter- 
mined; he mentions four methods of doing this, one involving equations, 
which is too complicated, another by means of graphical calculations, 
another by mechanical devices, and another — presumably his own — 
which is discussed more in detail ; if the distribution of the current thus 
determined involves more than the maximum allowable loss, the various 
cross-sections must be modified; the problem is simplified by assuming 
the potential at the feeding points to be everywhere equal and constant. 

iri>c Compiiliiiv;. — A correspondent in the Lond. "Elec. Rev.," 
Jime 12, recommends the following method as being a quick solution of 
certain problems.. A table is calculated, giving the cross-sectional area 
of copper wire for every number of yards per ohm from one to nine ; if, 
for instance, the cross-section of a conductor is required, such that a given 
number of yards has a certain resistance, dividing the former \>y the 
latter gives the number of yards per ohm ; if, for instance, this was 526, 
the cross-sectional area taken from that table for 500 (100 times that for 5) 
is added to that for 20 (10 times that for 2), and to that for 6, the sum 
will give the total cross-sectional area. It is suggested that this method 
of tabulating constants might be extended to other electrical calcula- 
tions. > 

KLECTRO-CHEMISTRY. 

Nolc : Owing to fhe fioivdcd condition of these colitmns, mticttw and notes tte/ong- 
ins more properly to the department of Chemistry than to the department of Electric- 
ity will hereafter not be inbodiiccd in the Digest, unless they are of special interest* 

U'txiciiioiise Electrolytic Meter. — The English journals for June 
15 contain an illustrated description of this new and interesting 
meter ; the best description, with the largest number of illustrations, 
is given in the I.ond. "Klcc. Rev.," in which the meter is spoken of 

as "the best of its class yet brought to our notice; the curves 

made out by the inventors are wonderfully straight, and show extreme 
acctiracy throughout the whole range of the meter;" the description in 
the Lond. "Elec. " is rather brief. A description of the apparatus 
will be found elsewhere in these columns. 

Hcriiiite I'rocess. — A report from the medical journal, "Lancet," 
is published in part in the Lond. "Elec. Eng. ."Juncl. ,\mong other 
things it is stated that the liquid deodorizes but does not destroy organic 
matter ; ordinary paper rapidly reduces the strength of the solution, as 
does also other materials in the sewers; deodorization is complete only 



* The attention of electro-chemists is called to the "KlektroChemische Zcit- 
sctirift" iji tlie German langiiage), which we believe is the only journal devoted 
exclusively to the subject of electro-chemistry; each nnnilier, t)esides containing 
orij<inal articles, iuchules also a digest of the principal articles on electro-chemis- 
try published in other journals. Tt was started in April of this year and is published 
monthly by Dr. N. von Klol»ukow. in Berlin. Koetliener St., No. 44. The sub- 
scription pric in tliis country is 18.41) marks, nr al>ont $4,.=;o. 



when the chlorinated body is in excess, but in that case it is not admis- 
sible to discharge it into rivers; it is .stated that the adoption of the 
Hermite process in towns would no doubt lead to a sanitary condition of 
things hitherto unreached, but that the cost is excessive; the antiseptic 
value may be estimated in terms of the available chlorine or oxidizing 
power, and that, therefore, a solution of bleaching powder of equivalent 
strength might be substituted for it, and might be much less expensive. 
The Hermite solution, as an antiseptic, is much more efficient than 
carbonic acid, even in more dilute solutions, the only other substance 
which is better, in the latter respect, being corrosive sublimate ; the 
solution seems to be used up and destroyed to a much less extent by 
organic matter than any other disinfectants which were known to the 
experimenters; between 0.50 and 0.60 gram of chlorine per litre is all 
that is considered necessary for sewage treatment. 

The report of Dr. Ruffer is summarized in "Ind. and Iron," June II. 
The conclusions are that solutions containing less than 0.75 gram pe- 
litre are useless for the sterilization of sewage ; but with such a solution 
the sewage can be made quite sterile, provided the solution is intimately 
mix-^d; also that the deodorization is immediate. With 250 amperes at 
six volts, it took 90 to 100 minutes to develop 0.5 gram per litre in a 
quantity of 7.50 litres. He finds that in a 0.5 gram solution the amount 
of chlorine diminished 90 per cent, in 24 hours' standing, but in solu- 
tions of 0.75 the lo.ss was only 34 per cent. ; when the current is 
increased 100 per cent, the increase in the yield of the chlorine is only 
50 per cent., thus increasing the cost considerably. Experiments arc 
described, showing that in certain cases sterilization was complete, but 
the action of the air on the liquid after sterilization again contaminates 
it; the bacillus subtilis seems to be the most resisting. No general con- 
clusions are drawn, except those given above, and the fact that it is 
essential to disintegrate the sewage and make a thorough mixture with 
the solution. 

The Lond. "Elec. Rev.," June s, quotes in part the report from the 
"Lancet, " giving, however, some other parts of it; it is claimed in that 
report that the magne'sium compounds play the most important part, 
which statement is criticised in this journal, and figures are given tend- 
ing to prove that the sodium chloride plays more than the part of a con- 
ductor. 

New Acctimulalor. — Mr. Tauleigne in "Cosmos," June 2, desciibes 
an accumulator, the negative electrode of which is formed of car- 
bon in a porous cup, surrounded with chloride of lead firmly packed 
around it; the positive electrode surrounding the porous cup is also 
made of carbon, and the electrolyte is a 60 per cent, solution of proto- 
chloride of iron ; in this condition it is ready to receive a charge ; the E. 
M. F. is 1.40 volts, the capacity per pound of "metal" (as there is no 
metal, probably the carbon is meant) is 71 ampere hours; the energy 
stored per pound of "metal" is 75-foot pound hours; a horse-power hotir 
is said to be obtained with about 7.3 pounds of "metal;" he claims to 
have obtained 23 ampere hours per pound of active material ; no gas is 
disengaged at charging. 

Electrolysis. — An article on this subject, elementar)' in character, 
is published in the Lond. 'Elec," June 15, by Jlr. Waddell ; some inter- 
esting analogies are given. 

Electrolytic Gold Lea/.—liU. Swan, before the Royal Society of 
London, exhibited several specimens of electro-deposited gold leaf 
four millionths of an inch thick ; the gold is deposited on a thin, highly 
polished electro-deposited sheet of copper, which is then dissolved off 
with per chloride of irofi ; it reflects like a yellow mirror, and is per- 
fectly transparent, transmitting a greenish light. 

Electrolytic Iron. — .According to the Lond. "p;iec. Rev," June 
15, Mr. Lockyer finds from the spectnini of electrolytic iron that it con 
tains calcium and manganese, as well as traces of other metals. 

MlSCl-;i.I..\NE()tiS. 

Ketort Carbons. — In a report to the German Gas Society, Mr. Herapel 
calls attention to the high price of large retort carbons as used 
ill electrolytic processes, and suggests that it might be possible to manu- 
facture such plates in the retorts themselves, by supplying smooth flat 
surfaces on which the carbon is deposited ; it might be possible to intro- 
duce the contact wires in the plates during the process of their formation.' 

Death tiy l'.lcctricil\ — Dr.d' Aisonval, in a communication to the 
Paris .^cndemy of Sciences, -states that death from the electric cur- 
rent is like that in drowning, and is often only apparent; in such cases 
the treatment should, therefore, be like in cases of drowning; he 
believes that the criminals executed electrically in New York are really 
alive, and die only in the absence of restoratives. He cites the case of a 
workinan in St. Denis who was subjected to 4. .500 volts, and was restored 
to consciousness in a short time, although he had been left three-quar- 
ters of an hour under the supposition that he was dead. He was restored 
by artificial respiration. 

liaclcriology. — According to a note in "Cosmos," June 2. Prof. Ward, 
in a Royal Institute paper, shows that light rays and not heat rays 
are what kill bacteria; also that among the different colored rays the 
blue are the most effective. 

Saturn's Kings. — A note in "La Nature," May 19, discusses the 
possibility of the maintenance of these rings by the magnetic action of 
that planet, supposing that the rings are composed partly of a dia-mag- 
nelic substance ; it is thought possible that the magnetic field of that 
planet is 100 times as great as that of the earth. 



Jl LY 7, 1894. 



THE ELECTRICAL W^ORIvI>. 



15 



New Books. 



THE PRINCiri.KS OK ELUrTIC AND HYPERBOLIC ANALYSIS. By Alex- 
ander Macfarlane, M.A., D. Sc, LL-D. Boston: J. S. Cushiug & Co. 47 pages, 
IS diagrams. Paper. Price 50 cents. 

This pamphlet, like the one by the same author "On the Definitions 
of the Trigonometric Functions," already reviewed in these columns, is 
H reprint of a paper read before the Mathematical Congress at Chicago, 
Aug. 24, 1H<)3, with the addition of new matter relating to the trigonome- 
trj- of the general ellipsoid and hyperboloid. The work is another con- 
tribution to the system of vector analysis developed by the author, being 
the fifth publication on the subject. The part of the subject here treated 
is the extension of the versor analysis from the simpler cases pertaining 
to the circle, equilateral hyperbola and logarithmic curve, which were 
treated in the preceding papers, to the more complex cases involved in 
the geometry of the sphere, the general ellipsoid and the general hyper- 
boloid. 

The author aims to construct a system to take the place of the Hamil- 
tonian quaternious, to be at once simpler (that is, less inscrutable) and 
more rational and logically consistent with the rest of mathematics. In 
this we are inclined to think he has succeeded {although it must not be 
thought that his method can be mastered without patient study), and he 
certainly shows power as an original and independent thinker. 
NOTES. 

We have received a pamphlet entitled "The Coming Railroad; the 
Chase-Kirchner Aerodromic Sj'Stem of Transportation," which describes 
a system of transportation denoted as a "compromise between the present 
railroad and aerial navigation." One of the inventors is Lieut. George 
N. Chase, of the United States Army. 

The system consists of an elevated iron structure with four girder rails 
and two trolley conductors for a single-track road. The driving wheels 



planes) the weight so compensated for may be left out of further consid- 
eration, and "if the grade should be too steep for the remnant of the 
weight to preserve the requisite traction, suificient artificial friction can 
be generated by the air pumps and friction wheel beneath the car." 

As the driving wheels, however, run upon the upper rails, it is not 
made clear how any driver beneath the car will maintain the requisite 
traction when the planes lift the car or even tend to lift it. It is well 
known to locomotive engineers that the higher the speed tlic greater 
must be the traction. There is a disclaimei to any advantage of the 
aeroplanes for straight roads, in which case thesystera would be an elec. 
trie elevated railroad, using four rails instead of the ordinary two. The 
pamphlet is interesting for the statistical railroad data and atmospheric 
resistance tables which it gives, as well as for its discussions of the 
principle laid down by Langley, Maxim and others in relation to aero- 
planes.- -(St. Louis, Mo.) 

The Proceedings of the Electrical Society of Cornell University for 
1894 contain a number of papers on various electrical subjects, most of 
which are resumes or reviews, and apparently represent studies supple- 
mentary to the college text book course. The titles areas follows: "Lead 
Secondary Batteries," "The Counter Electromotive Force of the Voltaic 
Arc," "The Design and Construction of Power Stations, " "Pow-er Station 
Switchboards," "Feeder .Systems," ';^he Development of the Incan- 
descent Lamp, " "High Speed Electric Railroading," "Notes on Some 
of the Work of Nikola Tesla," "The Tesla High Frequency Phenomena," 
"Long Distance Transmission of Power." In almost all of the papers 
the subject is historically treated, and in many references are made to 
various sources of information, in most ca=es authoritative ones. The pres- 
ent brochure is the first issued by the Electrical Society, which was organ- 
ized on Nov. 20, 1893, and whose meetings for the reading of papers and 
discussion of live topics are held semi-monthly. This first volume of its 
publications gives promise that the society will fulfill the hope of its 




New Home of the Central Electric Company. -Bookkeeping Department. 



with direct connected electric motors, run upon the upper girder rails, 
while idle wheels are arranged beneath the lower girder rail, and controlled 
by compressed air for use in case of necessity to prevent derailment and 
also to brake the car by throwing the wheels into contact with the rails, 
and at the same lime into contact with a brakeshoe on the car body. 
The projectors undertake the construction of a car which will be able 
to "run upon the air" at great speed, guided by a track and supplied by 
electric power from central stations. For this purpose they have sets or 
banks of adjustable aeroplanes, the area of which may vary for different 
kinds of cars, from 2,000 to 4,000 square feet; the adjustment of their 
pitch is regulated by the engineer in charge. It is proposed to introduce 
grades when necessary to avoid lateral curves and utilize the planes for 
assisting them over grades by lifting the cars to the extent of the lift of 
the aeroplanes. They argue that if on a grade the maximum lift for a 
level can be maintained by calling into action a reserve of power (the 



founders, if indeed it does not already do so, of ranking "among the 
foremost engineering societies in .•Vmerican universities. " — (Ithaca, N. Y.) 



The New Mome of the Central Electric Company. 



The history of every successful concern is one of change, a gradual 
evolution from small beginnings to the greater proportions which ma- 
turity and prosperity bring. With the growth of business there comes 
the necessity for more convenient and commodious quarters. Starting 
with very humble accommodations, the successful company soon finds 
itself in a comfortable home. The well-known supply house, the Cen- 
tral Electric Company, of Chicago, affords a good illustration of this. 
The company has not only moved once, but thrice. .\t the time of 
its organization in 1887 it occupied small salesrooms on the second floor 



16 



THFC BI^BCTRICAU WORLD. 



Vol. XXIV. No. 1. 



:it .18 and 40 La Salle street. Tlic following year it moved only a short 
ilistance to 42 I<a Salle street, where it found more comfortable accom- 
modations. Two years later, however, these were found inadequate, 
and in J.inuary, 1890, the company again moved, this time to locate at 
116 and 118 Franklin street, which soon became a well-known center for 
electrical supplies. The rapid growth of the business, however, soon 
demanded another change. The company desired this time to choose a 
site that might serve as a moie permanent home, and after careful con- 
sideration, located at 173 and 17? Adams street. The Edison General 
lilcctric Co. , and later the General Klectric Company, formerly occupied 
this building. The Central Ulectric Company took possession in April 
List, after the building had been somewhat remodelled, and placed in 
good condition for its occupation. The location is a fine one, being 
accessible to the various depots and freight houses, and to the different 
cable lines, and situated in the central part of the business portion of 
the city. 

On the spacious ground floor of the building the offices, salesrooms 
and shipping department of the company are located. To the left of the 
main entrance are the offices, while the sales offices are on the right. 
Room has been provided for tlie display of many of the finer grades of 



are included among the stock of the company. Special facilities are 
provided whereby the shipment of goods is easy and rapid. Okonite 
wire is one of the commodities for which the company is widely known. 
Interior conduit is also one of the staple articles, and special provision 
has been made to illustrate this method of wiring by a .sample installa- 
tion on the main floor. 

To the effort-s of George A. McKinlock, the energetic president and 
general manager, the success of the company is in no small measure 
dtie. Mr. Charles K. Brown is the secretary of the company, and has 
been connected with it for several years. Tlie staff throughout is an 
able and efficient one. 



An Amateur's Practical Work. 



The result of a beginner's effort, is illustrated in a complete little elec 
trie lighting plant, designed, constructed and installed, unassisted, by 
Mr. G. K. Dunton, of Augusta, Maine. The accompanying illustrations 
are taken direct from photographs of the machines and switchboard. 
Becoming interested in the elementary principles of applied electricity, 
Mr. Duntonjiaturally read and studied such"literature5treating^this'sub- 




New Home of the Central Electric Company.— Retail Department. 



goods in show cases, an<l on sami)le tables. Sample fi.xtures of \arious 
kinds will be shown in a room which is being fitted up for that purpose 
for a fi.vlure department. The rear of the main floor is occupied by the 
shipping department, and an alley at the back of the building makes it 
convenient for loading and unloading trucks. The elevator is so situated 
that goods from the different floors may be loaded directly from the ele- 
vator to the tnick. The president's office is readily accessible, but at 
the same time, of course, has the desired privacy. 

The various departments are each in charge of an experienced sales- 
man, who is able to furnish infonnation to customers in regard to his 
own department,, and who is familiar with the methods of manufacture 
and the condition of trade in his particular line. 

W. H. Huddlestone is in charge of the motor department, the companj- 
being the agents for the well-known Lnndell motor. The hou.se goods 
department, including hotel and office electrical goods, is in charge of 
W. K. Pinckard. .\ complSe line of annunciators, bells, batteries, etc.. 



jeet as came within his grasp, with a itsult that he has, with a small 
lathe and a few tools, constructed the ajjparalus shown herewith. The 
dynamo is of the two-pole, double-magnet tyl>c, with a .series wound 
field, and cores eight inches long. The cap.acity is 20 amperes, at^f^ 
volts. Tlie weight of the dynamo complete is 156 pounds, giving an 
electrical efficiency of 6.41 watts per pound of metal used in construc- 
tion. The total height is 18 inches from floor to top of eye-bolt, and the 
.space occupied by the base 10*y 15 inches. The little motor on 55 
volts, and from nine-tenths to two and one-half amperes, develops over 
one-eighth of a commercial horse-power, and has driven two sewing 
machines, a large planing machine, and a thirty-six inch grindstone, 
for business, starting each from a standstill. It will drive a twelve- 
inch, six-bladed ventilating fim, placed directly on the shaft, in place of 
the pulley, at 3,500 revolutions per minute. It is compound wound, of 
the two-pole, double-magnet type, the core being made from a piece of 
two and oue-half inch, ordinary steam pipe, two and one-half inches 



July 7, 1894. 



THE KLECXRICAL WORLO. 



17 



long. The total h: 
of the base to the 



■ight is five 
top of the 



and three quarters inches from the bottom 
eye -bolt. The base occupies a floor space 




.'Xmateur Dynamo and Motor. 

of four and one-half by five and three-quarters inches. The motoi 
weighs, complete, nine and three quarters pounds. 

The simplicity of construction, positive action and sensitive balance 




Amateur Switchboard and Instriimrnt.s. 

are marked features of the instruments, and highly creditable. The 
volt-meter (at the left, on the switchboard) has a range of from 
to 60 volts. The meter, on the extreme right, as adjusted, has a capacity 
of 60 amperes. Both these instruments have direct reading scales, and 
are positively dead beat in action, no springs or geais being used in 
their movements. The circuit tell-tale, or alarm indicator(in the center) 
will automatically ring a continuous alarm upon any unusual interrup- 
tion of the current in the circuit. The bell is rung moderately on an 



open circuit, but violently upon too much current or a short circuit, and 
will continue ringing until relieved or switched out. The adjustment 
is for 20 incandescent lamps ; should one -more be turned on, the alarm 
will sound. The movement of this instrument is so sensitive in adjust- 
ment that when the arc lights are thrown into circuit, the pointer will 
show the least variation in the arc, hardly perceptible to the eye. The 
pointers in these instruments are hung on pivoted balances. The scales 
are of white enamel on copper. The switches are laid on slate bases, 
and their alignment is good. The double-throw is of original design, 
called the "quick-lightning." The rheostat is in a fire-proof, iron and 
slate box. It contains about 810 feet. No. 16 iron wire, divided into 
100 coils. The .segments to which the coils connect are all "cold-chis- 
elled" out from three-sixteenths sheet copper and filled up. 

Mr. Dunton in all his construction has displayed much ingenuity; 
without any instruction or previous experience, he drew his own plans, 
made all patterns required for castings used, shaped and fitted all parts 
(as far as machinery at his disposal would permit), and did all his 
winding unaided. 

A Compact Plant. 



The accompanying illustration shows one of the four compact plants 
which the General Electric Company has recentU- installed in the Man- 




,\ C()Mi'.\cT Plant. 

hattan Life Insurance Building, New York. It consists of a six-pole, 25- 
kilowatt, 300-revolutioii iron-clad generator, connected to the shaft of 
an Armington & Sims vertical 40-h.p., 9 54 x 10 inch engine. The other 
three consist of 50-K.W. generators, and 30-h.p. engines. 

These small direct connected generating sets are now being built in 
large numbers by the General Electric Company at its Schenectady 
works, the demand for them having become very urgent. They occupy 
but comparatively little space, and this feature alone would recommend 
them highly for all isolated plant or marine work ; they are solidly and 
substantially reliable, and wherever they have been installed have given 
perfect satisfaction. 



Electric Alarm and Pressure Gage. 



The object of the invention we illustrate, manufactured by The E. G. 
Bernard Company, Troy, N. Y., is to provide an electric alarm signal 
or high or low pressure that can be atached to all forms of pressure gages. 
At the same time, it is provided with a simple means of testing the gage 
and signal apparatus to see if they are in working condition at all times. 



18 



XHK ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



Vol.. XXIV. No. 1. 



Fig. 1 is a view of Uie face of a common form of a pressure grage pro- 
vided with the alarm attachment. The small lever or finger to the right, 
if pressed either up or down, will test the gage in either direction for 




Fig. 1. — Ai..\RM AND Prk.ssiire 0.\gf.. 



high or low alarms, thus showing that both the gage spring and the 
electric signal apparatus are in perfect order. The value of this attach- 
ment is obvious, as any device of this kind, which cannot be easily and 




Fig. 2. — Di.\GR.\M of Connection.s. 

constantly tested is always held in distrust on account of actually increas- 
ing instead of diminishing danger. 

Fig. 2 is a diagram of connections, which makes evident the simplicity 
of the system. Besides its use on steam boilers the gage is peculiarly 
adiyjted for both wet and dry sprinkler .systems, both to indicate if the 
apparatlis is in working order and give an alarm in case of leaks. 



The Waterhouse Electrolytic Meter. 



to the differential action of the two cells; a special tlevice is added 
which cuts off the shunt current when all the lamps are turned out, and 
starts it again as soon as one of the lamps is turned on ; only pure water 
is used in refilling the cells, and this is required only once every three 
months. Several other arrangements differing in the connections 



The i>rinciple of the Waterhouse electrolytic meter, which has 
recently been brought out, is shown in the accompanying illustrations, 
Figs. 1 and 2. IClcctroly.sis of a 12 per cent, solution of sulphuric acid 
takes place beneath a suspended glass bell jar, having a siphon attached 
to the top as shown; as the gases are collected the bell jar rises, and 
when the quantity of gas is sufficient to force the liquid out of the 
siphon tube, the gases will discharge themselves through this tube, the 
bell jar will sink, and in doing so will register on a suitable integrating 
device, which will, therefore, register the number of times that the gas 
collector has been filled and emptied. As the loss of voltage in the 
meter is limited to i).^ volts, which is too little for electrolysis, the 
current for producing electrolysis in the meter is taken from the positive 
main, as shown in Fig. 2, passes through a resistance of 1,200 ohms, 
then divides, passing through two of these electrolytic measuring devices 
1 and 2, and thence to the points, x, and, y, at the extremities of the 
resistance R. thiougli which the main current to be measured passes, 
the maximum dilTercnce of potential between x and y being 0.5 volts; 
the meters 1 and 2 operate dilTerentially, only their diiTcrcncc being 
registered ; when no current is required for the lamps, the same current 
will pass through the two meters, and nothing will be registered, but 
when a current passes through R to the lamps, a difference of potential 
will be produced between, x, and, y, which will cause one meter to regis- 
ter more than the other, the difference, which is shown on the dial, 
being then a measure of the current in the main circuit. By this device 
any effect due U* clianges of resistance caused by heat, or change in the 
specific density of the liquid, are counteracted, and thereby some of the 
chief difficulties of electrolytic meters are overcome ; owing to the dif- 
ferential action, extreme sensitiveness is obtained, besides a great range; 
it is free from complications of resistances or parts requiring careful 
measurements ; is easy to calibrate and cheap to construct. A change 
in the voltage of the mains does not materially affect the meter, owing 




O^ 



UlWJ! 

Fic.s. 1 .\ND 2. — Electrolytic Meter. 

between the cells and the mains are described and illustrated in the 
foreign journals, but the form shown in Fig. 2 herewith is the 
one which will probably be adopted, as it has very important 
advantages over the others. It is also proposed to apply this volta- 
meter principle for producing non^wasteful shunts, safety shunts for 
series motors run at constant current circuits, etc. 



A Mammoth Armature Star. 



In the accompanying illustration is shown one of a pair of probably 
the largest armature stars or carriers in the world. A pair of them 
have recently been made by the Wells & French Companj", for the 
Siemens & Halske Electric Company, of America, who will install 
them at Toronto, Ontario, for street railway ser\'iee. 

The machines when completed will weigh about hO tims each, and 
tv of 1200 kw. or 1600 electrical h. p. each, under 




.•\ T^.VKC.K .\RM.\Tl'RE ST.XR. 

500 volts pressure, and will be over-compounded for 12 per cent, drop 
in the lines. They are to be directly connected to a pair of horizontal 
cross compound condensing engines making HO turns per minute. 

The armature stars are 1.1 feet in diameter, and weigh something over 
U) tons each. The brush carriers will be about 14 feet (i inches in diam- 
eter, being made by the same concern. The castings came from the 
mouUl absolutely perfect, without a warp, crack, fiaw or blow lu)le, and 
are now being finished for the armature. 



Jfi.v 7, 1S04. 



XHE KLBCXRICAL WORLD. 



19 



FINANCIAL INTELLIGENCE. 



The Electrical Stock Market. 



New York, June 30, 1894. 

THE ELECTRICAL STOCK MARKET, ill coimiion with all speculative mar- 
kets, is apparently awaiting the distribution of the large dividend and interest 
payments on July 1, before developing any decided turn to quotations. Just at 
present there is no appreciable outside interest to speculation, but it is argued 
that a new impetus must be given to all kinds of securities by the endeavor to 
place the large July disbursements— New York, Boston. Philadelphia and Chi- 
cago are expected to pay out on that date something like $125,0()0,000— renumera- 
tively, and, while traders are disposed to feel bearish on one or two securities, 
the odds just now are all against any continued bear campaign. 

AMERICAN BELL TELEPHONE has furnished the chief topic of gossip and 
thought in financial electric circles, by rea.son of the veto by Governor Green- 
halge,.of Massachusetts, of the bill permitting the company to increase its 
capital stock to SBO,000,000, and the refusal of the Massachusetts Legislature 
to pa.ss the bill over the veto. The Governor's action was. to put it 
mildly, unexpected. To the friends of the Bell Company the veto came like 
a thunderbolt from a clear sky, as it was thought that, after the approval given 
by the Legislature to the matter, the Governor would not block the way. Specu- 
lative sentiment condemns the Governor; naturally so, as it effectually wipes 
out a good many "plums, " long and fondly anticipated. Public sentiment on 
the matter is divided, though there is a general disposition to regard the veto as 
a wholesome check to a species of legislation hardly in accord with the safest and 
most conservative modern ideas. The effort to secure the legislation to allow it to 
issue some $30,000,000 new stock to stockholders, 'at par, has cost the American 
Bell Telephone Company a pretty penny. It is current gossip that $250,000 were 
expended in lobbying and other necessary means of "expediting" legislation. 
This is now all clear loss. On the day when the Governor's veto was made 
public the stock closed at 303. On Wednesday morning it opened at 190, a loss 
over night of 12 points. It went down further to 18S, but recovered later on, and 
is now 195, a net loss for the week of 7 points. There is no real reason why the 
stock should sell much lower. It can still earn and pay 3 per cent, quarterly, 
although business just now is not over good. This is proved by the statement 
of iustrument output for the month ending June 30. which sliows: Gross output, 
9.126; returned, 6,316: net, 2,810; a decrease of 1,668. Since December 20, the 
record for six months shows: Gross output. 41,025: decrease, 11.324; returned 
34,605; increase, 6,761; net output, 6,330; decrease. 1,S,08S. 

GENERAL ELECTRIC, though not very ptominent in the tradings, has been 
strong at odd times divring the week on covering of short contracts. The bears 
have become disgusted with their inability to create a serious depression in the 
stock's price, and have determined to close out their contracts. This has lead to 
some buying, enough at all odds to lend a species of firmness to quotations. People 
wlio are bullish on the stock say that, when the whole stock market turns, Gen- 
eral Electric will be one of the leaders. They point to its increasing business; 
llie contract to equip the Chicago Metropolitan Elevated Railroad being particu- 
larly profitable, and general trade, especially the item for supplies and re- 
panies, being also very good. With every note paid 



nrwals tr) subordinate c 
ami with SI>I)0,01X) cash c 
unusually strong finani 
favorable opportunity i 



II hand, the General Electric Company has assumed an 
al position, and is now able to take advantage of every 
1 the electrical trade that may present itself. Apropos 
of the recent sharp advance noted in the stock, a pretty piece of gossip conies 
from Boston. It is asserted that the little boom was largely due to buying for 
the account of people who had the tip that some sort of an alliance with the 
Westinghouse Company was shaping. As the story goes, they held patiently on 
to their purchases, awaiting developments; but, as these did not materialize, and 
as the officials on both sides hastened to deny the existence of any negotiations 
1 > )king to any such consolidation, the people who had loaded up unloaded again 
and at a loss. And now there are some people down East whO-are very sore 
and whose belief in the value of "outside tips" has been rudely shaken. No 
importance is attached here to the receivership of the Western Electric Com- 
pany, as all it owed to the General Electric Company was well secured. 

WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC common stockholders continue to be regaled, 
as a sort of antidote for their disappointment at not receiving this time the long 
expected quarterly dividend with stories of big business and prosperity. Last 
month's manufacturing output is stated to foot up about $550,000. with orders re- 
ceived for about the same amount of new apparatus. From headquarters conies 
cunfirmation of the statement made in these columns two weeks ago, that an 
active campaign was contemplated in the local electric lighting field in New 
York city. The district is to be flooded with the new lamps now being turned 
out at Briuton at the rate of 4.000 a day by reason of the success of the new glass 
works. The lamps will be offered at 25 cents to users of Westinghouse appa- 
ratus, with a discount of 30 per cent, for large tots, the value of the return bulb 
being placed at 4 cents, instead of 10 cents. When the new factory is in com- 
plete operation by October 1, next, it will have a capacity of 30.000 lamps. There 
have just been bought at Brinton 14 more acres of land, making 37 acres for the 
new works, and everything will be complete by the date specified. The pay roll 
of the company is said to show a continuous increase. 

FT. WAYNE ELECTRIC matters still occupy some prominence, though there 
is absolutely nothing doing in the stock. It is charged that the old company has 
not, as asserted, sold out to the Ft. Wayne Electric corporation, and some inter- 
esting developments are awaited when one or two ♦opposing stockholders will 
take the whole matter to the courts for ventilation. 

THE STRB;prr railway & ILLUMIN.VriNO PROPERTIES have purchased 
another 507 shares of preferred stock at an average price of 98.6 per cent., and 
are in the market for more. 

WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH is absolutely featureless, though there are 
rumors of a bull pool being formed to lift the stock at an early date into activity 
and higher prices. 

THE INTERIOR CONDUIT AND INSULATION CO. have declared a 5 per 
cent, scrip dividend, which is convertible into fully paid capital stock. The 
transfer books will be closed at 3 p. m. July 16, and the dividend will be paid 
August I, 1894. This is the first dividend of the company, and it is somewhat of a 
surprise to the .stockholders. The company has been doing aii excellent business 
in fan motors and other of its specialties, so that it was supposed a good cash div- 
idend would be declared. The sales on one day last week, for instance, amounted 



to 345 fan motors, and in addition 30 motors of a large size. The directors say 

that while the company has earned enough to pay about 10 per cent., it is con- 
sidered best to use the money in the business and in accumulating a surplus. 

ELECTRICAL STOCKS. 

Par. Bid. Asked. 

Brush III., New York .50 10 30 

Cleveland General Electric Co IIX) 80 90 

Detroit Electrical Works 10 3 4 

Ea.st River Electric Light Co 100 ~ 50 

* Edison Electric III., New York 100 99 100 

* " " " Brooklyn 100 101 102 

Bo.ston 100 116 115 

Chicago 100 135 145 

* " " " Philadelphia >';' 100 128 130 

Edison Electric Light of p:urope 100 1 3 

Edison Ore Milling 100 10 15 

Electric Construction & Supply Co., coin ........ 15 IS 17)^ 

pref. ...••... IS IS 17)6 

Fort Wayne Electric 100 1 2 

General Electric 100 36 36)^ 

Interior Conduit & Ins. Co 100 45 55 

Mount Morris Electric 100 25 SO 

Westinghouse Consolidated, com SO 35 36 

pref SO .50^; S\V, 

BONDS. 

Edison Electric 111., New York 1.000 KV.J-i 107 

Edi.son Electric Light of Europe 194 75 85 

General Electric Co.. deb. 5's LOW) 8(.!4 St,?:} 

TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE. 

American Bell Telephone 100 195 1% 

American District Telegraph KID — 45 

American Telegraph & Cable UK) 88 89 

Central & South American Telegraph li»i 105 110 

Commercial Cables !"<» 125 — 

Gold & Stock Telegraph mo 102 104 

* Mexican Telegraph loo I'H) 200 

* Western Union Telegraph li"i 83 .^ 83% 

*Ex. div. 



New Incorporations, 



THE DRAWBAUGH TELEPHONE COMP.\NY, Boston, Mass., capital stock 
$10,000,000, has been incorporated. 

THE NORTH JERSEY STRP:f:T RAILWAY' COMPANY', Newark, N. J., cap- 
ital stock $5,000,000, has been incorporated. 

THE OHIO HARRISON .TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION COMPANY, Nor- 
walk, O.. capital stock $30,000, has been incorporated. 

THE ELECTRIC MEDICAL ASSOCIATION OF WEST VIRGINIA. Wheeling, 
W. Va., has been incorporated with a capital stock of $5,000. 

THp; CORAOPOLIS p:lECTRIC LIGHT COMPANY. Coraopolis, Pa., capital 
stock $5,000, has been incorporated by W. H. Guy and others. 

THp; ROGERS PARK LIGHTING COMP.\NY. Chicago, III., capital stock 
$30,000, has been incorporated by Henry Heistand and others. 

THE PHILADELPHIA & TRENTON STREET RAILWAY COMPANY, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., capital stock $150,000, has been incorporated. 

THE ELECTRIC FIRE PROOFING COMPANY'. New York, capital stock 
$150,000, has been incorporated by Edwin A. Bradley and others. 

THE COVER CURRENT MOTOR COMPANY, Everett. Wash., capital stock 
$100,000, has been incorporated by John M. Cover and M. O. Tibbits. 

THE ECONOMIC ENGINE COMPANY. Chicago, 111., capital stock $UX1.0tX). has 
been incorporated to manufacture electric motors and engines, etc. 

THE ROXBOROUGH, CHESTNUT HILL & NORRISTOWN TR.^CTION COM- 
PANY', Philadelphia, has been incorporated with a capital stock of $S.O(X>. 

THE MICHIGAN HARRISON TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION COMP.\NY. 
Grand Rapids, Mich., has been incorporated with a capital stock of $50,000. 

THE INFINITY MANUFACTURING COMPjiNY', New Y'ork, capital stock 
$4,0<X), has been formed to manufacture dry batteries. J. J. Solomon, 59 East 
111th street, Davis B. Hart, 146 West 48th street, and J. I. Hart, 47 West 56th 
street. New York, are the promoters. 

THE CLEVELAND & ELYRIA RAILWAY COMP.A.NY. CI< 
stock $100,000, has been formed to build and operate a street 
ated by electric or other motive power, etc. B. F. Phinney, J; 
Coffinberry, J. M. Gasser and Dallas Beebe are the organizers. 

KANSAS CITY ELECTRIC STREET RAILWAY COMPANY, Kansas City, Kan. 
capital stock $1,000,000, has been formed to construct and operate a street railway 
E. L. Luggren, Benj. Jones, Ozone Park, N. J. ; F. B. Wilcox, Kansas City, Mo. 
L. Hummel. West Chester, Pa. ; J. F. Parrott, R. A. Kope and P. F. Spickler, o 
Kansas City, Kan., are interested. 

THE LEAVENWORTH ELECTRIC RAILRO.\D COMP.\NY, Leavenworth 
Kan., capital stock $300,000, has been formed to construct and operate a railroat 
by steam, electricity, or other motive power; also telegraph and telephont 
lines. The promoters are W. D. Bethel, Memphis. Tenn. ; N. H. Smith, Boston 
Mass., and Newman Erb. New York. 

^^CIAL CORRESPONDENCE. 

New York Notes. 



eland, O.. capital 
ailway to be oper- 
-■ Comstock. H. D. 



Okfice of The Electrical Wokld, 
253 Broadway. New York, July 3, 1894. 

NIKOLA TESL.4 has received the degree of M. A. from Yale College. 

THE RUGGLES-COLES ENGINEERING COMPANY', 29 Cortlandt street, 
agents for the Pittsburg Gage Co., is meeting with very gratifying success 
with water columns and gage cocks, especially for n.se in electric light plants. 

L. .\UERB.\CHER, of the Automatic Electrical Speciality Company. 136 
Liberty street. New York, has recently been appointed agent for the sale of the 
New Beacon lamp. Mr. Aucrbacher reports business exceedingly good in all his 
specialties. 

H. G. ISSERTEL, late manager of the street railway department of the A. 
B. C. Company, has accepted a position with the H. W. Johns Manufacturing 



20 



THE EI^ECTRICAL W^ORLU. 



Vol.. XXIV. No. 1. 



Company. Mr. Issc-.tc-1's lliorough knowledge of the street railway and general 
electrical trades will have through this connection a fine field for its exercise. 

T. J. MURPHY & CO., 136 Liberty street, have recently made an addition to 
its factory, 810 Greenwich street, this city, where the coinpany will keep a 
large stuck of slate and marble constantly on hand, which can be cut to the re- 
quired size. This new departure has been made in order to provide for its cus- 
tomers who may not be able to wait long enough to get what they require from 
the quarry. 

MR THOS A. EDISON met with a severe accident last week which, though 
causing considerable suffering, fortunately entailed no serious consequences. 
While sitting on a porch the hind legs of his chair slipped over the edge, 
throwing Mr. Edison backward to the ground several feet below. Owing to his 
weight the fall might have been fatal, and at one time it was thought that some 
internal injury had been received: after several days' confinement to his room. 
however, Mr. Edison is rapidly convalescing. 



New England Notes. 

Branch Oi'i-icis of Thk Electkicai, World,) 
Room 91, Hathaway Huilding, 030 Atlantic Ave., (- 
BOSTON, Mass., June 30, 1894. ) 
Tin; riil'TINOELL-ANDRKWS COMPANY. Boston, Mass., have recently 
added to their varied list of specialties those of the Hillings & .Spencer Co., of 
Hartford, Conn., for the Eastern district, and have already secured several very 
large orders for the well-known commutator bars manufactured by this com- 
pany. Oeiieral Manager Price reports business generally as being unusually good. 
The motor department is making an extrao.^iuarily good showing, and .so is the 
railway department, quite a number of good-sized contracts for overhead equip- 
ments having been booked recently. 



Canadian Notes. 



!30. 



OTTAWA. Ju 

ST. JOHN. N. B.— The St. John Electric Street Railway has elected the follow- 
ing directors: Sir Wm. Van Home, president; James Ross, J. J. Tucker, H. P. 
Timmernian and H. H. McLean. 

HAMILTON.— At a meeting of the directors of the Hamilton Street Car Com- 
pany it was decided to try the experiment of a limited Sunday car service. For a 
few Sundays about half the regular number of cars will be run from 10 to 1, 
from 2 to S. and from 6 to 10. 

OTTAWA. ONT.— At a meeting of the Railway Committee of the Dominion 
Parliament, an act to incorporate the New York, New England & Canada Com- 
pany was adopted. The preamble of the bill to incorporate the Boynton 
Bicycle Electric Railway Company, projected to run from Winnipeg to Lbuis- 
burg. Cape Breton, was adopted. The further consideration of the bill was 
adjourned until the promoter was able to give fuller information. 

OTTAWA, ONT. —Letters patent have been issued to Messrs. David Maclaren, 
of Ottawa, lumber merchant ; Alexander Maclaren. of Buckingham, lumber 
merchant, as the Gibbs-Franchot-Maclaren Company, the works to be on the 
Lievre River, to manufacture and produce chlorates, acids, alkalis and other 
things. Their charter gives them power to operate mines, electric light and to 
manufacture packages and keys, the capital stock to be $50,000. 

OTTAWA. ONT. -A meeting of the directors of the Chaudiere Electric Light 
Company was held in the office of Messrs. Ahearii & Soper, Monday evening. 
A dividend of 8 per cent, was declared, payable on July 1. The annual report 
showed that there were 26.000 lights in operation, and that 8,000 had been 
installed during the year. The board was re-elected as follows; G. P. Brophy 
W. Y. Soper. J. W. McRae. T. Ahearn, T. Workman. Robert Hurdman. W. G. 
Hurdman. William Scott and William Hutcheson. 



English Notes. 

(From our own Correspondent.) 

London, June 20, 1894. 

HLKCTRTC KAILWAVS IN LONDON,- Work on the electric railway, which 
will run from Waterloo under the Thames into the city, has been commenced. 

KLKCTRIC RAILWAY ENTERPRISE IN LONDON.— As I foreshadowed in a 
recent Iftler. the London County Council has succeeded in killing yet another 
scheme. By its injudicious insistance upon the insertion of onerous clauses in 
the bills of several schemes, they have already succeeded in maintaining the 
majority of these projects in a state of suspended animation. The British pub- 
lic is long-suffering, but it has not yet been disciplined into gratuitously provid- 
ing money for the comfortable carriaj;e of the Hvitish workman from his subur- 
ban residence to his daily labors. 

ELECTRIC LIOHTHOUSES.— Another instance of the failure of the electric 
light to pierce a fog was recorded at a recent Hoard of Trade inqnin* into the 
wreck of the steamship Jasper. This vessel was carried out of her course in a 
dense fog, and struck the rocks within 500 yards of the May Island electric light ; 
the glare of the light being only noticed two minutes before the vessel struck. 
The May Island light was erected about eight years ago, and in clear weather 
can be seen for a distance of 20 miles. A sailor who gave evidence at the in- 
quiry stated that on a previous occasion, when he was about a mile off the 
island, he could not see the electric light, although he could .see the oil light on 
the P'ifeshire coast, 2% miles off. 

NEWS OF THE WEEK. 



Telegraph and Telephone. 

PITTSBURGH, PA.— The American Telephone Company has purchased a 
and will erect a three-story building for a telephone exchange. 

OCALA, FLA.— The Ocala Telephone Company has lieeu orgaiuze.! w 
a capital stock of JIO.CKX). J. C. Carlisle is president. 

ST. JOHNSVILLE, N. Y., is agitating the question of organizing a n 
telephone coinpany connecting different villages. 

BANGOR, ME.— It has been decided to build a telephone line from Gardii 



to Camden, thence to Bangor, and from there to Bar Harbor. The line to Cam- 
den will be entirely new, and from there to Bangor the old one will be rebuilt. 



Electric Light and Power. 



HAWKINSVII.LE, GA.— Address J. M. Burrows concerning electric light plant 
to be established. 

FRONT ROYAL, VA— Address the Mayor concerning J6.000 electric light plant 
to be established. 

FRANKLIN, O.— A movement is on foot to organize another electric 
light company. 

JOPLIN. MO— The Southwestern Electric Light and Power plant of Grand 
Falls is to be removed to Joplin. 

OSAGK, IOWA.— Fire, caused by spontaneous combustion, destroyed the 
plant of the Osage Electric Light Company. Loss, S50.000. with no insurance. 

I'ENSACOLA. FLA.— The [Citizens' Electric Light & Power Company. T. E. 
Welles, president, is in the market for an entire outfit for an electric light plant. 

SUMMIT, N. J —Summit capitalists are about to form a stock company 
and erect an electric light plant, which will cost $100,000 and have sufficient 
capacity to light Short Hills and Milburn. 

BROOKLYN. N, Y.— The Aldermanic Committee on I.,amps and Gas, Alder- 
man Walkley, chairman, is considering the proposition of the Municipal Electric 
Light Company to extend its .system over the entire city. 

CRANFORI), N. J.— Bids will be opened by the Township Committee for light- 
ing the streets of Cranford by either electricity or gas on July 9. The contract 
will be for two or five years, .and R. C. Plume is the town clerk. 

GRAND ISL.\ND. NEB— After July 10. unless something new turns up 
in the interval. Grand Island will be without the electric light. The Light & 
Fuel Co.'s contract expires July I, and its new bid has been rejected. 

LYONS. lA. — The Electric Light Committee was ordered to purchase the 
following supplies, which they reported as needed : 4,500 feet of line wire, one 
and a half dozen pulleys, one pair splicing pliers, one pair blocks, 300 wood 
insulating pins. , 

ROME. N. Y'. — Sealed proposals for lighting the streets with electric 
light will be received until August 6. Proposals must be for one. three and six 
years, for ISO arc lights, more or less, of 2,000 candle power each, R. S. Putnam 
is chamberlain. 

WASHINGTON, D. C— Plans have been prepared by T. f>. Schneider, 
Eighteenth and Q streets, for the erection of a $130,000 fire-proof hotel building 
for Judge A H. Lowery. An engine and dynamo for lighting will be placed in 
the buildftlg. 

HARRISBURG, PA.— The Tremont & Pinegrove Heat" & Power Co. has 
received its charter, and commenced work excavating for the erection of the 
plant, which will be located between Pinegrove and Tremont and will be run 
by water power. 

NORWOOD. PA.— Proposals for lighting the borough of Norwood with from 
SO to 100 lights for two years, from August 1, 1894, will be acted upon by the 
borough council. July 12. 1894. Address G. C. Skelton. secretary. Box 4". 
Norwood, Delaware Co., Pa. 

CRANFORD, N. J..— R. C» Plume, town clerk, may be addressed in regard to 
sealed proposals for lighting the streets on a two or five-years' contract, with 
either electricity or gas. Bids to be opened by the Township Committee at its 
meeting July 9 at 8 p. in. 

PALMYRA. N. Y.— At a meeting of the village Board of Trustees, the parties 
holding a franchise for erecting a plant in this place were given two weeks in 
which to decide whether they will erect the plant or not. In the former case 
work will be commenced at once, and a plant put in operation by September 1. 

WASHINGTON. D. C— Sealed proposals will be received until July 
6 for furnishing and delivering at the building for the Library of Congress 
about 90.000 feet of rubber-coated electric wire. Specifications, general condi- 
tions and instructions and blank forms of proposal may be obtained on applica- 
tion to Barnard R. Green, superintendent and engineer. 

MAUCH CHUNK, Pcnn.— The Mauch Chunk Heat, Power & Electric Com- 
pany has issued bonds for $20,000. and purchased two 23-iuch and one 24-inch 
.special McCormick horizontal turbines. It is the intention to add a 1.200-Iight 
alternator and a 60 h. p. I). C. generator, which will make the capacity of the 
plant .'.(XXl iucaiulesccnts, 60 arcs and 00 h. p. for power. 



The Electric Railway. 



JOPLIN. MO -The Joplin Eleclric7Railway & Motor Company is to extend its 
lines to Velena. 

STEVENS' POINT. WIS.— The Stevens Point Lighting Company is ask- 
ing for a franchise for a car system. 

Nf;w 0RLE.\NS. L.\.— The St. Charles Street Railway Company has applied 
for a franchise to change its motive power to electricity. 

AI.VIN. TF'X.— The building of an electrical railroad from .Mvin to Velasco is 
proposed. W. A. Rowan, of Alvin. can give information. 

CHATTANOOGA. TENN.— The Chattanooga Cotton Oil Company will put in 
an electric light plant to furnish its own light. Address G. E. Richmond. 

NEW CASTLf;, del— The New Castle and Wilmington electric railway will 
not be built under the charter granted at the last session of the Legislature. 

FORlvST CITY. P.\.— .\ttoriiey S. P. Weedman and Justice W. J. Maxey 
are interested in the proposed electric railroad to run from DundafT to Nicholson. 

ST. LOUIS, MO. — The St. Louis & Kirkwood Electric Railway Company has 
obtained a franchise to build an electric road. Address J. D. Hous for any 
information. 

CL.\YTON, MO.— A franchise has been granted to the Clayton & Creve Coenr 
Electric Railway Company to construct an electric road from Clayton to Creve 
Coeur Lake. Philip Denser is iiitereste<l. 

KINGSTON, N. Y.— Reed S: McKibben. the contractors who are building the 
Colonial Electric Railicid. to-day filed a $10,000 lien on the finished property of 
the citnipauy. 

J.VCKSON. TENN.— It is conteuiiilated to reorganize the Jackson & Suburban 



July 7, 1894. 



THE EI^ECXRICAL WORLD. 



21 



street Railroad Company, and change its road to electric power. P. J. Murray 
can be addressed. 

POWHATTAN. MO.— The Walbrook. Gwynn Oak & Powhaltan Railway has 
executed a mortgage for $100,000 to obtain funds to build and equip a single track 
electric railway. 

TROY, N. Y.— $15,000 has been subscribed to the stock of the proposed electric 
railroad from Troy to Sandlake. As soon as $35,000 shall have been subscribed 
other capitalists will furnish an equal sum. 

CLAYTON. MO.— The Clayton & Creve Cceur Electric Railway Company has 
obtained a franchise to construct an electric road. The president of the com- 
pany is Philip Dueser, who will give information regarding same. 

WASHINGTON. D. C— A project for an electric railroad between Wash- 
ngton and New York city has been brought before Congress in a bill for the 
incorporation of the National Rapid Transit Railway. Ex- Representative Hemp- 
hill, of South Carolina, is interested. 

BROOKYLN, N. Y.— An application has been made to the State Railroad Com- 
missioners by the Coney Island & Brooklyn Railroad Company, to substitute the 
trolley as a means of motive power on the line from Flatbush and Ocean 
avenues to Greenwood Cemetery. 

SPRINGFIELD. O.— General Manager S. L. Nelson, of the Springfield 
Street Railway Company, is securing estimates for improving the line. The 
proposed improvements are $40,000 for retracking, $15,000 for new machinery in 
the power house, $15,000 for new cars, and $5,000 for other expenses. 

PITTSFIELD, ME.— It is probable that the proposed electric railroad from 
Showhegan to Norridgewock will be built. The Worcester Construction Company 
ofier to build and equip the road all in first-class shape for $45,000. If the town 
will take $10,000 of the stock Mr. Gerald guarantees the building of the road. 

WATERTOWN, N. Y.— A certificate of consolidation of the Watertown 
Street Railway and the Watertown & Brownville Street Railway Company, form- 
ing the Watertown & Brownville Street Railway Co., capital $100,000, was filed 
with the Secretary of State in Albany. June 25. The directors are Byron B. 
Taggart, Senator Joseph MuUin and others. 

SYRACUSE, N. Y— The .Syracuse Street Railway Company has decided to 
extend its line to Solvay. and a contract has been signed. It was also decided 
that the company purchase 35 new electric cars and a contract will be made as 
soon as possible. Specifications and plans for a power house KM by 150 feet, 
with a capacity at the start of 1,500 horse power, have been 
of the plant will be 3.000 horse power. 



The ultimate 



Miscellaneous Notes. 



LOCOMOTIVE TESTING AT PURDUE UNIVERSITY is the subject of a 
pamphlet recently issued by that institution, briefly describing the facilities for 
that class of work which the university is now prepared to offer students. The 
pamphlet contains a number of views of the laboratories and locomotives, and 
it is evident that admirable facilities for locomotive testing are now offered by 
the engineering course. The engineering laboratory is in charge of Prof. Win. 
F. M. Goss. 

THE NORTHWESTERN ELECTRICAL ASSOCIATION will hold its Summer 
meeting in St. Paul July IS, 19 and 20. At the last meeting, held in Milwaukee, 
150 were present, and a larger number is expected at this meeting. Representa- 
tives from Illinois, Iowa. Michigan, Wisconsin and North and South Dakota 
have written they they will be present. An excellent programme has been pre- 
pared. Current will be furnished to illustrate lectures as well as to accommo- 
date exhibitors. Manufacturers and supply houses will be accorded every 
courtesy by the association. 



TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL NOTES. 

S. MORGAN SMITH, York, Pa., has sold to the Mauch Chunk (Pa.) Heat, 
Light & Power Co. two 23-inch and one 24-iiich McCormick special horizontal 
turbines. 

THE CHERRY' CHEMICAL COMPANY, manufacturers of the red seal boiler 
compound, has removed its main office to the Heed Building, 1215 Filbert .street. 



Philadelphia. In our last issue it was incorrectly stated that the removal was to. 
instead of from, the Betz Building. 

J. E. M'GILLIVRAY. 209 Sabine street, Austin, Tex., will shortly be in the 
market for a stock of elect' ical goods. Mr. M'Gillivray proposes to handle every- 
thing electrical, but most of his work will be in wiring and repairing for lights, 
bells and annunciators, and installing and repairing motors and fans. 

THE OHIO BRASS COMPANY, of Mansfield, O., has issued a neat price list 
of railway motor bearings. It includes all the different styles of bearings for 
the various types of railway motors, and makes a very attractive circular. This 
company is pushingjthis line of material actively, and is meeting with excel- 
lent success 

THE NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY, No. 1 Broadway, New York, has issued 
a little pamphlet on anti-friction or babbitt metals, containing technical as well 
as trade information on the subject. The babbitt metal of this company is made 
according to a standard formula, which it is guaranteed does not change to 
suit a price. 

THE 8TANLEY.ELECTRIC MANUFACTURING COMPANY, Pittsfield, Mass.. 
has issued a large" 60-page catalogue, devoted to the description of apparatus and 
system for the transmission of light and power by two-plant alternating currents. 
The explanatory portions have considerable technical value, and will be of 
assistance to those desiring to investigate this newer branch of electrical appli- 
cation. Every part of the system is well illustrated by excellent cuts, made by 
Bartlett & Co., and the paper, press-work and binding are in keeping with 
these, and the importance of the text. 

THE WESTON ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENT COMPANY. Newark, N. J.. 
has issued a fourth edition of its catalogue of the Weston standard portable, 
direct-reading voltmeters and ammeters, containing illustrations, price list, etc. 
Commendable features of the catalogue are the concise manner, devoid of the 
usual bombast of commercial publications, in which the merits of the instru- 
ments are presented, and the brief notes to assist in selecting instruments for 
desired uses. The testimonials in the final pages are such as but few manufac- 
turers in any branch of industry can boast of having received, whether the 
standing of the writers or their flattering comments are considered. 

THE BALL & WOOD CO. has again been successful in securing, through 
its secretary and treasurer, Mr. Vincent, one of the largest power con- 
tracts which has recently been placed. The order comprises six Ball & Wood 
improved cross compound condensing engines of 300 h. p. each, for the Hart- 
ford Street Railway Company, of Hartford, Conn. It is this type and make of 
engine which has proved efficient at the Grand Street station of the Consolidated 
Traction Company in Jersey City, where the duty has been most severe and the 
engines subjected to almost constant overloads of from 20 to SO per cent., pending 
the increase of the power plant. The factory of The Ball & Wood Co. has been 
running twenty-four hours per day since about June 1, and this Hartford con- 
tract will permit no diminution of its force for some weeks. 

THE PETTINGELL ANDREWS COMPANY, 72 Federal street, Boston, has 
issued a S2-page pamphlet, which will be found useful as a technical hand-book 
by street railway men. About half of the pnges are devoted to tables of useful 
information for the construction of electric railways. The first part contains 
tables relating to track construction, giving weights and other data relating to 
rails, rail fastenings, ties. etc. The second part takes up the electrical side and 
gives much detailed information on line construction and tables for the calcula- 
tion of line conductors, etc. The remainder of the pages contain illustrations 
and matter relating to the complete line of electric railway material, manufac- 
tured and sold by this enterprising firm. 



BUSINESS NOTICES. 



BATTERY CUT-OUT CHEAP.— Sensitive, reliable, never requires attention. 
Gas lighting much improved by its use. Elefctric Supply Company, of 105 South 
Warren street, Syracuse, N. Y. 

OPEN AND CLOSED CIRCUIT CELLS— The Haydeii carbon porouscup No. 1: 
the Hayden carbon porous cup No.2 cell; a Leclanche clay porous cup cell; a 
standard Fuller cell; a No. 2 Fuller cell; a single cylinder carbon cell; a double 
cylinder carbon cell. All reliable and eflicient, and at prices lower than ever. 
THE HAYDEN-BOOKER MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 214J DeKalb 
street, St. Louis, Mo. 



ILLUSTRATED RECORD OF ELECTRICAL PATENTS. 



U. S. PATENTS ISSUED JUNE 26, 1894. 
(In charge of Wm. A. Rosenbaum, 177 Times Building, New York.) 
11,423 (REISSUE). ELECTRIC BURGLAR ALARM; A. Stromberg, Chicago, 111. 
Application for reissue May 31, 1894. In an electric burglar alarm circuit, 
the combination with a flexible surface, of a series of pliable conducting 
strips, the strips being folded longitudinally and attached by one of the 
free ends thereof to the flexible surface, and electrical connections between 
the strips. 

521.798. ELECTRIC ARC LAMP; S P. Johnson. Schenectady, N. Y. Applica- 
tion filed December 20, 1892. This comprises an arm actuated by shunt spools, 
a lever linked to the arm at one end and the other end actuated by a series 
spool, in combination with a clutch linked to the lever near its centre a's 
described. 

521.799. ELECTRIC MOTOR; J. Lee. Brooklyn, N. Y. Application filed August 
2, 1893. This comprises elongated electro-magnets having cores and curved 
facing flanges, combined with a hollow speed regulator in the magnetic 
field, a revoluble armature within the regulator, commutator and commuta- 
tor brushes, the conductor being wound around from the obverse to the re- 
verse face of one of the cores and from the reverse to the ooverse of the other 
of the cores. 

521.800. SOUND CONDUCTING APPARATUS; G. A. Leech, New York, N. Y. 
Application filed August 19. 1893. This comprises a resonator having curves 
complementary to those of the ear. and adapted to be secured thereto, and 
an electrode attached thereto. 

531,808. PUSH BUTTON; J. P. McLaughlin, Philadelphia, Pa. Application 



filed March 22, 1893. This comprises a switch and spring tending to open 
the same, in combination with # push piece and intermediate mechanism 
for closing the switch, and a trip timed with reference to the intermediate 
mechanism to uncouple the switch from the latter when it arrives in the 
closed position, whereby the switch is automatically open after having been 
momentarily closed. 

.809. ELECTRIC LAMP LIGHTER; J. F. McLaughlin, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Application filed March 23, 1893. A lamp lighter composed of two electro- 
magnets, connected in series in a shunt around the lamp terminals, one fixed 
and the other constituting an armature for the first; a circuit breaking and 
making wheel in the lamp circuit actuated by the armature, and a push 
button or key in the shunt, at a distance from the lamp, tor closing and 
opening the shunt. 

1,843. RHEOSTAT; B. E. Baker, Bridgeport, Conn, .\pplicatioii filed No- 
vember 27, 1893. This comprises cores having screws extending from their 
ends and resistance wires wound around them and connected to the screws. 

1,867. CONTROLLER FOR ALTERNATING CURRENT M.\CHINES; E. B. 
V. Seaverns, Brookline, Mass. Application filed March 29, 1893. The com - 

' bination with an alternating current machine having a composite field, one 
winding of which is traversed by a continuous current and is in series cir- 
cuit with the main line traversed by the alternating current of a switch or 
circuit controller located in the field winding traversed by the continuous 
current. 

1,877. ELECTRIC ARC L.iMP; W. J. Davy, London, England. Application 
filed .\pril 14, 1894. A gravity friction device, consisting of a system of link. 



22 



THE KI^ECFRICAL WORI^D. 



Vol. XXIV. No. 1. 



pivoted together to form a closed frame, grip jaws tending to grip the feed- 
ing cord of the lamp, the jaws being attached to a jointed frame in such a 
position that they approach one another as the frame elongates in a vertical 
direction, a stop on which the lower end of the link frame rests, and means 
for determining the position of the npper end of the frame relatively to the 
stop, according to the resistance of the lamp. 

521.891. CONDUIT KLKCTRIC RAILWAY; C. J. Reed, Orange, N. J. Appli- 
cation filed April 14, 1892. A pair of positive and negative trolley wires 
located in a slitted conduit and crossing each other at intervals so as to form 
succeeding sections in alignment, and beneath the slit of the conduit. 

521.892. CONDUIT ELECTRIC RAILWAY: C. J. Reed, Orange, N. J. Appli- 
cation filed Ecbruary 13, 1893. A trolley consisting of a two-part trolley 
wheel, one of which parts is provided with an inwardly extending boss or 




No. 522,067. — Motor Suspension. 

projection, which constitutes the axle of the trolley, in combination with a 
trolley arm journaled upon the axle, and held between the two parts. 

521,906. MAGNETIC SEPARATOR; H. Carmichael, Maiden, Mass. Application 
filed November 29, 1893. The combination of a movable carrier or support 
and a magnet pivotally attached thereto, and a receptacle through which 
the magnet is pas.sed. 

521,908. AUTOMATIC SAFETY JOINT FOR ELECTRIC WIRES; J. H. Curry, 
Wilkinsburg, Pa. Application filed November 22. 1893. This consists of a box 
or support having two insulated anchorage pins, and two arms connected 
with the pins by a loose-slotted connection with supporting seats for sustain- 
ing the arms when under tension, and a bridge connection for the two arms 
tor electrically connecting them when supported by tension in these seats. 

521,914. FXEOTIMC StilJUvRING TOOL; J. F. McLaughlin. Philadelphia, Pa. 
Application (ilol M,i> D, 1S93. The combination of a heating coil and a per- 
forated inel.i^iiii; inanilL for the same, with means for controlling the radia- 
tion of heat tlirough the perforations. 

521,924. TRANSFORMER ELECTRIC-LIGHTING SYSTEM; Peter Wright, 
Philadelphia. Pa. Application filed December 9, 1893. In a transformer 
sy.stem of electrical distribution, mechanical and electrical devices for break- 
ing and making the primary circuit, and a manual switch and connections 
for cutting out, and in the secondary circuit, and for controlling the me- 
chanical and electrical devices. 
521, '»25. TRANSFORMER SYSTEM OF ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION; Peter 
Wright, Philadelphia, Pa. Application filed January 3, 1894. In a trans- 
former system of electrical distribution, a switch tending to make and break 
the primary and secondary circuits of a transformer and a thermostatic de- 
vice responding to changes in current and adapted to release the switch. 

521,936. ELECTRIC ARC LAMP; L. B. Marks, New York. Application filed 
March 30, 1894. An arc lamp having the arc surrounded by a transparent or 
translucent inclosure, and a plug in the inclosnre provided with a closely 
fitting opening for transit of the moving electrode, the opening being en- 
larged at an intermediate point for the purpose. 

521,952. ADJUSTABLE CARRIER FOR ELECTRIC LAMPS: R. Paries, De- 
catur, 111. Application filed February' 23. 1894. An arm for electric lamps, 
comprising a bracket or support, having an aperture, a rod, one end of 
which is curved and adapted to the aperture of the support, a lamp socket 
on the swinging end of the rod and a lamp cord or circuit wire connecting 
with the lamp socket through a longitudinal aperture in the rod. 

521.970. ACCUMULATOR PLATE: C. J. Barbier, Lyons. France. Application 
filed January 12, 1894. An improved accumulator plate, comprising a flat 
lead box for containing the active matty, the box having its opposite sides 
provided with alternately arranged pins overlapping or projecting past each 
other, the walls of the box having perforations opposite the points of the 
pins. 

521.976. THICKNESS GAGE FOR PAPER-MAKING MACHINES; O. W. Theo- 
dor Am Ende, Bad Harzburg. Germany. Application filed November 10, 
1893. This comprises an adjustable graduated slide, carrying a contact point, 
the means for adjusting the slide, the frame in which the slide is movable^ 
the arms pivoted in the frame and depending from their pivotal points, the 
cross bar at the lower ends of the arms opposite the end of the graduated 
slide and the contact carried thereby, and the roller carried by the depending 
arm to bear on the pulp cylinder to move the pivoted depending arms toward 
the graduated slide. 

522,022. THERMAL ALARM; H. F. Maxim, Norfolk. Va. Application filed 
August 31, 1893. The combination of the index, pivoted pointer, having a 
slotted heel, a thermostat bar actuating the pointer, and a bar adjustable on 
the thermostat bar, and having a projection lying in the slot. 

522.051. BRUSH HOLDER FOR DYNAMO f:lECTRIC MACHINES; R. Fuljer, 

Detroit. Mich. Application filed March 19, 1894. In a brush holder, the 

combination of a brush-holding socket, having the central transverse guide 

Searing thereon, a lateral arm extending from the socket, and adjustable 

laiulard in the end of the arm, and a spring secured in the standard, and 

dapted to engage in the guide bearing of the socket upon the luush. 

2. COMMUTATOR; J. D. Fyfe. Chicago, 111. Application filed April 14, 

>4. A commutator composed of segments insulated from each other and 



arranged in the form of a cylinder, and provided with an annular groove in 
the face or end thereof, a metallic assembling ring adapted to fit into the 
groove and insulated from the segment, caps located on opposite sides of the 
segments and insulated from them and the ring, the caps adapted to secure 
the assembling ring in the grooves of the segments. 

2,055. CIRCUIT-MAKER; D. F. Hall. Schenectady, N. Y. Application filed 
October 16, 1893, A circuit-maker, comprising a bracket, a support in arm piv- 
oted thereto, a battery receptacle having circuit wires secured thereto, and 
in which receptacle the elements forming the battery are held normally 
apart, and adapted to coalesce when rhe receptacle is inverted. 

2.057. TROLLEY STAND; E. F. A. Heastiugs, Avalon. Pa. Application filed 
April 12, IS'M. A trolley stand, comprising a base, adapted to be secured to 
a car, a pivot post mounted in the base, a bracket journaled on the pivot 
post and provided with upwardly extending arms, a .second bracket held in 
the arms of the first one and adapted to carry a pole, and bow springs con- 
necting the two brackets. 

2,067. MEANS FOR SUSPENDING ELECTRIC MOTORS FROM CARS; R. 
Lundell. Brooklyn. N. Y. Application filed September 4. 1893. A motor, 
sustained beneath the body or frame of a car upon yielding supports, with its 
armature shaft located in the direction of the length of the car and sprocket- 
chain gearing connecting the armature shalt with an additional rotary s.jaft. 
which in turn is geared through speed-reducing gearing to two independent 
car axles. (See illustration.) 

;2,083. DYNAMO OR MAGNETO ELECTRIC M.\CHINE; L. Paget. New 
York. Application filed June 20. 1889. This machine has a rotary part with 
projecting pole pieces in combination with a fixed or stationary part, having 
corresponding projecting pole pieces and a single coil wound about the fixed 
or stationary part. 

2,097. f;lECTRICALLY OPERATED ADDING MACHINE; R. Baumann. St. 
Louis. Mo. Application filed September 4, 1893. This machine has grouped 
within its casing in a horizontal line a series of electro magnets, each elon- 
gated in cross sections, and constructed with flat opposite sides closely ad- 
jacent, a series of adding disc spindles with ends adjacent the magnets, and 
in the same plane with them, mechanical connections for rotating the spin- 
dles when the magnets are energized, the last mentioned connections being 
also in the same horizontal plane as the magnets. 

2,113. ELECTRICALLY OPF:rATF:D REGISTER; S. J. Glass. Milwaukee 
Wis. Application filed October 23. 1891. A register of that class employed 
for counting the movement of a reciprocating, oscillating or rotary device or 
the successive production of various articles, the same comprising a series of 
counters geared in train to indicate arithmetical progression in the order of 
units, tens, and multiples of ten, a ratchet connected to the units counter, 
an actuating lever for the ratchet, another lever linked to the first mentioned, 
an armature carried by the second lever, an electro magnet for the attraction 
of the armature, and a supplemental electro magnet for the retraction of the 
armature, each of these electro magnets being in independent circuit and 
automatically cut out prior to the energization of the other. 

2,127. VOLTAIC BATTERY; H. Timin. New York. Application filed April 
19, 1894. This is composed of two ab.sorbent layers, enclosing a dry layer of 
a soluble electrolyte, a series of metallic plates of different polarity in close 




No. 522,151.— Heating Metals Electrically. 

contact with the absorbent layers; two other absorbent layers are placed on 
the outside of faces of the metallic plates; a second series of metallic plates 
of different polarity in close contact with the last-mentioned absorbent 
layers, metallic connections between the outside metallic plates, and metallic 
connections between the inside metallic plates. 

522.151. METHOD OF HEATING METALS ELECTRICALLY; C. L. Coffin. 
Detroit. Mich. Application filed November 16, 1893. This consists in dip- 
ping a heated piece of metal into a liquid, passing an electric current 
through it and the liquid, and establishing a voltaic arc between the elec- 
trodes. (See illustration.) 

522.175. INSULATOR; J. M. Anderson, Boston. Mass. Application filed March 
22, 1894. This is composed of a body portion of insulating metal, a metal 
crown having upright arms or ears, forming a slot or channel for the recep- 
tion of the conductor to be supported, and a cap or cover detachably secured 
to the arms to close the slot or channel at its top or npper portion. 

522.180. TROLLEY WIRE HANGER ; T. J. McTighe, New York. Application 
filed January 23, 1893. A trolley wire attachment, consisting of an car or 
casting of suitable shape, having a slotted screw threaded stud, adapted to 
receive the trolley wire, a fiat plug substantially filling the slot, and a screw 
cap adapted to fit the stud, and i>ress the plug against the trolley wire. 

622,02<>. ELFXTRIC TIME SIGNALLING SYSTEM AND APPARATUS; W. A. 
Purcell, Newark. N. J. Application filed November 16. 1892. The combina- 
tion with a circuit wheel or drum, provided with a scries of contact ribs of 
definite width, of another rib or ribs of greater width, and a circuit breaker 
wired to the last mentioned rib or ribs. 



The Electrical World. 



Voi,. XXIV. 



NEW YORK, JULY 14, 1894. 



No. 2. 



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rot failed to be 


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ers. 


The following 


table show 


teadv 


nward r 


narch in 


this 


depa 


rtrt 


lent of bu 


siness. The fir 


t issue of 


1880 contains 


d 25 differen 


adV 


;s 




1.<W7 


-ontained 154 different adv't 


1881 




28 










IXKH 


175 




1883 




45 










1S89 


334 




1883 




63 










1890 


289 




1884 




83 










1891 


335 




1885 




100 










1893 


316 




188S 




138 










1893 


317 






The fir 


St issue 


of 1894 con 


tai 


ned 


330 different Advertisements. 



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Vol. XXIV. NEW YORK, JULY 14, 1894. 



CONTENTS. 



Editorial 23 

Charles Proteus Steinmetz , 25 

Meeting of the Union of German Electricians 25 

Laboratory Notes, by Lieut. F. Jar\'is Patten 26 

Inductance of Lines, by G. M. Warner 27 

Polyphased Transmission, by Bruce Ford • 28 

Photog-raph of a Ligrhtning- IJolt 28 

Moonlight Tables for August, 1894 28 

Central Lighting and Power Stations of Chicago, by Charles Des- 
mond - 29 

Permeability of Steel, by M. Osterberg and M. Miller 31 

Practical Notes o.i Dynamo Calculations— IX, by Alfred E. Wiener 32 

Economical .Steam Engines atid Wasteful Boilers 34 

Digest of Current Technical Electrical Literature, compiled by Carl 

Hering 35 

An Electric Deck Planer, by C. J. Dougherty 38 

A New Switch, by P. E. Marchand 39 

Electromagnetic Turbine Supporter 39 

Fan Motors i 39 

Iron Armored Insulating Conduits 39 

Electric Elevated Railroad in Chicago 40 

Combined Switch and Rheostat 40 

DEPARTMENTS ; 

Financial Intelligence 41 

Special Correspondence 42 

News of the Week 43 

Trade and Industrial Notes 44 

Business Notes 45 

Illustrated Record of Patents 45 



INDUCTANCE OF LINES. 

Elsewhere in this issue Mr. G. M. Warner discusses inductance 
drop, which is a matter of increasing importance in connection with 
alternating conductor.s. Kennelly has treated this subject thor- 
ouglily in a paper read before the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers and in an article in our columns last week, but the 
practical examples worked out by Mr. Warner will be found of 
much assistance in getting a good grasp of the principles. It will 
be noted that stress is laid upon the necessity of taking into con- 
sideration phase differences in E. M. F. , caused by capacity or by 
motor loads. The ordinary tables of inductance co-efScieuts are 
based upon non-inductive loads, and therefore raaj' lead to consid- 
erable errors in calculation if applied to lines whose capacity cannot 
be neglected or which carry current for motors whose inductance 
throws the current and E. M. P. out of phase. 



PERMEABILITY OF STEEL. 

Some months ago Mr. H. P. Parshall pointed out in a paper read 
before the Franklin Institute, an abstract of which appeared in our 
columns, the great variations in the permeability of steel resulting 
from the presence of different proportions of carbon and manganese, 
and of impurities like sulphur, phosphorus and silicon. We print 
elsewhere an article by Messrs. Osterberg and Munroe containing 
the result of careful experiments made by them at Columbia College 
on two different steels, which, in connection with the chemical 
analyses given, forms another useful contribution to the -.subject, 
and strongly confirms the experiments of Mr. Parshall. The conclu- 
sions arrived at are of much importance, and besides pointing out 
the absurdity of basing calculations on conventional perraeabilitv 
curves, they itnplj' that for even the most ordinary commercial 
work permeability tests of the magnetic material to be used should 
be made, or, at least, a chemical analysis furnished from which to 
judge of its magnetic quality. It would be very useful if chemical 
analyses were made, where possible, of iron or steel subjected to 
permeability tests, for by so doing it is ver}' probable that the effect 
of different limiting proportions of carbon and other elements 
would be finally so definitely determined that the magnetic quality 
of a material could be approximately determined from a chemical 
analysis alone. 

DOES ELECTRICITY KILL? 

In the Digest will be found an abstract of a paper recently pre- 
sented by Dr. D'Arsonval to the French Academy of Sciences on 
resuscitation after electric shocks. As D'Arsonval is one of the 
very greatest living authorities on electro-physiology, his conclusion 
that in case of electric shock unaccompanied by lesions the subject 
can be resuscitated by means of artificial respiration is of the 
utmost importance. Still more startling is his assertion that electro- 
cution, as practiced in this country, does not cause actual death, 
but merelj' produces asphyxiation and syncope, from which the 
criminal may be revived. The latter statement, coming from such 
a source, cannot be passed over lightly, and should cause the New- 
York State authorities to make the necessary test on the next crimi- 
nal electrocuted. The case he adduces to support his statement is a 
remarkable one, for the man who was resuscitated was subjected to 
an alternating voltage of 4,500 for some minutes, with, it would 
seem from the description, a contact that could not during the 
entire time have been of any relatively considerable resistance. It 
is seven years since Dr. D'Arsonval, from laboratory experiments, 
formed his conclusions in regard to the effect of electric shocks, and 
the confirmation received through the case just noted seems to be 
most complete, and, therefore, his system'of treatment is one with 
which every person engaged in electrical pursuits should be familiar. 



24 



THE EI^ECXRICAI^ WORLD. 



Vol. XXIV. No. 2. 



D'Arsonval give.s the practical fonnula, A man shocked by elec- 
tricitv should be heated as if drowned. In addition to the well- 
known methods for the resuscitation of the drowned, he recom- 
mends the electrical excitation of the laryngeal nerves or rhymthic 
traction of the tongue. While in a given case D'Arsonval finds that 
real death may occur from the lesion or destruction of tissues by 
disruptive or electrolytic effects of a current, these, he adds, 
seldom occur with the alternating current, and may not follow a 
shock from a continuous current. As a consequence, every elec- 
trician should be prepared in case of an accident to apply the 
necessary treatment, and to this end should make himself familiar, 
if not already so, with the method of resuscitating the drowned. 
Regardless of what the future might show, the actual evidence is 
now sufficient, aside from the great authority of D'Arsonval, to 
render it a duty for the electrician to be thus equipped for the saving 
of human life. 

GAS ENGINES FOR ELECTRIC LIGHTING. 

In Europe gas engines are much employed in isolated electric 
lighting, and in several central stations on the Continent they 
furnish the entire motive power. At Dessau, Germany, for exam- 
ple, the power plant consists of two gas engines of 120 h. p. and 
60 h. p. respectively, which charge accumulators of 1,700 ampere- 
hours' capacity, the annual output being 49,869 kw. -hours. Mr. 
E. C. Segundo, in the London Electrical Review, has recently 
given some calculations as to the cost of generating current with 
gas engines, both in private and central station lighting plants, 
which are rather favorable and show at least that the matter is well 
worth looking into, particularly in connection with isolated and 
accumulator station plants. It is stated that a certain English 
manufacturer will guarantee his gas engines of large power to 
generate a brake horse power on 18 cubic feet of coal gas per hour, 
and with an 80 per cent, electrical efficiency this gives 13,200 
candle-hours, as against 3,200 if the gas were burned in jets — a 
ratio of 4. 125. Using Dowson gas, the same manufacturer states 
that his engines will develop one brake horse power on one pound 
of anthracite coal. We doubt if there is any steam engine now 
used in electric lighting that will develop a horse power on less 
■than two pounds of coal, so that the saving is here very pronounced, 
so far as fuel consumption is concerned. With a smaller plant it 
would be a pretty poor gas engine that would require a consump- 
tion greater than 40 cubic feet of gas to the brake horse power. 
With gas at $1.25, 3-watt lamps, and an electrical efficiency of 80 
per cent. , this would bring the cost of a 16-c. p. incandescent lamp 
to S-12 cent per hour, exclusive of labor and incidentals, while the 
cost of a 16-c. p. jet, using five cubic feet of gas per hour, would 
be 5-8 cents. The saving here is 33>'3 per cent, over burning gas 
direct, which in a 150-light plant would amount to 31 cents per 
hour, against which should be charged the cost of water and labor; 
with a gas engine using 25 cubic feet per h. p. per hour this saving 
becomes SO cents. As most establishments that would require 150 
lights would have some one about the premises who could look out 
for the electrical plant with little or no extra expense, and as gas 
engine electrical plants take up but little room and do not require 
constant attention, their use for isolated plants presents an advan- 
tage aside from the immense superiority of the incandescent light 
over gas light. 

THEORY. 

One of the most abused of words is "theory," not only from 
being made the otiject of the sneers of the "practical man" and the 
worshipper of ' ' horse sense, ' ' but even more so from its misapplica- 
tion to designate the wildest speculations and the most absurd 
fancies. It is singular, but none the less true, that those who most 
inveigh against theorj' and theorists are the very ones wto have 
brought the words into disrepute. Given a half-educated man, and 
therefore possessed of that little knowledge which is dangerous, or 
an uneducated man, but who is considered "bright" and "brainy" 
in a narrow community or by an uncultured circle of acquaintances, 
and we have in either case a theorist in the sense in which the word 



is condemned, and one, who, with the slightest encouragement, 
will glibly reel off by the yard what he supposes to be theory, and 
which his hearers accept as such. We constantly receive smartly 
written or ungrammatical manuscripts giving the "true theon.-" of 
electricity, of magnetism, of the causes of various electrical phe- 
nomena, and we do not remember a single one of these which ever 
contained a real experimental fact upon which to rest the conclu- 
sions arrived at. In looking over our newspaper exchanges, par- 
ticularly those containing an electrical column — that medium for the 
dissemination of so much electrical misinformation — we can find in 
a year more theories in number than have been fathered by scien- 
tists in a centurj'. We have before us now, in a clipping, a typical 
example of this class of productions, in which the writer demon- 
strates to his satisfaction that the rotation of the earth on its axis is 
due to electrical action. In a manner very characteristic of his 
type, who invariably treat the theories of others with the loftiest 
disdain, regardless of their authority, he disposes of the accepted 
scientific opinions as to the cause of the earth's rotation with the 
statements that they are ' ' the silliest nonsense, not worthy of a 
"serious thought," which "might do for monkej-s, but should find 
"no place in the minds of men. " "Let reason have a chance and 
"electricity a hearing, " he demands, and then, after describing 
how a shaft with radial arms may be given motion by the action of 
static discharges from points on these arms and at right angles to 
them, he proceeds to develop his theory as follows: "The earth is a 
"spherical rotating magnet, the electricity coming to it at its north 
"and south poles, meeting at and going off into space over its equa- 
"tor. These electrical currents move in spirals. Imagine yourself 
"off and facing the north magnetic pole of the earth. With your 
"pencil begin at the pole and make circles to the right, with the 
"sun, as you face the latter, and each circle nearer the equator. 
"Not a complete circle, but a continuous line called a spiral. The 
' ' electricity coming from space moves with that system of circles 
' ' which is called right-handed spirals. Now face the -south pole of 
' ' a terrestrial globe, or imagine yourself off and facing the south 
"pole of the earth, and this time draw a left-handed spiral. Begin 
' ' at the south magnetic pole and circle from right to left, with the 
"sun, as you face it, never lifting the pencil, each circle nearing 
"the earth's equator, and you will have the left-handed spiral, 
"the movement of the electrical current in the earth's surface as it 
"comes from space and nears the earth's equator from the south 
"pole. You will readily see that both north and south of the 
"earth's equator, the electrical currents, as explained above, would 
' ' move from east to west, and this is in accord with the magnetic 
' ' records in the geodetic sur\'eys. It will further be readily observed 
"that the currents coming from the north and south poles of the 
"earth are moving toward sunset, while the earth revolves toward 
' ' sunrise, and if they go off into space they act upon the earth as 
"explained in reference to the wheel, and the impact on the earth 
' ' would cause the latter to rotate eastward. ' ' The complacent man- 
ner in which utterly false premises are laid down will be noticed, 
and also the seductive flattery to the reader in the remarks as to how 
"readily he can see" an impossibility. From .sad experience, 
however, we can add that such benignity may also be united with 
rancor, and the editor who declines such manuscripts informed that 
if he had an iota of brains or the slightest knowledge of the science 
he wouldn't make an ass of himself by denying what anj- fool could 
see must be true. 

Nomenclature. 

Our esteemed contemporary, the London " Electrician, " has 
generally been opposed to burdening anj' science with new and 
unintelligible terms which have to be learned, but it seems to have 
changed its opinion lately, as we find in a recent editorial that the 
comparatively simple and inoffensive tenn "Congo red" is referred 
to as "amidosulphonaphthaleneazodiphenylazonaphthyl.Tmine sul- 
phonic acid. " 

Improving the Human Eye. 

"It is just conceivable that at ."fomc distant date, sa\' by dint of 
inserting gold wireS or powder in the retina, we may be enabled to 
see waves which at present we are blind to. ' ' — Prof. Oliver Lodge. 



July 14, 1894. 



XHE ELECTRICAL ""^ORLD. 



25 



Charles Proteus Steinmetz. 



Few indeed of those who have followed the advances of modern 
electricity are not more or less familiar with the important contri- 
butions of Mr. Charles Proteus Steinmetz, both to the theorj- and 
practice of electrical engineering, and there are few, even among 
those who had not had the pleasure of personal acquaintance with 
him, who will not be glad to know something of a more than usually 
interesting and useful life. 

Charles Proteus Steinmetz was bom in the city of Breslau, in 
Southeastern Germany, in the month of April, 186S. After pa.ssing 
through the gj-mnasium ( high school ) in his native city, he entered 
the University of Breslau, and devoted himself especially to the 
subject of mathematics, which he has put, in later years, to such 
splendid use. In particular he was a pupil of Prof. Schroeter, then 
the greatest living authoritj' in synthetical geometr}', and Prof. Galle, 
the great astronomer, who is universally known as the discoverer of 
the planet Neptune. 

After leaving the university, Mr. Steinmetz, having no .special 
inclination for the professions, determined to devote himself to his 
favorite sciences, and rendering himself independent by becoming 
an instructor in mathematics,, he took up the study in Breslau, and 
afterwards in Berlin, of various branches of physical science, while 
not neglecting the study of pure mathe- 
matics to which he at first gave his at- 
tention. He worked in the physical 
laboratory with especial success, and 
undertook an investigation on the secular 
variation of terrestrial magnetism, untor- 
tunately never finished. Of course, anent 
his investigations, he has divers amusing 
reminiscences, "particularly on one occa- 
sion when, with the help of some friends, 
he made, with the temperature far below 
zero, magnetometer readings on the ice of 
the frozen river Oder, to escape local 
magnetic disturbances. After a little, his 
less enthusiastic friends went away ' ' for 
a few minutes to warm themselves, ' ' and 
after an hour's patient work, Mr. Stein- 
metz determined to find out what had 
become of them, and they were finally 
discovered in a comfortable room playing 
skat, and waiting for him to finish his 
observations, which he says eventually 
proved to be useless because he had 
forgotten to take off his .steel -rimmed 
eye-glasses. 

During this period, -too, Mr. Steinmetz 
worked indvistriously in the chemical 
laboratory, and paid attention to miner- 
alogy and other natural sciences, includ- 
ing a casual study of medicine. 

At that time, all young Germany was intensely interested in 
the great problems of national economy which have been coming 
to the front in the last quarter of a century. Mr. Steinmetz, ever 
enthusiastic, and with high ideals of ethics in government, became 
imbued with revolutionary ideas, and even edited for a time a 
somewhat revolutionary paper which came to an untimely end for 
lack of the "sinews of war. '' After what was left of the paper had 
been confiscated by the government, the editor drifted to Au.stria, and 
later to Switzerland, and there entered the Polytechnical School 
at Zurich, and took up the study of mechanical engineering. He 
then made a short visit to France, and thence in 1889 came to 
America, where he settled down to apply the knowledge which he 
had acquired through so long and active a period of student life. 

He first connected himself with the Eickemeyer Company, in 
Yonkers, N. Y. , and remained there four years, filling the period with 
scientific investigations of rare value, in which he says, with char- 
acteristic modesty, that he was greatly assisted by the personal co- 
operation of Mr. Eickemeyer. At the end of this time, he left 
with regret his first American home in Yonkers, and joined the 
forces of the General Electric Company, at Lynn, Mass. 

Mr. Steinmetz 's writings have been of a very varied and interest- 
ing character, as might be imagined from the wide range of his 
studies. Much of his work has been in pure mathematics, and is 
consequently less known to the electrical fraternity than .some of 
his later researches. Among his various works may be mentioned 
a popular hand-book of astronomy, published in Germany in 1888, 




Charles Proteus Steinmetz, 



and various articles to the "Theory of Synthetical Geometry;" 
"On Twisted Curves," contributed to the American Journal of 
Mathematics, and divers researches on pure mathematics, contributed 
to the ' ' Zeitschrift fur Mathematic und Physik. ' ' 

Most of Mr. Steinmetz's electrical work has been published since 
his arrival in this countrj', so that we may be proud to reckon him 
as being, to all intents and purposes, an American electrician, as 
he surely is in spirit. 

As to his most important electrical researches, we mention "The 
Theory of the Alternate Current Transformer, ' ' three elaborate and 
valuable papers on "The law of Hysteresis, " comprising the results 
of nearly two years of careful investigation, and presented to the 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers; a paper on the "Dis- 
ruptive Strength of Dielectrics," and a large number of minor 
papers on dielectric hysteresis, inductance and kindred subjects. 

Perhaps the most important of all his contributions to literature 
was a very complete and beautiful study of the application of the 
vetor analysis as expressed in complex quantities to problems of 
alternating current work. This was read before the 'international 
Electrical Congress in Chicago, 1893, and has since been expanded 
into a formal treatise on the .subject, which will soon be published. 
As a practical electrician Mr. Steinmetz is a most expert and 
intelligent designer of both direct and alternating current ma- 
chinery, and is well equipped and ready for the solution of every 
sort of problem which comes before the 
modern electrical engineer. It may be 
truly said of him that he has not an 
enemy in the worid, and that every one 
who is brought into jiersonal communica- 
tion with him feels toward him the 
strongest feelings of friendliness — even 
those who have suffered at his hands in 
debate; at which, as the members of the 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers 
well know, he is mo.st expert. Much as 
all those who have read his papers respect 
him by reason of his ability, still more 
do those who have known him admire 
the gentle and kindly spirit of the man. 

neeting of the Union of German Elec 
tricians. 

(From our special Correspondent.) 
Tlie second annual general meeting of 
the Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker, 
or Union of German Electricians, took 
place at Leipzig between the 7th and 9th 
of June. 

The meeting was formally opened on 
June 8 by Baurath Stiibben, of Cologne. 
After several addresses of welcome had 
been read in the name of the city of 
Leipzig and its technical societies, the 
electrical exhibition that had been formed in connection with the 
occasion was opened by the honorary president, Privy Councillor 
Prof. Dr. G. Wiedemann. A round of inspection was then made of 
the exhibition. The rest of the day was devoted to a dinner, 
attended by all the delegates to the meeting, and to the reading of 
papers. On Saturday, June 9, the business discussions came on, 
under the presidency of Prof. Dr. Slaby. The proceedings began 
with the presentation by the secretary, Herr Sluzewski, of the gen- 
eral report for the past year and the estimate of expenditures for the 
j'ear 1894-95. This was followed by discussion of the new regula- 
tions. The organization is to be known henceforth as the "Ver- 
band Deutscher Elektrotechniker, " with headquarters in Berlin, 
and its business to be conducted . b}' a secretarj' general, to which 
office Mr. Gisbert Kapp, so well known in the electrical field, was 
elected. Several papers were then read, one of the most interesting 
of which was by Prof. Dr. Buddc, on tlie influence of electric tram- 
way currents on institutes for physical research. Prof. Kohlrausch 
and Prof. Wiedemann engaged in the discussion which followed. 
All were of opinion that these institutes should be subordinate to 
the requirements of traffic, and that if it was necessary for the 
carrying on of scientific investigations to have the surroundings 
absolutely quiet and uninfluenced by extraneous currents, such 
establishments should be situated away from the town. 

.\ report was also read by Prof. Dr. Budde on the position to be 
taken by the union in respect to the proposed industrial exhibition 
in Berlin in 1896 Dr. Budde urged that they should abide by the 



26 



THK BIvECTRlCAI^ WORI.D. 



Vor.. XXIV. No. 2. 



decision come to at the CoIokhc- meeting last year, viz. : That light 
and power should only be sii])ijlicd aj^ainst payment, a syndicate 
being formed for the purpose amongst the members of the union, 
under the direction of a special committee, in order to secure fair 
terms and division of the work. vSimilar action was proposed with 
regard to the forthcoming exhibition at Karlsruhe. 

The exhibition in connection with the meeting at Leipzig, to 
which reference has been made above, contained nothing specially 
new. Small types of dynamos and motors were shown, mostly by 
local firms. The motors were applied to workshop tools, pumps, 
printing presses, etc. They were all of the two-pole type, rather 
large in relation to their capacity, and ran at very high speeds, so 
that countersliafting was employed in every ca.se. Me.ssrs. Siemens 
& Halske had some small dynamos, which, however, were not in 
operation. There was one novelty in the shape of an in.strument 
for testing different qualities of iron, constructed by Dr. Kupsel and 
described some little time ago in the Klectrotechnische Zeitschrift. 
The -■Mlgenicine Klcktricitaets-Ge,sell.schaft, of Berlin, had installed 
two induction motors and a stationary transformer, but these were 
not in operation either. Their exhibit included further an electric 
meter, with pendulum and automatic winding arrangement, an 
invention of Hefner-Alteneck. The apparatus was shown at the 
World's Fair. Several types of the well-known Aron meter were 
also on view. Mention should be made of an 8-h. p. horizontal 
steam engine by Ducommun, of Mulhouse, Alsace-Lorraine, which 
made 400 revolutions per minute and ran very quietly, although its 
regulation under varying load was slow, owing to throttling. 

The next general meeting of the Union of German Electricians 
will be held at Munich in 1895. 

BERLIN, June 16, 1894. 



It would be a very inefficient dynamo on which l.S per cenl. to 20 
per cent, of its entire output were used for field excitation. In this 
case the telephone current is used; the separate field-exciting 
current of the dynamo and the armature is driven by independent 
power external to the system. We should, therefore, expect an 
armature current of far greater .strength than the original telephone 
current. In other words, the armature .should reproduce the tele- 
phone current accurately, so far as its fluctuations are concerned, 
but of far greater intensity. We should, therefore, have in such a 
machine a telephone current amplifier or nmltiplier, as well as a 
mere repeater, and if this were found true for one machine, the 
new current could be used to excite the field of another, and so on 
until ihe current were increased to any desired limit. Evidently 
this could not, however, be carried very far, as there is undoubtedly 
a tendency in such continued transformations to bring the alter- 
nating current wave to a pure sine form, which would eventually 
destroy the delicate superimposed fluctuations of the telephone 
current. 

The general plan is shown by a diagram i Fig. 1 i, which gives 
the operative parts and circuits. Ti is a telephone transmitter. Its 
line goes to the field coils, Ci, Cj, of the field magnet, N S, the 
air gap between the poles of which was less than an eighth of an 
inch. The coils, Ci, Cj, were ordinary telephone coils, their 
resistance in series being about 80 ohms of No. 32 magnetism, or 
about the same as a telephone receiver. The field magnet, N S, 
was a round bundle of very soft annealed iron wire, the entire 
magnetic circuit being about six or seven inches long. A battery, 
B, with its circuit, C3, coiled about the yoke of this magnet, was 
used with a variable resistance to give the field, N S, a sufficient 
degree of magnetization to bring the iron to the point of maximum 



Laboratory Notes. — XIX. 



HV LIEUT. K. J.^RVLS P.\TTEN. 



AN EXPERIMENT THAT FAILED. 

Many experiments, and sometimes mere trials of plans that on 
llie surface appear to be not only good, but practical, inventions, 
fail to give the results expected, and prove a source of vexation and 
disappointment to the person who gives time and money to the 
investigation. I have known quite a number of such cases of rather 
unusual interest, some of my own contrivance and some that others 
have gained dearly-paid experience from and then invited me to 
tell them why their .scheme would not work. It would be really a 
good thing if all .such experiments, however unsuccessful, were 
described. Many an inventor and e.xperinienter would be saved 
l)oth di.sappointment and expense could he be shown tliat there was 
no reasonable expectation of success in a. work he was about to 
undertake, or that the .scheme had been tried on the intended, and 
had f.'iiled. 

The experiment described here is selected from a number of inter- 
esting cases that I have witnessed, and I consider it interesting 
becau.se I cannot give a reason entirely satisfactory to myself why 
the plan .should not work. Yet it was carefully tried with many 
modifications, and all without encouraging results. 

Though the object in view — ^namely, to make a "telephone 
repeater" — was a rather ambitious one, the particular plan upon 
which it was attempted to solve the problem, as well as the under- 
lying principles of the solution, were comparatively .simple, and 
seem almost certainly operative on paper. The general plan was 
simpl)' this: A telephone transmitter, no matter what the form, so 
far as this description is concerned, generates a current that goes to 
line.- It is, of course, a very weak current, but there is some, and 
.sensitive apparatus like a telephone receiver (Bell magneto) is vari- 
ably magnetized by such a current, and its energy is retran.sformed 
to mechanical energy in the moving diaphragm and given to the 
ear as waves of .sound. The energy of the current must, however, 
produce magneti.sm to do this, and in producing magnetism it cer- 
tainly creates' a magnetic field, varying in strength directly as the 
current. It produces then an alternating magnetic field, and an 
armature revolved in such a field should generate an alternating 
. urrent having an impressed electronuitive force that follows in 
period or rate, and intensity or amplitude the fluctuations of the 
field magneti.sm produced, .say, by the current from a distant tele- 
phone transmitter to which words were spoken. That is to say, it 
was designed to use a telephone current as a separate excitation of 
the field of a very small dynamo, the armature of which was to be 
driven by independent power in the usual way. 

.Such an armature should yield an alternating current .similar to 
the telephone current, but of greatly increased intensity, because 
we have a new source of power. 




^Hpf 



Telephone Repe.\ter. 

permeability — where it would, in fact, be most susceptible to very- 
slight changes of field cuiTents, such as those received from the 
telephone transmitter. In the field, N S, was placed an armature 
consisting simply of a thin disc of silver, with brushes bearing at 
the periphery, b,, and at the spindle, bj, bs, thus completing a 
very small and simple form of unipolar dynamo of the Barlow 
wheel or Faraday disc type. This armature could be driven at any 
desired speed up to 12,000 revolutions a minute by an electric 
motor, M. 

Of course, the voltage given by such an armature, liaving prac- 
tically but a single turn of wire, would be exceedingly low, no 
matter what the speed or the field excitation. But as it revolves in 
a variable or alternating field, it must necessarily yield an alternating 
current, and, therefore, by connecting a circuit from its brushes to 
the primary, Py, of a transformer or induction coil, the voltage 
could be raised to any desired value in a secondary, Sy, which 
latter circuit was connected to a line with a telephone receiver, Ti, 
at the distant end. It may be well to explain why a unipolar 
machine was fir.st selected for this experiment, instead of some other 
direct current type of drum or ring armature capable of generating 
a higher voltage. 

The reason is that most any such annaiure, having a commutator, 
mu.st necessarily produce a fluctuating current — as, for instance, 
when the brushes of such an armature bear on two con.secutive 
conunutator segments, two coils of the winding (meaning many 
turns) are cut out of circuit, and when they are each on a single 
segment these coils are in circuit again. This changing resistance 
causes all such armatures to yield a fluctuating current, which 
would destroy the delicate fluctuations of the telephonic current. 
The unipolar, or di.sc machine, on the contrary, yields at a constant 



ii-I.V 14, 1894. 



THE ELECTRICAIv WORLO. 



speed a perfectly smooth aud uniform current as long as the field is 
constant, and if this is altered the current in the armature must 
follow the fluctuations of the field. The disc machine as described, 
which was probabh' the smallest unipolar machine ever built, was 
tried under a great varietj- of conditions, but without encouraging 
results, and I am at a loss to say definitely what the trouble was. 
The machine generated current, but the telephone in the secondary 
circuit of the induction coil, I, gave no response. 

A Gramme ring armature that gave a perfectly smooth current, 
without fluctuations of any kind, was then devised, built and sub- 
stituted for the disc. Its construction, being novel, deserves 
descHption. A soft iron wire ring (core of the artnature) was 
encased in fibre, and in a miller, 240 slots, large enough to take a 
No. 18 wire, were cut on both the inner and outer periphery. The 
core was then covered with a single layer of 240 turns of bare copper 
wire, each turn being thus air spaced from its neighbor, and the 
brushes were arranged to run on the bare wire. Thus, each single 
urn of wire was its own commutator segment, and the amount of 
wire cut in and out as the brushes would bear first on one and then 
on two turns would only be the half of a single turn, but the 
brushes were made so as to extend over three or more turns, so that 
there was always the same amount of wire in the armature circuit, 
and a current free from any fluctuations could be obtained; and 
this was proven by the failure of the telephone to give any sound 
when connected in the armature circuit. The results were not more 
promising with this armature than with the disc pattern. 



metres. Hence, for the table where I have used millihenrys per 
mile, the formula becomes: 



.1609 ^.5 + 2 log—) 



Size of 












wire. 


per mile. 


Inductance in 


niiJUhenrys per mile for d = 


= 


B. &S. 


1S.S° C. 


8" 


12" 


16" 


20" 


24" 


0000 


.259 


1.22 


1.35 


1.44 


1.52 






.324 


1.26 


1.39 


1.48 


1.S6 










1.43 


1.52 


1.59 


1 64 








1.47 


1.56 


1.63 


1.68 






1.37 


1.50 


1.60 


1.67 




2 




1.41 


1.54 


1.63 


1.71 


1 76 








1.58 


1.67 


1.74 








1.49 


1.61 


1.71 


1.78 


1 83 








1.65 


1.7S 


1.82 








1.56 


1.68 


1.78 


1.85 


1 91 


' 






1.72 


1.82 


1.89 








1.63 


1.76 


1.86 


1.93 






4.186 


1.67 


1.80 


1,90 


1.97 






5.280 


1.71 


1.83 


1.93 


2.00 


2.06 



The Power Plant of the Midwinter Fair. 



We present herewith a plan of the power plant of the California 
Midwinter Exposition, from which the arrangement of the machin- 
ery will be apparent. The original plan was to have all the engines 



Tables have been published giving impedance factors of wires at 
various distances and cycles, and perhaps a few examples of the 
difference between these tables and the above will be of interest. 

1 will take a case where we have a line, say one mile Icng, 
with 1,000 volts and 50 amperes at the receiving end, and work out 
the voltage required at the generator under various conditions, 
supposing 'he line to be of No. 3 B. & S. wire and 12" apart," 
using 125 cycles per second. 

No. 3 wire has a resistance of 1.04 ohms per mile, and, from the 
table, an inductance of 1.57 m. p. per mile at 12" apart. 

The resistance drop, for the two miles of wire is SO X 2 x 1.04 
volts, and the inductance drop equals 2 tt n L C vf =2 x 3.14 X 
125 X 1.57 X 10"' X 2 X SO = 107.S volts, but is not in phase with 




I'l.AN OK Power Pl.-^nt of the Midwinter F.\ir. 



in line parallel to the boilers and as near the back walls of the 
building as possible, all belts running parallel and the dynamos 
placed in line under the break of the gallery. The miners' exhibit, 
however, was allotted space which interfered with this and necessi- 
tated a change in the plans. Furthermore, the dynamos are all 
operative exhibits, and it was desirable to concentrate the displays 
of the various companies as far as pos.sible. Considering the num- 
ber of belts necessary, it would perhaps appear that it might be 
difficult to move about in the plant, but the :irningcment is .such 
that any point can easily be reached. 

Inductance of Lines. 



the resistance drop, differing by 90 degrees; compounded by the law 
of resultant forces, the total drop would be 



I 



107 



— -= 149. S volts, or 74.8 volts per wire. 



BY G. M. WARNER. 

Having repeatedly found occasion in the calculating of lines for 
alternating current power transmission to use the inductance of one 
wire on the other, which as we know appears as a loss of voltage by 
increase in the apparent resistance of the line, and never finding a 
table embodying ju.st what I wanted, I calculated some time ago an 
extra column to my wire table. 

The formula used is one which can readily be found in text 
books ; 

L =.5+2 log — 
r 
where (/ is the distance between the wires and r is the radius of the 
wire, both being expressed in the same units, and L is the co- 
efficient of self-induction per centimetre of wire, expressed in centi- 



From a table of impedance factors we would obtain for these same 
conditions 1.44, giving as the drop 1.04 X 1.44 = 149.5, 
the same as before; but what I wish to show is that, while this drop 
does actually occur, it may not necessarily be in phase with the 
line potential, and hence will not appear as a loss of voltage— that 
is, the difference between the voltage of the dynamo and that 
received at the end of the line may be less than this drop of 149.5 
volts. 

First, we will assume that we are feeding a non-inductive load. 
Here the C R of the load = 1,000 volts, and the total C R = 1,000 ^ 
104^ 1104; the inductive drop of the load = 0, and of the line = 
107.5; hence the total inductive drop =: 107.5 + = 107.5. Com- 
bining these by the same method as before gives as the generator 
potential : 



I 



We see in this case that the actual loss in voltage in, the trans- 
mi.ssion is 1,110 — 1,000 = 110, or 39.5 less than the drop simply 
due to the lack of agreement in phase. 

We will take another case where the load is inductive, causing a 
lag of 46°— that is, its inductive component is 120 volts and its 



28 



THE ELECTRICAL WORLD- 



Vol. XXIV. No. 1. 



energy component 696 volts, giving the total voltage of the load 
still: 



/ — ? i_ — 2 -1 000. 
-J 720 ^ 696 



Then our total C R drop is 696 + 104 = 800 volts, and the total 
inductive drop = 720 + 107.5 = 827.5, and the generator voltage 
equals 

1 + 800 =^-^5''' 

giving a loss in voltage of l.lSO - 1,000 = 150, or the same as given 
l)y the impedance factors. 

Suppose we feed a condenser load having an advance of 46 — tnat 
is, an energy component of 696 volts and a wattless component ot 
720 volts, giving as a resultant: 

/__? + (— 720)^ = 1,000. 
^J 696 

Then our total C R drop is 696 + 104 = 800, and the total wattless 
jrop = 720 =— 107.5 = — 612.5, and the resultant E. M. i-. 
at the generator 



Photographing a Lightning Bolt. 

The accompanying illustration is taken from a photograph made 
by an amateur, Mr. W. B. Getchell, of Augusta, Me., during an 
electrical storm in that vicinity. The bolt seemed to go across the 
heavens in an irregular line, until reaching a point at about the 
center of the top of the illustration, when it took an almost perpen- 
dicular course to the earth, where it struck at a point about a 
quarter of a mile distant. The white dots in the background are 
the arc lights on the opposite side of the river. At the time of the 



= J 



800 



+ (-612.5)= =1,075, 



eivine a loss of voltage of only 75 volts. 

In fact it is often the case that the E. M. F. at the generator is 
less than that at the end of the line. The above examples, I think, 
illustrate the method of calculating lines, which, in a few words, 
consists of resolving all the various E. M. Fs. and currents into 
their two components-one the energy and the other the wattless 
component-and finally combining the sums of these two compo- 
nents by the law of resultant forces. No account is here taken ot 
the extra resistance due to the "skin" effect, for it is usually very 

slight. _^ — ^ — 

Polyphased Transformation. 



To the Editor of the Electrical World : 

Recent articles in The Electrical World on the transformation of 
currents of one phase into currents of another phase have been par- 
ticularly interesting to me as I had been working on this problem 
iust previous to their publication. Believing that a description of my 
device may prove of interest at this time, I send the accompanying 
sketch, which, I think, will nearly explain itself. 

Strictly speaking, this is not a transformer, but rather a " translat- 
ing device," as the current is changed in phase only and there is 





Photograph of Lightning Flash. 

exposure everything was in darkness, and the whole illumination 
came from the lightning flash. 



Moonlight Tables for August, 1894. 

Herewith we give Mr. H. W. Frund's tables of lighting hours for 
the month of August under his modified form of moonlight schedule. 



TABLE NO. 1. 

Standard Moonlight 
System. 



rol.YrHA.SKI) Tran-svormation. 



but one winding on the cores. I take the ordinary ring cores and 
wind one of them with a single coil, the other core serving to com- 
plete the magnetic circuit. 

As an example, take a case where a three-phased current is to be 
converted to one of four phases; the rotary field is produced by the 
three-phased current connected to the terminals a\ a\ a', and the four 
phased current can then be drawn off from the same wire as at ter- 
minals A', b', 6^ b*. 

It is quite evident that with this device currents of any phase 
whatever can be changed to any other phase. 

Johnstown, Pa. URt*-'K roRB- 



Light. 


Date. 


7.40 P. M. 


2 


7.40 " 


3 


7.40 ■• 




7.40 " 


S 


7.40 " 


6 


9.00 " 


7 


9.20 " 


8 


9.50 " 


9 


10.30 " 


10 


U.IO " 


11 


12.00 M. 


12 




-rr" 



No light. 

7.20 P. M. 

7.20 " 

7.20 " 

7.20 " 

7.20 " 

7.20 " 

7.20 " 

7.10 "' 

7.10 " 

7.10 " 

7.10 •' 

7.10 " 

7.10 •• 

7.10 " 

7.00 " 



Exting. 



4.00 
4.00 
4.00 
4.00 
4.00 
4.00 
4.10 
4.10 
4.10 



TABLE NO. 2. 

Frund's New Moonlight 
System. 



4.10 A. M. 
4.10 " 
No light. 

8.40 P. M. 
9.00 •• 
9.20 •' 
9.40 '• 
10.00 " 
10.30 " 
11.10 " 
12.00 M. 
12.S0 A. M. 
2.10 '" 
3.20 •• 
4.20 " 
4.30 '• 
4.30 " 
4.30 •' 



Light. 



7.40 
7.40 
7.40 
7.40 
7.40 
7.40 
7.30 
7.30 
7.30 
7.30 
7.30 
7.30 
7.30 






7.20 " 


20 






7.20 " 


21 






7.20 " 


22 






7.20 •• 


23 






7.10 •' 


24 






7.10 " 


26 


1.00 A.M. 




7.10 " 


27 


1.50 ■• 




7.10 " 


28 


3.20 ■■ 




7.10 " 


29 


4.20 " 




7.10 " 


30 


4.30 " 




7.10 •' 


31 


'* 




7.00 •• 


1 





Total No. of hours, 162.00. ■ 



Note —These schedules are made up on sun time. Where standaid 
time is used and it varies considerably from sun timC; the proper 
deduction or addition must be made to all the times here given. 



July 14, 1804. 



THE ELECTF.ICAL WORLU. 



29 



Central Lighting and Power Stations of Chicago. 



BY CHARLES DESMOND. 

Chicago is about as well supplied with electric light and power as 
any city in the United States, a great part of which is furnished 
from central stations, the largest and most numerous of which are 
owned and operated by the Chicago Edison Company, which has 
six separate and distinct stations located in different parts of the 
city. One of these stations has an annex which contains machinery 
with a capacity' of 600 kilowatts, and another station now being built 
is to be fitted with the latest improved machines with a total capac- 
ity of 8, 000 kilowatts. 

The Chicago Edison Company commenced business in 1886 with a 
small station located in a basement and having but small capacity. 
The service given and the rapidly increasing demand for light soon 
compelled it to seek larger quarters and install more capacious 
machines. The station on .Adams street, which is now known as 
Station No. 1, was then erected and equipped with the best machines 
for the purpose which could be procured. 

The following named gentlemen are the present officers of the 



by 18 inches, four Mcintosh & Seymour 18 J^ inches by 18 inches, 
and two others of the same make 19 inches by 23 inches, aggregat- 
ing about 5,500 h. p. 

The engine room floor is supported on very heavy iron floor sills, 
which are laid on the smoothed surface of substantial stone walls, 
which, in turn, are supported by a solid foundation which is so firm 
that scarcely a tremor is felt from the movement of the machines 
when all the engines, and dynamos are in action. This part of the 
design of this station is especially meritorious, as it is seldom that the 
operation of so much machinery is carried on so quietly that no 
noise or vibration is noticeable in adjoining rooms of the same 
building. This is largely due to the fact that the engine room floor 
does not touch and is not supported by the side walls. 

Directly above the engines are the dynamos, 32 in number, each 
engine driving two d^^namos, one from either fly-wheel, by the use 
of double leather belts, which incline but a few degrees from the 
vertical. This style of driving is found most suitable, as the dynamos 
are run in pairs, on the three-wire system, but are so arranged that 
any two machines can be operated together, cross-connections being 
supplied and each machine equipped with reversing switch. 

The dynamo plant consists of twenty No. 32 and twelve No. 60 




Interior View, Chicago Edison Station. 



company: Samuel Insull, president; F. S. Gorton, secretary and treas- 
urer; G. H. Wilmerding, general superintendent; W. H. Anthony, 
comptroller; W. L. Church, superintendent of low tension, and P. 
L. Kelsch, superintendent of high tension systems; L. A. Furgeson, 
electrical engineer; R, W. Francis, chief engineer. 

Station No. 1 was erected in 1888 near the centre of the business 
district, and was designed not only for the amount of business that 
was apparent at the time, but with a knowledge that it would in- 
crease considerably, and calculations were made accordingly. The 
style of the building is ornamental, having an arched front, sup- 
ported by Corinthian columns, and is built of red, pressed brick, 
three stories high, with a capacious basement. The frontage is 44 feet, 
with a depth of 200 feet. The front portion, which contains the 
offices, store room and testing room, is 26 feet in depth. Back of 
the offices, on the ground floor, is the engine room, 100 by 44 feet, 
in which is very compactly installed 16 high-speed engines, consist- 
ing of eight Amiington & Sims, four of which are 18;^ inches by 
18 inches and four of 18 inches by 24 inches, two Ideals 18;^ inches 



Edison machines, arranged in two rows, the centre line between 
the rows being directly over the line of the crank shafts of the en- 
gines; the engines being set so that the shafts are in line and each 
alternate engine faces in the opposite direction. 

The dynamo room, of the same size as the engine room, has a 
verj' high ceiling, and the roof is composed almost entirely of heavy 
plate glass, aflfording plenty of light during the day and ample Tenti- 
lation at all times, so that the room is never uncomfortably warm — a 
feature that is beneficial to the machines as well as to the attendants. 

Ranged along one side of the room are the bus bars, to which the 
machines are connected by heavy copper bars that lead from the 
machines to the ceiling, then across to the wall and down to the 
bars. The bus bars are 2'; inches by }-i inch, and are in multi- 
ple to a capacity of 25,000 amperes, j^bove the bus bars are arranged 
the feeders, supplied with the necessarj' ammeters and cut-outs, 
which lead to the centres of distribution about the city, of which 
there are 36 supplied from this station, some of them being located 
as far as nine blocks, or more than a mile awaj-. The feeders, after 



30 



XHK KI^ECXR'CAU WORLJJ. 



Vol.. XXIV. No. 2. 



leaving the dynamo room, are of rubber covered and braided cable 
to where they enter the subways, which are of the Edison type, 
consisting of iron tubes containing tlie insulated wires embedded in 
insulating composition, composed mainly of asphaltum. Each of tlie 
))ipes contain two pressure wires in addition to the three wires of 
that circuit, but tlie middle, or neutral, conductor is only one-third 
the sectional area of the others, but is of sufficient size to carry the 
load that would be thrown on it in case of a break down to one of 
the other conductors. Each .set of pressure wires is fitted with in- 
dicators, which are in plain sight at all times and marked with the 
number of the circuit to which it belongs. 

This station supplies current under low tension only, the voltage 
at the generators being 240 with an average of 230 at the centres 
of distribution. 

.•\11 the feeders leave the station on the Adams street side at a 
depth of eight f^et below the .surface, but soon rise to within twelve 
inches of the pavement, being buried at a sufficient depth to escape 
accidental injury while still being convenient for repairs. 

The distribution boxes, which are of the usual Edison type, are 



for all the requirements. The down-draught furnaces were put in 
but a short time ago, a different kind having been previously in 
use, but constant trouble with the city smoke inspectors made a 
smokeless furnace necessary. 

Coal storage is provided for on the third floor, above tlie boilers, 
and has a capacity sufficient for a four days' supply. .A.t the present 
time the consumption of fuel is at the rate of 110 tons per day of 24 
hours, but this is less than the amount that was required during the 
past winter. The coal is raised to the storage room by electric 
elevators. 

The heating of the building is by the use of exhaust steam, by 
the Williams system, which provides circulation by pumping out 
the returns. 

City water is used for supplying the boilers, and is partly purified 
before use by being passed through a 2,000-h. p. Baragwanath 
heater, where the temperature is raised to about 210 degrees and a 
portion of the mineral impurities precipitated before it enters the 
boiler. This heater contains 2, 000 square feet of heating surface 
and weighs 11.5 tons. It is the largest heater built by the Barag- 




INTERIOR VlKW, CHIC,\Gt) ElHSON ST.VTIUN. 



located at the street intersections, a few feet from the curb, in the 
immediate vicinity of the buildings to which current is to be 
supplied. In some cases the demand for current has been so great 
that the carrying capacity of some of the circuits, owing to their 
great length, has been overtaxed; but this difficulty has been over- 
come by connecting a "boosting" circuit from another .station to 
that particular centre of distribution, thus more nearly equalizing 
the potential all around. 

Ten Heine boilers are required for furnishing the steam for this 
plant. These consist of four of 325 h. p. , one of 500 and five of 375 
h. p. The boilers are located on two floors, five on each, and each 
boiler is separately connected to the mains, so that any one can be 
laid off when desired without interfering with the others. The 
boiler rooms are each 74 by 44 feet. Two steam pipes, IS inches in 
diameter, are arranged .so that either or both may be u.sed as the 
conditions require, and an S-inch supply pipe connects with each 
engine. 

Ilavvley down-draught furnaces are used under all the boilers. 
These are connected with a chimney ISO feet high, which i^ive a 
draught equal to a pressure of three-quarters inch of water, ample 



wanath Company. There is also a l,O00-li.p. Berrymati heater in 
use in connection with the one described. 

There are four boiler feed pumps of the Worthington duplex tpye. 
each being 10 inches b^- 6 inches by 10 inches. 

The engines are all ready for use at a moment's notice, being 
kept hot by being open to the exhaust when not in use. This 
precaution is absolutely necessary, for sometimes the load comes on 
with amazing rapidity, requiring the utmost exertions of the attend- 
ants for a few moments, as was the case one day latelv when the 
load increased 8,000 amperes within ten minutes' time. Similar 
large increases of load within a few minute are not uncommon 
when thunderstorms are coming up, for then it gets quite dark. 

Under the present management the service of this compau}' has 
been all that could be desired, as there have been but very few 
interruptions of service from any cause. 

The average load of tliis station during the past winter was 9,000 
amperes, supplied mostly to lamps, but the amount used for power 
purposes has been considerable, as there are l..=;00 h. p. of motors 
attached to the circuits. The motors are used for all conceivable 
purposes, a number being employed for operating elevators, and 



July 14, 1894. 



THE EIvECTRICAL W^ORI^D. 



31 



many for driving machinery and hoisting. The maximum load was 
19,000 amperes. 

A complete set of records of all happenings to the plant is kept 
in a most sj'stematic manner, and such "troubles" as do occur are 
attended to without delay, the men for this purpose being on duty 
or within call at all times, although their services are seldom called 
for to attend anything of a serious nature. The worst difficulty 
that has occurred for some time was a slight fire among the cables, 
one afternoon some weeks ago, when some one without authority 
turned in the fire alarm. The department responded with their 
usual alacrity, and before it could be prevented deluged the cables, 
makiug things lively for the station men, but not interrupting the 
service except for a couple of hours. The bravery and energetic 
actions of our fire departments are well known and commendable, 
but their knowledge of electricity is not as great as is sometimes 
desired. 

An annex is connected with this station. It contains two Arming- 
ton & Sims engines, each of 450 h. p., and four No. 60 Edison 
dynamos, which are kept in continual service to help the main 
plant. This annex was built in November, 1892, and the installa- 
tion of the machinery called for the most careful and competent 
engineering ability, as the only place that could be found for it 
in that neighborhood was in a basement, just across the alley in 
rear of the station. 

To get the machines into this place required that a portion of the 
foundation walls of the building be removed. The machines, taken 
apart as far as was advisable, were first lowered to the tunnel, which 
had been prepared for the 10-inch steam pipes from the boiler plant, 
and then passed through on rollers to the position they now occupy. 
This was a diflicult task, as the timnel was small, and the space 
that could be utilized no mc^re , than required, but the task was 
finally accomplished without accident. 

This station has done good work during its time, but the locality 
has outgrown its capacity, and it will be discontinued when the 
new Harrison street station is finished, for the work can be done 
more economicalh' in the new station with triple expansion engines 
and latest improved devices than with the engines with which 
this station is now equipped. The station bus bars are ready for 
being connected to the 1J4 inch by S inch conductors which lead 
underground and through the company's private tunnel under the 
river to the Harrison street station, but as this station will not be 
ready for some months, the old station will continue its accustomed 
activity, and be held in reserve for some time. 



An Electfically Cooked Banquet. 



A banquet was tendered recently in London by Sir David Salo- 
mons and the directors of an electric lighting company, in which 



cents per kilowatt-hour, which is what that company intends to 
charge for electricity for cooking purposes, makes the cost of the 
heat four cents per person^for ten courses. The banquet is described 
in detail b}' some of our English contemporaries. 

Permeability of Steel. 

BY MAX OSTERBERG AND MILBOURNE MUNROE. 

The samples of steel whose magnetic properties are given in the 
accompanying curves and tables were generously furnished by the 
Bethlehem Iron Company, together with a complete chemical analy- 
sis of each specimen. The samples are of regular commercial 
grades, and formed part of the exhibit of this company at the Chi- 
cago World's Fair. 

The method followed in determining the magnetic properties was 
that usually known as Hopkinson's. A large forging of the shape 
and dimensions indicated in Fig. 1 was used, ser\-ing as a short- 
circuiting device for the magnetic lines of force, so that only that 
length of bar is considered which goes from 3/ to M of the block. 




Fig. 1. 

which in the present case was eight inches. The coils which ser\ed 
as a primary had first 900, then 2,000 turns, while the current used 
was varied from .07 to 6 amperes. The secondary, or exploring 
coil, consisted of 90 turns of small wire wound on a spool of hard 
rubber. The test pieces were cut in two and joined right at the 
end of the exploring coil, so that when one part of the piece was 
pulled away, the exploring coil, being attached to a spring, would 
fly out. A d'Arsouval ballistic galvanometer, the complete period 
of which was fifteen seconds, a reversing switch in the primary, 
which served as an excellent device with which to bring the gal- 
vanometer to rest, an ammeter and variable resistances formed the 
rest of the apparatus. 

The experiments were performed as follows: A steady current was 
passed through the primarj', and then the movable piece was pulled 



24000 


T^ 














































































































H.S. 

"io ■ 


^^ 


^S-. 














































^_., 


^ 


--rr.- 


:nrf5 


1 -- 




19503 
































^ 


^-■ 


^' 




.... 












,AOH 


s^ 


-*=■- 


O' 


















10V» 


.-Kr- 


- — • 


^^ 




^^^ 


















3=^ 


r-— rt 


:»* 




^K^ 






1 


1G500 














^; 


^ 


^ 


^^ 












_^^^ 


.-- 


^ 


""^ 




Jb-'"^ 












240_ 


tL— 




-^ 










-jA 


'f^ 










__,. 


^^ 


__-cr 


"^ 


—-■ 


y'"^ 


































^ 


^ 




«aQ 


^.\ 


^^ 


^- 


— ^ 




^-- 


-^ 









































f 


> 




y^'^- 






U"^ 


-0-' 














"^ 


































1', 




^' 












^^ 


^ 


^ 






































— 


9000 
7500 


1 

i 


/: 


,'0 






^^i 


■^ 


^ 












































1 

-4^ 


'o/ 






/ 


/ 


















































1' 




/ 
























































1/ 




/ 






















































3000 


6 


























































1 



ac 



everything was cooked by electricity; there were 120 guests, and 
the number of kilowatt-hours used was 60, for cooking ten courses, 
or one-half a kilowatt-hour per persou; this, at the cost of eight 



out. The exploring coil necessarily cut all the lines of force in 
flying out, thus generating a current which gave the galvanometer 
needle a kick. The number of scale divisions multiplied by th§ 



32 



THB KUKCXKICAL WORLD. 



Vol. XXIV. No. 2. 



galvanometer constant, previousl)' determined, gave then the quan- 
tity (Q) of electricity which was induced in the secondary. From 
the theory of the ballaslic galvanometer, 
10 g/i 

where /t" = resistance of the secondary circuit; 

Z^ number of turns of exploring cojl ; 

* = flux. 
Knowing * we can find /', for 

4 TV NC 10"' 



* = 



/ 



_ 10 / g- 

• '• '' ~ 4 TT NCs 
where iVC= ampere turns in primary; 
/ = length of test piece ; 
s = cross-section test piece. 
We can also find cR from 'l", for * -r- s = (P, 
where (B = number of lines of force per sq. cm, or gausses; 

(B " = (B X 6.45 = " " " " inch. 

Finally we determine JC, for 3C = (B -i- Z'. 
The following tables give the results of experiments: 

A.. — BASIC OPEN HEARTH STEEL COMPOSITION. 



M-ineaiiese* ' " 














. .22 


Plin'iiilinrii'; 














. . .008 
















. .032 
















. .053 




Annealed, 10 S 




Plai 


n, 10 




(B 


/' 


K. 


&" 


(B 


H- 


x: 


&," 


I . . . . 9,110 


1,052 


8.67 


58,760 


11,466 


937 


124 


73,956 


i . . . . 11,498 


929 


12 


74,162 


13,883 


362 


38 


89,546 


.5 . . . . 14,626 


197 


74 


94,338 


14,721 


238 


r62 


94,950 


4 . . . . 15,993 


129 


llA 


103,148 


16. 114 


130 


124 


103,935 


S . . . . 17,852 


72 


248 


115,145 


17,943 


72 


249 


115,733 


6 . . . . 19,525 


S3 


369 


126,007 


19,616 


51 


384 


136,533 


7 . . . . 21,693 


35 


620 


139,920 


21.630 


35 


618 


139,514 


8 . . . . 22,592 


30 


753 


145,718 


22,506 


30 


750 


145,104 


Hardened and Annealed, 


10 HS 




Hardened, 10 H 


(B 


/' 


3C 


t&" 


(B 


/' 


,1C 


&" 


1 . . . .11,219 


1007 


11 


72,363 


5.422 


438 


12 


34,973 


2 . . . 13,574 


488 


28 


87,552 


13,387 


361 


37 


86,346 


3 . . . . 14.689 


237 


62 


94,744 


15,000 


20 


74 


96.750 


4 . . . . 15,371 


160 


96 


99,143 


16.177 


131 


124 


104,343 


5 . . . . 16,052 


115 


139 


103,535 


18,253 


74 


247 


117,733 


1, . . . . 16,982 


85 


200 


109.534 


20,948 


42 


499 


135.114 


7 . . . . 21.631 


42 


515 


139,520 


22.066 


36 


613 


143,336 


8 . . . . 23.3»1 


31 


753 


150,549 


22.655 


305 


743 


146.135 


B.- 


-ACID 


)PEN HEARTH STEEL COMPOSITION . 




Carbon 






























































Silicon 














. . .077 


Annealed, 140 S 






Plai 


1, 140 




iV, 


/' 


oc 


&" 


(B 


/^ 


X 


<&" 


1 . . . . 4,401 


395 


11 


28,386 


3,946 


319 


12 


35 453 


2 . . . . 7,685 


363 


21 


49,So8 


8,863 


339 


37 


57,166 


3 . . . . 9,607 


265 


37 


61, %S 


10, 165 


164 


62 


65.564 


4 . . , . 11.403 


128 


89 


73,549 


13.078 


106 


133 


84.353 


? . . . . U.520 


94 


133 


80,754 


15,080 


61 


347 


97,366 


14.00,S 


56 


250 


90,351 


16.444 


44 


374 


106,0<)4 


7 . , . . 17,757 


35 


507 


114.533 


17.665 


36 


490 


113,939 


8 . . . . 18,904 


31 


610 


121.931 


20. 050 


27 


743 


139,333 


Hardened and Anne.iled, 140 ,X'.S 




Harden 


ed, 140JC 


('^ 


/' 


K 


(B" 


tB 


/' 


X 


(B" 


1 . . . . 7,996 


323 


25 


51,574 










2 . . . . 11,498 


1,86 


62 


74,162 


4,5,50 


92 


49 


39.3+8 


3 . . . . 13,203 


107 


124 


85, 159 


8.554 


69 


134 


55,173 


4 . . . . 14,972 


60 


250 


%,569 


11,6,82 


47 


249 


75,349 


5 . . . . 16,735 


45 


372 


107,941 


13,426 


36 


373 


86,598 


6 . . . . 17,807 


36 


495 


114,855 


15,000 


30 


502 


97,137 


7 . . . . 19,090 




616 


123 131 


16,152 


26 


621 


104.180 


8 . . . . 20,2113 


27 


748 


130,309 


17,331 


23 


749 


111.140 



The curves in Fig. 2 represent only two different qualities of steel, 
each of which was treated in four different ways. Seven 
distinct curves were obtained, some entirely different at low 
points of saturation and intersecting at somewhat higher points. 
These two qualities furnish ample proof of the fact that all curves 
used nowadays — that is, those to which the general public has 
access — are almost useless. There is at least as large a difference in 
different makes of wrought iron as in steel, and, therefore, to u.se 
a conventional curve which happens to be found in textbooks is not 
only very unscientific, but it is also misleading and inaccurate. 
Prof. Kwing states: "At every stage the susceptibility and pennca- 
bility aie less in steel than in iron, " but this is in practice by no 
means the case. Of course, if a good quality of wrought iron is 
compared with a poor quality of steel this will be true, but it is safe 
to say that a great deal of the wrought iron used commerciallv is 
less impure than the quality of steel ( No. 10) tested. In a paper 
read at the Chicago meeting of the American Institute of Klectrical 



Engineers by Messrs. Thompson, Knight and Bacon, a number of 
ca.st steel curves are to be found which intersect the conventional 
Hopkinson wrought iron curve and those of wrought iron .samples 
tested by these gentlemen themselves. This phenomenon may be 
due to the chemical constitution of the specimens tested, as the im- 
purities in wrought iron are not as deleterious at lower saturations 
as at high ones, while in steel the reverse might be true. 

In the course of experimenting it was invariably found that, the 
softer the steel, the more difficulties were encountered in getting 
satisfactory results. A little heating at the end of the test pieces 
would make quite a marked difference, while in the hard steel it 
was comparatively easy to get good results. Mild steel is probably 
more susceptible to magnetic influences, and anj- slight variation 
might have considerable bearing. It might be said that mild steel 
is in a kind of unstable equilibrium. 



Practical Notes on Dynamo Calculations. IX. 

BY ALFRED E. WIENER. 

b. — JRadia/iiig Siir/ace of Ring Arinalurcs. 

In ring armatures the construction and mounting of the core may 
be such that either one, two, three, or all four sides of the cross 
section are in contact with the air, but in modem machines, almost 



?1 1- 



(.+3A.- 



• t — 



Fig. 20. 

without exception, all four, or at least three, of the surfaces consti- 
tuting the ring are radiating areas (Fig. 20). 

In the first mentioned case (four sides) we have the formula; 

Oa = 2 X rf" X rr X (/g -f «^ -f 4 X A„ ), (45) 

and in the latter case (three sides): 

C\ •= dl>^ ^ X i l^ + 2 h^ ) + 2 y. d"^ y. -r X ( t,^ 4- 2 h^ ) (46) 
(^a ^ radiating surface of armature, in square inches; 
(/a = external diameter of armature, in inches; 
d'" = mean diameter of armature core, in inches; 
/a = length of armature core, in inches; 
4n = radial depth of armature core, in inches; 
//a = height of winding space, in inches. 

/S. — Specific Energy Loss. Rise of Armature Temperature. 

While the amount of the consumed energy, IW , formula (42), 
determines directly the quantity of heat generated in the armature, 
the amount of heat liberated from it depends upon the size of its 
radiating surface, upon its circumferential velocit}-, ami upon the 
ratio of the pole area to the radiating surface. 

The most important of these factors in the heat conduction from 
an armature naturally is the size of the radiating surface, while the 
speed and the ratio of polar embrace are of minor influence onlv; 
and it is, therefore, the ratio of the energy- con.sumed in the arma- 
ture to the size of the cooling surface, that is, the specific euergv 
loss, which limits the proportion of heat generated to heat radiated, 
and which consequently affords a measure for the degree of the 
temperature increase of the annature. 

A. H. and C. R. Tiinmermann,* of Cornell t'niversity, who made 
the armature radiation the subject of their paper read before the 
.•\mcrican Institute of lilectrical Kngineers, in May, 1893. from a 
series of elaborate experiments drew the following conclusions: 

(1.) An increa.se of the temperature of the armature causes an 
increa.sed radiation of heat per degree rise in temperature, but the 
ratio of increase diminishes .is the temperature increases, and an 
increase of the amount of heat generated in the annature increases 
the temperature of the armature, but less than proportionate'}-. 

(2. ) As the peripheral velocity is increased, the amount of heat 
liberated per degree rise in temperature is increased, but the rate of 
increase becomes less with the higher speeds. 

(3.) The effect of the field poles is to prevent the radiation of 
heat; as the percentage of the polar embrace is increased, the 
amount of heat radiated per degree rise' in temperature becomes less. 

*.^. H. and C. E. Timraermanu, Transactions Am. Inst, of Elec. Eng., Vol. 
X., p. 336. (1893.) 



July 14, 1894. 



XHE EIvECXRICAL WORI^D. 



33 



Combming these results with the data and tests of various d\iia- 
mos, the author finds the following values given in Table XXX of 
the temperature increase per unit of specific energy loss, that is, for 
every watt of energy dissipated per square inch of radiating surface, 
under various conditions of peripheral velocity and polar embrace: 



TABLE 



XXX.— SPECIFIC TEMPERATURE INCREASE IN 
ARMATURES. 



Rise of temp, per unit of specific energy loss, 
in degrees Centigrade, t-_ 




In Fig. 21 these temperatures are represented graphically ; Curves 

I., II VII., corresponding to Columns 2, 3 ... 8, of Table 

XXX. , respectively. 

Multiplying this specific temperature increase b)' the respective 




k- 



FiG. 21 — Specific Temperature Increase in Armatures. 

specific energy loss, the rise of temperature in any armature can be 
found from: 

JK (47) 

Oa 

where: /a = rise of temperature in armature, in degrees Centi- 
grade; 
Ta = specific temperature increase, or rise of armature tem- 
perature, per unit of specific energy loss, from Table 
XXX. or Fig. 19; 
Wa. = total energy consumed in armature, in watts, formula 

(41); 
Oa ^ radiating surface of armature, in square inches, from 
formula (44), (45) or (46) respectively; 



Oa 



= specific energy loss, i. e. , watts energy loss per square 
inch of radiating surface. 
Empirical Formula for Heating of Drum Ariitatitrcs. 
From te.sts made with drum armatures, Ernst Schulzf derived an 
empirical formula, which, when translated into our symbols and 
units, becomes: 

(Bj X /"x 7VX ,1/ (48) 



.00045 X 



Oa 



/a = rise of armature temperature, in degrees Centigrade ; 

t Ernst Schulz, " Elektrolechn. Zeiischr.,'' Vol. XIV. , p. 367 (June 30, 1893). 
'• The Electrical World," Vol. XXII, p. 118 (Aug. 12, 1893). 



9>a. = magnetic density in armature body, in lines per square inch; 
P^ number of pairs of magnet poles; 
N = Number of revolutions per minute; 
j1/ = mass of iron in armature core, in cubic feet; 
Oa. = armature surface, in square inches. (In his calculations, Mr. 
Schulz, for convenience, takes the external surface of the 

cylindrical part, rf^T x /^ + ^l_q — , instead of the radiating 

surface proper, formula (44), but no fault arises from this, as 
the constant takes care of the difference. ) 

The numerical factor depends upon the units chosen, upon the 
ventilation of the armature, upon the quality of the iron, and upon 
the thickness of the lamination, and consequently varies consider- 
ably in different machines. For this reason, it is advisable not to 
use formula (48). except in case of calculating an annature of an 
existing tj-pe for which this constant is known by experiment. In 
the latter case, Schulz 's formula, although not as exact, is even 
more convenient than the direct equation (47), which necessitates 
the separate calculation of the energy losses, w-hile (48) contains 
the factors determining these losses, and therefore will give the 
result quicker, provided that the numerical factor has been previ- 
ously determined from similar machines. For various drum arma- 
tures experimented upon by Mr. Schulz, the constant variecf between 
.0003 and .0005, and averaged about .00045. 

/p. Circumferential Current Density of Armature. 

An excellent check on the heat calculation of the armature, and 
in most cases all that is really necessary for an examination of its 
electrical qualities, is the computation of the circumferential current 
density of the armature. This is the sum of the currents flowing 
through a number of active armature conductors corresponding to 
unit length of core-periphery, and is found by dividing the total 
number of amperes all around the armature by the body circumfer- 
ence: 

f= .-^^ 149) 



y^Circumferential current density, in amperes per inch length 

of core-periphery ; 
A'^Total number of armature conductors, all around periphery ; 
C=Total current generated in armature, in amperes ; 
2/'=Number of electrically parallel armature portions (number 
of poles) ; 
C 
^p=^ Current flowing through each conductor, in amperes; 

A'X — =1 Total number of amperes all around armature; this 
quantity is called "Volume of the armature current," 
by W. B. Essou, and " circumilux of the armature," 
by Silvanus P. Thompson ; 

da = diameter of armature-body, in inches; in case of a toothed 
armature, on account of the considerably greater winding depth, 
the external diameter, d,i ", is to be taken instead of </<,, in order 
to bring toothed and smooth armatures to about the same basis; for 
a similar reason, for an inner-pole dynamo, the mean diameter, 
da '", should be substituted for da • 

By comparing the values of J found from (49); with the average 
given in the following Table XXXI, the rise of the armature tem- 
perature can be approximately determined, and thus a measure for 
the electrical quality of the armature be gained. The quality of the 
proportion between the armature winding and the dimensions of 
the core is indicated by tlie amount of increase of the armature 
temperature. If the latter is too high, it can be concluded that the 
winding is proportioned excessively, and either should be reduced 
or divided over a larger armature surface. 

TABLE XXXL— RISE OF ARM.\TURE TEMPER-\TURE, 
CORRESPONDING TO VARIOUS CIRCUMFERENTIAL 
CURRENT DENSITIES. 



circumferential 
Current 
Density. 



Rise of Armature Temperature. 


High-speed (belt-driven) 


Slow-speed (direct-driven) 


dynamos. 


dynamos. 


15° to 25°C 


10° to ao°c 


20 •■ 35 


15 •• 25 


30 " SO 


20 " 35 


40 " 60 


25 •• 40 


50 " 70 


30 " 45 


60 " SO 


35 " so 


70 " 90 


40 ■' 60 


80 •' 100 


SO " 70 



34 



THE ELBCXRICAIv \VORLI3. 



Vol.. XXIV. No. 2. 



The diflereuce in the temperature-rise at same circumferential 
current density for high speed and low speed dynamos ( Columns 2 
and 3 respectively, of the above table J is due to the fact that, other 
conditions being equal, in a slow speed machine less energy is 
absorbed by hysteresis and eddy currents; that, consequently, less 
total heat is generated in the armature, and, therefore, more cooling 
surface is available for the radiation of every degree of heat 
generated. 

20- Load Limit and Maximum Safe Output of Armatures. 

From Table XXXI also follows that, according to the temperature 
increase desired, the load carried by an armature varies between SO 
and 800 amperes per inch of circumference, or between about ISO 
and 2,500 amperes per inch of annature diameter. As a limiting 
value for safe working, Esson* gives 1,000 amperes per inch diame- 
ter for ring annatures, and 1,500 amperes for dnin.si. Kappt 
allows 2,000 amperes diametral current density for diameters over 12 
inches as a safe load. 

Taking 1,900 amperes per inch diameter (= 600 amperes per inch 
circumference) as the average limiting value of the armature-load, 
corresponding to a temperature rise of about 70 to 80 degrees Centi- 
grade (see Table XXXI), we have: 

A'X^-^=1,900 X rf„, (50) 

and since, for the output of a dynamo we can write (see Part 
II., chap. 1.) 



Economical Steam Engines and Wasteful Boilers. 



IV=EX C = 



KX ^X N 



X C, 



(51) 



/■xio'xeo 

in which 

lj^= The output of dynamo, in watts ; 
£ = Total E. M. F., generated in armature, in volts ; 
C = Total current, " " " " amperes; 

K = Number of armature conductors ; 
* ^ Number of useful lines of force ; 
/\/ = Speed in revolutions per minute ; 

P z= Half number of parallel armature-circuits (number of 
pairs of poles) ; 
We obtain for the limit of the output, by inserting (50) into 
(51): 

1,900 X (/a X * X A' 63 X (/a X * X A^ 



W = 



(52) 



10» X 30 10* 

But the useful flux, *, is the product of gap area and field-density, 
or 

^_ daX^ d'.Xt., XX, 
2 ^ 
and, consequently, (52) becomes 

JK= 63 XdaX ^^ X P' X taX XXN 



(S3) 



10* 
= dlx taX ?' X X X A^ X 10*; 
W=^ Maximal safe output of armature, in watts ; 
da = Diameter of armature core, in inches ; 
la = Length " " ■ " 

/3 = Percentage of useful gap-circumference ; to be taken some- 
what higher than percentage of polar arc, to allow for 
circumferential spread of the lines of force, see table 
XXXII. 
3C = Field density, in lines of force per square inch : 
A^ = Speed in revs, per minute. 

Average values for ji' taken from practice, are given in the 
following table : 

TABLE XXXII.— PERCENTAGE OF EFFECTIVE GAP CIR- 
CUMFERENCE FOR VARIOUS RATIOS OF POLAR ARC. 





Percentage of Effective Gap Circumference. 


Percentage 

of 


/?' 








li 


2 poles. 


4 to 6 poles. 


8 to 13 poles. 


14 to 30 poles. 


1.00 


1.00 


1.00 


1.00 


1.00 


.95 


.98 


.97 


.965; 


.% 


.90 


.% 


.94 


.93 


.92 


.85 


.94 


.905 


.89 


.88 


.80 


.91 


.87 


.85 


.84 


.75 


.88 


.835 


.81Sj 


.80 


.70 


.85- 


.80 


.78 


.76 


.65 


.82 


.765 


.74 


.72 


.60 


.78 


.73 


.70 


.68 


.55 


.74 


.69 


.665; 


.64 


.50 


.70 


.65 


.625 


.60 



{To be Continued.) 



* Esson, Journal I. E. E. XX. p. 142. (1890.) 

t Kapp, S. P. Thompson*s Dynamo Electric Machinery, 4th Ed. p. 439. 



According to Mr. Rosenthal, one of the speakers in the discus- 
sion on Mr. Crompton's recent paper, says the London Electrical 
Review, Lancashire boilers in Lancashire factories only give an ev- 
aporation of 6 to 7 lbs. per pound of coal. Now the ordinary Lan- 
cashire factory, with compound steam engines, secures a horse power 
hour for 134" lbs. of coal, from which it follows that compound engines 
use only 10 J^ to 12 lbs. of steam per horse power hour. If, therefore, 
Mr. Rosenthal be correct, it would be found possible, by the exer- 
cise of that "great skill and unwearying attention" spoken of by 
Mr. Cronipton, to get 1 horse power hour from only about 6 lbs. of 
steam. Mr. Rosenthal shouldmake further inquiries into the prac- 
tice of the ordinary co-operative concerns in coal consumption, for 
his figures won't stand criticism. He also make thefurther error of 
classing Lancashire water-tube and ordinary tubular boilers on the 
same plane, as regards smoke prevention. Now there is absolutely 
no similitude whatever. The water-tube boiler resembles the upright 
boiler in these respects,for in both the flames and gases from the fur- 
nace rise vertically from the fire surface, whereas in the Lancashire, 
the marine, the underfired,and similar furnaces the gases sweep along 
the fire surface and mingle at one common area over the bridge, 
and it is just this important difference that non-experts entirely 
overtook. Take, for example, the locomotive boiler without a brick 
arch, and where can there be found a boiler that produces smoke so 
freely? The furnace is of the same class as that of the vertical or 
water-tube boiler. Add the brick arch, and at once there is intro- 
duced an entirely different regime, for the brick arch gives m effect 
the common commingling point of the flue boiler, and smokeless- 
ness results. 

In Broadbent's modification of the vertical boiler, an immense 
improvement is effected as regards smoke, simply because the above 
principle is carried into effect. The Lancashire and marine boilers 
are correct in form for smoke prevention, but they are wrong in 
material, for they have water-cooled combustion boxes. The ideal 
boiler, so far as we can read the results of practice, is one with the 
whole, or a great part, of its furnace lined with firebrick, and with 
Serve ribbed tubes beyond the flaming point. Experience alone 
could decide how far to carry the brick lining, but from the fact 
that even now. with care, Lancashire boilers are smokeless, it is 
only a matter of adding a margin to cover the mistakes of the fire- 
man. If makers of water-tube boilers could divorce their minds 
from the vulgar error that a furnace must be hugged by cold sur- 
faces, and would redesign their boilers on sounder lines, they would 
probably beat the Lancashire boiler at all points except that of 
steady steaming, which they could only secure by adding to their 
water capacity, and the power to use dirtj- wate'r, when this is com- 
pulsory. Unless they do this, they will continue to demand costly 
smokeless fuel, which is of all fuels most distant from the majority 
of the power-using centers of this country. 

It will be noted that, while Mr. Crompton has said much on the 
subject of forcing boilers, he has, even in his corrected reply, not 
given a single figure bearing upon the rate of fuel combustion per 
foot of grate. Vague generalities about doing 50 per cent, beyond 
its normal power tell nothing. The normal horse power of a Bab- 
cock boiler is based on 30 llis. of steam per horse power hour; put 
such a boiler to drive a 15-lb. engine, and at once it is doing 100 
per cent, beyond its normal. 

It is simply begging the question to omit the amount and rate of 
coal consumption when bragging about results in forcing a boiler. 
Rated horse power is simph- a later form of the old nominal horse 
power — utterl)- valueless. Of what possible good can it be to talk 
in one breath of a boiler horse power which means 30 lbs. steam 
and a Willans, Sulzer or other modern engine horse power which 
means 12 lbs. of steam, more or less. 

We had hoped that the nominal horse was a dead one, and little to 
be expected at a meeting of electrical engineers. It is to be 
regretted that Mr. Crompton in his reply adheres to the statement 
that an economizer can cover a stoker's mistakes. The idea is as 
mischievous in practice as it is erroneous in conception. Never 
miud, we are told in effect, how cold you allow the furnaces to 
become, so long as you have an economizer to take the heat up — to 
absorb heat never generated! When the stoker is firing badly, he 
is wasting no heat to the economizer — he is not producing any heat 
to waste. How, then, can the economizer pick up what has not 
been dropped? Bad firing is bad for every class of boiler, and 
equally so for the feed heater, and Mr. Crompton's ideas on this 
question are entirely opposed to all known physical facts, and it 
would be interesting to have him explain how he arrives at his con- 
clusions. 



JfLY 14, 1804. 



THE ELECTRICAL V^ORLD. 



35 












Y\U^^T"<J'^t:.^ 







ELECTRO-PHYSICS. 
A New Phenomenon. — In a paper by Mr. Lehmann in "Wied. Ann.," 
vol. 52, No. 7, a translation of which is given in the Lond. " Elee.," 
June 22, he describes the following phenomenon ; if a 70 volt current is 
passed through an aqueous solution of Congo red, a sharply marked halo 
is formed around both electrodes, having a blue color at the anode ?nd 
"somewhat paler (red?) than the rest of the solution" at the cathode, 
but divided from it by a dark boundary ; the two halos extend rapidly 
and finally meet in the middle, at which moment a dark blue pigment 
is precipitated at that point on the side toward the anode, while toward 
the cathode the solution becomes colorless; at the same time the liquid 
shows great disturbance where the dark blue and the colorless strata 
meet, while the rest remains perfectly quiet ; the experiment is more con- 
veniently made by thickening the solution with gelatine, sugar or 
glycerine. He describes the nature of the phenomenon as follows : the 
dissociated molecules appearing at the electrodes are given charges of 
the same sign by contact with them, and approach each other along the 
lines of force until they encounter molecules with which they combine 
chemically. The examination of a large number of other solutions gives 
precisely corresponding results, sometimes with very interesting details, 
among them being gelatinous aqueous solutions of marine blue, saffranin, 
chrysoidin, etc. Whether colorless solutions also show the phenomenon, 
it is difficult to say, since the migration of the halos is only indicated by 
the formation of color, not by the formation of stripes. If the solution 
contains fine dust particles, a jerky motion of these is often observed 
where the edge of such a halo passes a particle. By filling a liquid with 
numerous small particles, the migration of the halos may be observed 
by means of changes in their density of distribution with nearly the same 
ease, commercial liquid India ink being especially suited for this purpose, 
if thickened with sugar or glycerine. 

Hertzian Waves. — In connection with the subject mentioned in the 
Digest, June 30, under "Causes of Short Circuits," the Compiler has 
received a communication from Prof. Elihu Thomson, in which he states 
that as early as 1877, while working with a Ruhmkorff induction coil, 
one terminal of which was grounded and the other attached to an insu- 
lated metallic body, he and Prof. Houston noticed that when sparks were 
passing between the terminals of the coil, it was possible to obtain 
minute sparks from all the metallic bodies in the immediate neighbor- 
hood in the same room, and that delicate sparks could be obtained 
between small pieces of metal held in the hand near metallic bodies in 
any part of the building, even though the pieces were not grounded ; 
these, he said, could only have been Hertzian effects. In connection 
with Prof. Lodge's coherer (see Digest July 7). Prof. Thomson relates 
the case of an electro-plater who found that he could not conduct his 
silver plating operations during thunder storms ; it was found that he 
had considerable excess of batterj- power, and that his connections 
included a number of bad contacts of high resistance ; under these cir- 
cumstances a flash of lightning would cause coherence at the bad contacts, 
thus increasing the conductivity so as to cause an excess of flow of cur- 
rent. He suggests the use of Dr. Lodge's instrument in the study of 
waves propagated during thunder storms, about which practically very 
little knowledge exists. 

M'ork of //tv7r.— Prof. Lodge's lecture is concluded in the Lond. 
."Elec," June 22; he gives some interesting experiments with his coherer 
(see Digest last week) and describes some optical and other experiments. 

Electrostatic Rotation in Rarified Gases.— K translation of a paper by 
Mr. Arno is published in the Lond. "Elec." and "Elec. Rev.," June 22; 
he uses a small miUwheel made of four verj- delicate brass vanes, 
mounted in a glass bulb containing very highly rarified air; by using a 
completely metallic mill-wheel, he was sure of eliminating all direct 
action of the rotating field upon the %'anes of the wheel and of ascertain- 
ing the new effects due to the presence of the rarified gases; this appa- 
ratus is introduced between two pairs of couper strips arranged like a 
cylinder around this bulb cut longitudinally int" four pieces; the brass 
vanes then commence to rotate in the same direction as the field itself ; 



with an alternating current of a frequency of 40, a distance [of 15[cm. 
between the strips, and a difference of potential of 7,500 volts, the 
intensity of the field was 1.67 C. G. S. electrostatic units, and the metallic 
wheel acquired a velocity of 50 turns per minute. Experiments showed 
that in the open air no such rotation will take place even iu very intense 
fields, and that the cause of the phenomenon must therefore be looked 
for in the forces developed inside of the bulb, which are indirectly 
excited by a special action exercised by the rotating field upon the rare- 
fied gases. 

MAGNETISM. 

Magnetization of Iron. — A Royal Society paper by Messrs. Hopkinson 
& Wilson is abstracted very briefly in the Lond. "Elec. Rev.," June 
2 ; the object was to investigate the effects of the electric currents induced 
in the iron in delaying the reversal of the magnetism in the centre of 
the core when the magnetizing current is reversed; the solid cylindrical 
magnet had a diameter of four inches and formed a closed magnetic cir- 
cuit; exploring coils of fine wire were embedded in the iron, and the cur- 
rents in the coils were observed when the main current was reversed, 
these currents in some cases lasted over half a minute , in cylinders of 
dift'erent diameters similar events occur, but at times proportional to the 
squares of the diameters of the cylinders; some conclusions are drawn 
regarding the effects of local currents in the cores of transformers and 
armatures, but they are not given in the abstract. 

Simple^Eqiiation for Magnetic Resistance. — A paper by Mr. Joubin is 
mentioned briefly in the Lond. "Elec," June 22; he transforms Van der 
Waal's well known formula for the density and pressure of gas into cor- 
responding quantities in magnetic terminology and arrives at Froelich's 
formula ; as there is an abrupt change in the curve for a fluid when the 
vapor tension becomes zero and a change of state occurs, so there is an 
abrupt change in the magnetic curve at saturation, and it is the intention 
of the author to investigate this point in order to obtain, if possible, a 
simple fundamental equation for the magnetic resistance. 

Intense Magnetic Field. — The magnet for producing the most intense 
field that has been generated, mentioned in the Digest June 30, is illus- 
trated in "L'Ind. Elec," June 10. 

UNITS, MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTS. 

Finding Faults in Coils.— X\ie following method is described by Mr. 
Campbell in the Lond. "Elec," June 22; it applies more particularly when 
the fault between some unknown part of the coil and its bobbin has a 
variable resistance. A high resistance galvanometer is connected with 
the bobbin, and with first one and then the other of the free ends of the 
coil another coil is wound aiound the coil to be tested and is used as a 
primarj' through which a battery current is made to pass, the faulty coil 
acting as the secondary ; the throw of the galvanometer is observed first 
for one terminal and then for the other, the number of turns up to the 
fault is then proportional to these two deflections, from which the fault 
is then localized. If the resistance of the fault is variable the galva- 
nometer resistance ought to be high as compared with it: a ballistic gal- 
vanometer should be used if possible ; if not sensitive enough, an iron core 
should be inserted and should preferably be laminated ; this will also 
make the method more accurate ; the primary coil may then be wound 
around the iron core instead of around the coil, the iron circuit being 
completed ; an alternating current maj- also be used. A rough test may 
be made by placing a compass needle at the centre of the coil and noting 
the deflections when a battel y is connected, first between the bobbin and 
one end of the coil and then between the bobbin and the other end. 

Grassot Meter.— An illustrated description is given in "L'Ind. E'ec," 
June 10, a translation of which, together with the illu.strations, is given 
in the Lond. "Elec. Eng. ," June 15. It is extremely simple but appears 
to be intended only for small powers. A vertical silver wire, accurately 
calibrated in diameter, has its lower end resting on a glass plate, the end 
being immersed in a solution of nitrate of silver; a plate in the solution 
forms the other electrode ; as the current passes, the end of the wire is 
consumed and a weight attached to the wire forces it down as fast as con- 



36 



THE ELECXRICAI^ WORLD. 



Vol. XXIV. No. 2. 



sumcd; a simple regristering device operated by the descending wire 
indicates the current consumed in ampere-hours. The working potential 
is obtained by inserting a resistance in the lighting circuit which, for a 
meter of a maximum of three amperes, is equal to 0.4 ohm; a high 
resistance, in this case 2,750 ohms, is placed in scries with the silver 
wiie, and as this forms the greater part of the resistance, the ratio of the 
currents may be taken as equal to that of these resistances; the error in 
this meter is 6 per cent, for 0.5 amperes, 2 per cent, for 1.5 amperes and 
for 3 amperes; these meters can be used in installations of from 1 to 
6 lamps and their cost is quite small. 

Bolnmelet.—Thi: Edelmann bolometer is described and illustrated in the 
Lond. "Elec. Rev., " June 22 ; four thin blackened iron wires are stretched 
between suitable contact blocks, forming the four arms of a Wheatstone 
bridge, a resistance being inserted to bring about the balance; a differ- 
ence of temperature of 0.0001° C. between two of the wires will give a 
deflection of 20 mm. at one meter, with a current of 0.25 ampere in the 
main circuit. 

Lippmann Electrometer.— Mr. Bouty, in a paper read before the French 
Academy of Sciences, abstracted in "I/Ind. Elec." June 10, stated that 
the initial capacity of mercury is 140 microfarads per square centimetre 
after it has been in contact for some time with acidulated water, and that 
it decreases from that value to 28. 

Spark Photographing.— An instrument for photographing falling 
bodies, or the splash of a drop, for instance, is briefly described and 
illustrated in the Lond. "Elec. Rev.," June 22. 

DYNAMOS AND MOTORS. 

Dynamos for Charging Accumulators. — In an article by Mr. Rech- 
niewski in"L'Elec.," June 16, a translation of which together with the 
illustrations is given in the Lond. "Elec. Eng.," June 22. he describes 
an interesting improvement in the construction of such machines. When 
a dynamo is to be used for charging accumulators during the day and for 
direct lighting at night, it should run properly at, say, 110 volts for small 
loads, direct lighting, 120 volts for full load, direct lighting, and 170 volts 
for charging accumulators; to comply with these conditions and have the 
machine run in a stable manner and without sparking, is difficult; it 
constructed for 170 volts it will be unstable if run at 110 volts, that is, 
for the slightest variation in the velocity or in the output, the voltage 
will vary considerably ; if constructed for 110 volts it is almost impos- 
sible to run without sparking at a higher voltage ; the result could be 
accomplished by changing the speed, but this is impracticable; it could 
be accomplished by separate excitation from the accumulators but it will 
be difficult in that case to run without sparking. Referring to the adjoin- 
ing figure, the tangent of the angle B O B is proportional to the resist- 





y 






Volts 


1 








1 G 


D 


L • 


' 






/ 








' y^ 


/ 




I'll 




/c/ 










// / 










/ / 








// 

Y 1 * 


/ 


d' 


b' 



Dynamos for Charging Accumulators. 

ance of the exciting circuit; this can be varied with a rheostat under the 
conditions that the angle is smaller than that .of the tangent T O to the 
curve at the origin, for if larger, the machine will not be stable; for this 
reason the excitation cannot be reduced below the point A and preferably 
not below the point C ; as heating would occur above an excitation of 
11,000 ampere turns corresponding to 130 volts, this machine has a range 
of only 30 volts; if, however, from the point C the characteristic can be 
changed to the dotted line, a range of 50 volts can be obtained without 
too much heat ; this is aoomplished by using very small teeth on the 
armature, so small that they are not saturated at 100 volts, while the field 
and armature are then still far from saturation ; the saturating of the teeth 
gives the first part of the characteristic, after which the teeth will act as 
an air space and the characteristic will again become nearly straight, but 
with a different inclination; the same principle caij be applied to over- 
compounded dynamos. 

Synchronous Alternating Current Motor. — A paper by Piof. Ferraris 
is abstracted in "L'Ind. Elec," June 10; it is theoretical in character and 
leads to a new possible combination resulting in a synchronous alter- 
nating motor with an alternating field, the possibilities of which have as 
yet not been pointed out by any one ; the theory is promised in a subse- 
quent article. In a simple alteniating current motor with a constant field, 
imagine that the field in which the armature turns, instead of being con- 
stant is altcinatiiig, and has the same frequency as the current traversing 
the armature ; it is easily shown that in this case the machine can act as 



a dynamo, or as a synchronous motor, the armature revolving at an angu- 
lar velocity equal to double the frequency ; it is thus possible to con- 
struct a synchronous alternating motor with an alternating field; such a 
motor may be started by using temporarily a di-phasc current until 
synchronous speed is obtained, by means similar to those suggested by 
Mr. Brown. 

A translation from the Italian of an article by Mr. Arno is published 
in the Lond. "Elec. Rev.," June 22; he gives a very complete table of 
13 columns of data, the results of 14 tests of a 15 h. p. single phase 
synchronous motor of the Brown type, for 150 volts, 800 revolutions, 40 
periods and weighing 1200 lbs. ; curves for some of the principal measure- 
ments are also given ; the first test was when the motor was at rest, thus 
giving the starting torque, the second when it was running at full speed 
but unloaded, and the others when loaded up to full load; the results do 
not admit of being abstracted; when delivering 0.78 h. p. the efficiency 
was 0.49 and when it gave 15.47 h. p. the efficiency was 0.82; the high- 
est efficiency, 0.88, was obtained when running at 9 to 14 effective h. p. ; 
the force on the lever arm of the brake while at rest is about 1-7 that 
when it ran at its normal load. 

See also abstract under "Diphase Transmission of Power." 

ARC AND INCANDESCENT LIGHTS. 

Gas vs. Electricity. — In an inaugural address bv the president of a Gas 
Institute, published in the Lond. "Elec. Eng.," June 22, an argument is 
given in favor of using gas and it is claimed that light from gas can be 
produced from 3 to 3'/i percent, cheaper than the price for which the 
equivalent electric light can be sold so as to produce the same profit that 
is being derived from the manufacture of gas. 

The same journal contains the first part of a paper by Mr. Chew, read 
before a gas institute, which is very elementary in character and argues 
in favor of gas for the city of Blackpool. See also abstract under "Elec- 
tric Light from Gas Engines." 

Incandescent Gas Burners. — A report from the German by Mr. Muer- 
chall is referred to editorially in the Lond. "Elec," June 22; his expe- 
rience is based on 37 to 471 burners; he thinks the mantels are strong 
enough to withstand the natural shocks ; 60 c. p. can be obtained from 
3.5 cu. ft. of gas per hour; the chimneys^ costing 6 cts. , have to be re- 
newed about every 600 hours, and the mantles, costing 6 cts., every 500 
hours, during which time they lose 4 per ctnt. in candle-power. 

TRANSMISSION OF POWER. 
Diphase Transmission of Power. — A very full description, together 
with a large number of illustrations, of a plant at the Decizee collieries 
in France is given in "L'Ind. Elec," June 10; a brief abstract is given 
in the Lond. "Elec. " and Lond. "Elec. Eng., " June 22, but without illus- 
trations. The generating station is over three miles from one of the 
extreme points and almost two miles from the other, and has a capacity 
ot 200 kilowatts, the generators consisting of a sort of twin alternator; 
the current is transmitted almost entirely on overhead wires. The motors 
have the stationary parts like the dynamos of the same power, but with 
double the number of poles; for thos; of 30 h. p., the illustrations of 
which are given, the number of poles is 16, that is, 8 for each circuit 
connected in series ; the induction in the cores is 4. 5 kilogausses ; ihe cur- 
rents create a rotating field of a velocity of 630 revolutions per minute ; 
the moving armature has a hollow cylinder as core, carrying tangential 
coils in grooves; for normal running the armature is short-circuited; for 
starting, the two currents are led out through sliding contacts to two 
resistances, consisting of metallic plates immersed in a solution of sul- 
phate of copper. When not loaded the speed is only 1 per cent, below that 
of synchronism, for half the charge it is 2.5 per cent, and for full charge 
from 5 to 6 per cent. ; the induced currents in the armature represent almost 
the entire work corresponding to this loss of velocity; the efficiency is 
80 per cent, at half charge and 88 per cent, at full charge; the motors 
require attention only once in 6 or 8 hours. 

ELECTRIC RAILWAYS. 

Gas Power Traction. — The Lond. "Elec," June 22, refers editorially 
to recent experiments in Croydon. The car contains three cylindrical gas 
holders with a sufficient supply for an 8-mile run ; the car is 18 ft. long, 
and weighs, with machinery, 5!j tons; an Otto motor, constructed spe- 
cially for tramway work with slow and quick speed, is used; the ignition 
is effected electrically', and a condenser is used ; an 8 h. p. gas engine at 
the station compresses the gas taken from the city mains into the cylin- 
ders, this power being sufficient for 5 cars ; the pressure in the cylinders 
is about 20 lbs. per sq. in. at starting, and the cost of the gas is said to be 
2 cts. per mile, run with a fully loaded car. It is thought that the capi- 
tal per horse-power is relatively greater than for electric traction, and that 
the starting effort is more disadvantageous for gas motors than for elec- 
tric motors; also that the <-ooling of the cylinders must involve some 
difiicultici. 

Tramuays in Germany.— An itemized estimate of costs of a small 
horse car line and an electric line in Germany is gi^'en in the Lond. 
"Elec," June 22; the total cost of the former is about $37,000 for a 
length of about 8 miles, and the co«t of operation 5.44 cts. per car mile; 
while for the latter the figures are about $56,000 and 3.44 cts. 

Hamburg Tramway. — .\n illustrated description of this road, equipped 
by the Thomson-Houston Company, is published in the Lond. "Elec. 
Rev.," June 22. 

Lyons. — The illustrated description of this trolley line is concluded in 
"L'Elec," June 9 and 16; a number of details are illustrated. 



July 14, 1894. 



THE EIvECTRICAIv WORLD. 



37 



CENTRAL STATIONS, PLANTS, SYSTEMS AND APPLLA.NCES. 

Elect ric Light Gas Engines. — In an article by Mr. de Segundo, in the 
Lond. "Elec. Rev.," Jnne 22, he shows the great economy in using gas 
engines for generating current for lighting, giving all the details in his 
estimates, and making due allowance for all losses; he finds that 33.3 cu. 
ft. of g« correspond to the production of one kilowatt-hour, which, how- 
ever, is not likely to be realized continuallj' in practice ; on the basis of 
2.5 watts per candle of an incandescent lamp, he shows that 1,000 cu. ft. 
consumed per hour in a gas engine corresponds to 10,000 candle -hours, 
while if burnt in a gas burner at the rate of 5 cu. ft. per hour, per 16 can- 
dles, it will yield only 3,200 candle-power-hours, thus show-ing a very 
considerably greater efficiency in the transformation of gas into light by 
means of gas engines. He quotes at some length from an article by Mr. 
Bourquien, published in "La Lum. Elec," Jan. 13-20 (see Digest, Feb. 
10, 17, and March 3) on the basis of 18 cu. ft. per brake h. p. per hour^in 
large engines, he obtains 13,200 candle-hours electrically and 3,200 when 
burned in burners, showing a ratio of 4.125, from which he concludes 
that it is not unreasonable to say that it is practically possible to get four 
times the illuminaiion per cubic foot from a gas engine, and using it for 
electric lights ; he shows that in a very large station the saving in fuel 
would be nearly 200 tons of coal per annum. A similar comparison is 
made between arc lamps and high candle-power gas burners; for the 
former he assumes one watt per effective caudle, and for the latter 6. 71 
candles per cu. ft. per hour in the Wenham gas burner, in which case 
also a very marked economy is shown in favor of the arc lamps. In 
referring to the article by Mr. Bourquin, he mentions the equation from 
which the equivalent number of arc and Wenham lamps for equal total 
cost can be calculated ; he works out some figures and shows that, for 
instance, if a building requires more light than from 24 Wenham lamps 
of 130 candle-power each, it is cheaper to put down a gas engine plant 
and run arc lamps, than to use eas lamps, a result which he thinks should 
be accepted with much reserve, as the limit of candle-power, he thinks, 
is too low. 

The Lond. "Elec. Eng. ," June 22, contains a translaHon of an article 
by Mr. Wizt, given somewhat more fully in "L'Ind. Elec," June 10, 
on the price of energy supplied by gas engines ; with gas at three cents 
per cu. m. the annual price of 150,000 lamp-hours, with 15 c. p. lamps, 
is 1.06 cents pei hectowatt-hour, for 450,000 it is .836 cent and for 1,500,- 
000 it is .704 cent; these figures are based on balance sheets, in which 
provision has been made for interest and redemption at IS per cent., but 
without allowing any profit ; the expenses, however, are reduced, because 
the leads are short, it being proposed to erect stations consisting of a 
dynamo and a gas engine in the immediate neighborhood of a small col- 
lection of houses; for a group of 1,000 lamps requiring 65 kilowatts, he 
gives the detailed estimate of the cost of installation and the cost of run- 
ning for a total of 97,500 kilowatt-hours, the results being an initial cost 
of $13 per lamp and 7 cents as the cost per kilowatt-houror 0.5 cent per 
16 c p lamp-hour. 

Re/itse Destrttctors. — In an editorial in the Lond. "Elec. Rev.," June 
22, a paper by Mr. Baker is referred to; from his experiments he con- 
cludes that one pound of "breeze" sifted from the Paddington refuse will 
evaporate 21 M lbs. of water; the average consumption was six tons of 
breeze and one ton of coal, costing $10.50, which did the work of three 
tons of coal costing $15.75; he places no reliance on refuse used alone, 
nor does he favor its use unsifted ; in order to obtain a red heat temper- 
ature he introduces an additional furnace burning some high class fuel ; 
of q^total of 100 tons of refuse, 70 disappeared in the furnace, Being prob- 
ably mostly water. 

In a communication to the Lond. "Elec. Eng.," June 22, by Mr. Sil- 
cock, it is concluded that however successful the system of storage of 
power may be, there is not even sufficient power in the refuse of a town 
for public lighting alone, without considering the question of private 
lighting; a few figures are given to prove this. 

Centra! Stations in Germany. — "L'Ind. Elec," June 10, publishes 
at some length, including large double page tables, the results given in 
the German articles referred to in the Digest, June 2, 16 and 23. 

Brussels. — A description of this station, with a few illustrations, is 
begun in "L'Elec. , " June 16. 

Glasgmc: — The discussion of Mi. Arnot's paper on this station is given 
in the Lond. "E'ec. Eng.," June 22. 

WIRES, WIRING AND CONDUITS. 
Cable for Ships.— KX. the Royal Society Exhibition Mr. Wimshurst 
showed a swivel for avoiding the kinks in cables attached to lightships ; 
it consists essentially of two coils which are capable of turning on a com- 
mon axis, mechanically connected but electrically disconnected, by mean^ 
of which the current is transmitted over the swivel joint by induction. 

TELEGRAPHY, TELEPHONY AND SIGNALS. 

Duplex. — Another communication in the discussion which has been 
going on in the Lond. "Elec. Rev." is published in the issue of June 22. 

Telegraph belzveen India and Europe. — A short article on the reduced 
rate of such telegraph is published in the Lond. "Elec. Rev.," June 22. 

Pacific Cable. — .Several other letters are published in the Lond. "Elec. 
Rev.," June 15. The Lond. "Elec. Eng.," June 22. containsan editorial 
on this subject. 

ELECTRO-CHEMLSTRV. 

Primary Battery for Lighting. — The Lond. "Elec. Rev.," June 22, 
mentions but does not describe a new battery which has been used with 



some success in England; it is called the "Fulgur" and i^ an improved 
form of Daniel's cell ; the chief improvement in the cell is in the septum, 
which consist of a preparation of cork somewhat resembling a certain 
floor cloth ; the installation consisted of 50 lamps of 10 c p. A storage bat- 
tery is used and is divided into six sets, which are charged four hours at 
a time, one after the other in succession, once in 24 hours, the connections 
being made by an automatic switch operated by a clock ; proper circu- 
lation of the fluids and the supply of copper sulphate and water ate pro- 
vided for; no figures regarding costs are given. 
MISCELLANEOUS. 

Resuscitation ajter Electric .Shocts. — Some weeks ago an article was 
abstracted in these colums stating that Dr. d'Arsonval claims that a man 
apparently killed b5- an electric shock should be treated like one who 
has been drowned: in an article by that author in fie Lond. "Elec. 
Rev.," June 22, ' L'Ind. Elec. ," June 10 and 'L'Elec," June 9," this is 
modified by the statement that he had shown in 1887 that electricity occa- 
sions death in two very different manners : by lesion or destruction of the 
tissues (disruptive and electrolytic effects of the charge) or by excite- 
ment of the nerve centres, producing the arrest of respiration and syn- 
cope, but without material injuries; in the former case death is final, 
while m the latter it is merely apparent, and it is then possible to 
resuscitate the victim by artificial respiration, as in drowning; he claims 
that the alternating currents used in the execution of criminals in New 
York State produce nearly always the second kind of death. 

Electric Cooking. — In an editorial in the Lond. "Elec," June 22, it 
is suggested that instead of using an expensive kettle or an inefficient hot 
plate, an ordinary kettle could be used with an apparatus called a boil- 
ing stick, which is simply placed in the water to be heated, like a red 
hot poker ; a silver tube with double walls containing a resistance of about 
14 ohms ought to boil a pint of water in five minutes. 

Sonometer. — At the Royal Society Exhibition Mr. Hawksley showed an 
instrument for measuring the acuteness of hearing, based on a note pro- 
duced in a telephone by means of a make and break current in a soit of 
transformer in which the primary may be moved relatively to the second- 
ary, the distance between the coils at which the sound appears to cease 
being a measure of the acuteness of hearing. 

New Book. 



ELECTRICITY' ONE HUNDRED Y'EARS AGO AND TO-DAY. With 
Copious Notes and Extracts. By Edwin J. Houston, Ph. D. (Prince- 
ton). New Y'ork : The W. J. Johnston Company, Ltd. 199 pages, illus- 
trated. Price $1.00. 

Professor Dolbear in a recent address referred to the prevalent saying 
"Electricity is in its infancy'"' in the following words: "Electricity is 
not in its infancy. Despite what has been done, there is nothing in the 
present u-se of electricity but what has been known for many years. Arc 
lights were known eighty years ago ; the telegraph is sixty years old, the 
telephone thirty, and the incandescent lamp ditto. We are not at work 
with new things or on new principles. If you are running a motor with 
electricity, it is not a new discovery in electricity to apply the same 
power to the operation of a lathe or a street car." At the present time, 
when the belief is so widespread that electrical science has sprung up 
in a day, it is convenient to have at hand an historical resume to check 
the many statements made to this effect, and the work b}* Prof. Houston 
serves this purpose admirably, besides being a most agreeably written 
book for general reading. 

In tracing the history of electrical science from practically its birth to 
the present daj*, the author states he has, wherever possible, consulted 
original sources of information, and he was fortunate in having at his 
disposal for this purpose the excellent library of the Franklin Institute, 
containing, as it does, perhaps the most complete collection of scientific 
publications of the last century- to be found in this country. 

.\s a result of these researches, several rei'isions as to the date of dis- 
covery of some important principles in electrical science are made neces- 
sary. For example. Prof. Houston finds that Sir Humphrey Davy was 
anticipated in the discovery of the electric arc by many others, and in 
fact did not claim to have been the first discoverer of the brilliant 
effects of the arc. Proper credit is given to Gilbert for his inductive 
methods and in an appendixseveral writers are quoted to show that Bacon 
has been honored above his merit in this respect. 

While, as the author states, the compass of the book does not permit 
of anj- other than a general treatment of the subject, yet numerous refer- 
ences are given in foot notes, which also in many cases quote the words 
in which a discovery was first announced to the world, or give more 
specific information in regaid to the subjects mentioned in the main por- 
tion of the book. This feature is one of interest and value, for often a 
clearer idea may be obtained from the words of a discoverer of a phe- 
nomenon or principle than is possible through other sources. 

An examination shows that the work is not a mere catalogue of subjects 
and dates, nor is it fouched in technical language that only appeals to a 
few. On the contrary, one of its most admirable features is the agreeable 
style in which the work is written, its philosophical discussion as to the 
cause and effect of various discoveries, and its personal references to 
great names in electrical science. Much information as to electrical phe- 
nomena aiay also be obtained from the book, as the author does not seem 
to be satisfied to merely give the history of a discovery, but also adds a 
concise and clear explanation of it. 

NOTES. 

The Buyers' Reference has appeared, in its issue for the second quarter 
of 1894, in a new form. The size has been sufficiently enlarged to include 



38 



THE BLECTRICAI^ WORLO. 



Vol.. XXIV. No. 2. 



a finted column running through the book, which contains an alphabet- 
ical classified list of manufacturers of all apparatus, machineries and 
supplies used by the electrical street railway and allied industries. The 
typographical excellence of the publication continues to be maintained. 

Portable Electric Deck Planer. 



BY CH-iV-S. J. DOUGHEKTV. 

The portable electric deck planer mentioned recently in an article on 
"Klcctricity at Cramp's Shipyard" and herewith illustrated, was imported 
from London by The Wm. Cramp & Sons Ship and Engine Building Co. , 
of Philadelphia, to plane the decks of men-of-war and transatlantic 
steamers now in course of construction at their yard. Being a novelty, it 
has created quite a little curiosity among the workmen and visitors, and 
at present is in use planing the decks of the Government cruiser Minne- 
apolis. It was manufactured by Mavor & Coulson, Glasgow, after 
Sayer's patent. 

The motor rests upon a strong rectangular cast-iron frame, supported on 
the front end by a solid cylindrical roller 3M inches in diameter, and at the 



any desired depth of cut by means of a thumb screw attached to the lever. 
The handles for propelling the machine are bolted directly to the frame. 
The K-inch rods hold the handles in position, and attached to the upper 
part of the right hand handle is placed the single pole knife switch 
mounted upon a small slate block. Brass couplings are also on this 
bl.ick for attaching the conducting wires, which consist of the lengths of 
flexible hemp cable about 100 feet long to allow suflScient run for the 
machine. 

An ordinary rosette with fuse is attached to the cable, and the power is 
given to the motor by attaching the rosette to any of the temporary wires 
supplying current to the incandescen. lamps throughout the ship. From 
the block two 8-stranded wires conduct the current to the mo' or, and are 
held in place by five brass clips secured into the frame handle and insu- 
lated from the same by hard fibre. A square brass box is fitted over the 
slate block at the handle and offers a protection from injury to the wires 
or switch. The motor is entirely incased when in use, although the illus- 
trations do not show it, so that it is impossible for shavings or dust to 
touch the commutator or interfere with the machine. The wooden han- 
dles made to fit over the iron have been introduced to protect the opera- 



S ^1^ . '^ . J 




Electric Deck Pl.vner. 



far end by the 4-inch wheels connected by a K-inch shaft. The motor is 
bolted down to this frame, and its weight with that of the roller is sufii- 
cient to give the machine a solid bearing surface upon the deck. The motor 
is series wound, of the iron-clad type; the fields and armature are incased 
in a M-inch solid casting,in the top or which is screwed a 2-inch eye bolt 
to facilitate the handling of the heavy machine from place to place. It is 
designed for twenty amperes at 100 volts and has a speed of 3,000 revolu- 
tions per minute. The commutator consists of twenty segments aud the 
armature is of the drum type. Copper gauze Ifrushcs were used on the 
commutator at first, but owing to the rapid wearing of the copper, causing 
the circuit to open at the brushes and throwing the machine out of com- 
mission by necessitating the removal of the covering at the commutator 
end, solid carbon brushes were substituted, and have given perfect sat- 
isfaction. 

The motion of the armature shaft is transmitted through a train of three 
gears, without any reduction, to the shaft, upon which arc mounted the 
knives, and located immediately under the armature. There are two 
knives bolted to this shaft, set at 90 degrees apart. The cut of the knives 
is regulated by the rear wheels, which support the fianie of the machine, 
and the shaft connecting these wheels is raised or lowered in the cast- 
iron frame by the action of an eccentric, whose throw is 3-16 of an inch, 
and operated by a small lever, as seen in the illustration, at the back of 
the motor. This lever moves in a slotted arc and is made stationary for 



tor's hand from soreness consequent from constantly pressing ag^ainst the 
planer when working. 

Very little power is required to propel the machine over the deck; the 
operator by pressing the lever at the handle closes the switch, the motor 
starts, the knives in turn revolve, and pushing the planer along by hand " 
the sharp steel knives plane down the rough deck to the smoothness of a 
ball room floor. The machine can do the work of fitty men in one day, 
and while it may .seem on this account that it should be considered an 
enemy by the workingmen, on the contrary, its coming was heralded 
with delight, for the hardest and most tedious part of ship joiner work 
is the olaning down of decks by hand. 



Ignorance of American Practice. 

In arecent preliminary report made for the city of Newcastle, England, 
the cable system was recommended as preferable to electricity, on the 
grounds that there was difficulty in "applying any electric system to 
towns where there are hills to surmount." The engineer. Ml. Laws, who 
made this statement, and who appears to be a mechanical, and not an 
electrical engineer, has evidently never seen nor heard of the electric 
lines in this country. We would suggest that he take advantage of the 
first opportunity to inspect the electric railways of the United States. 



JlT.Y 14, 18')4. 



THE ELECTRICAL WORLIJ. 



39 



A New Switch. 



BY P. E. MARCHAND. 

It is sometimes desired to have three or four switches to control the 
sa6ie light or group of lights from different points. Having had to work 
out the case of three independent switches on a hall light some time 
ago, and seeing no multiple switches advertised except the three-way 
switch, which only covers two points, I made the following switch, 
which works in series with the ordinary three-way switches, and allows 




Fig. 1. — New Switch. 



nber of switches to be used independently on the same light 
a and b are ordinary three-way switches, c and d are the 
two wires running between them, and, as shown in the diagram, these 
two wires enter into every intermediate switch, so that there are four 
terminals in each of the latter; •?, e, e, e, are four binding posts, to 
which wires are attached, as shown, and carrying at their base double 



of any nur 
or group : 




contact pieces, betvseen which the arms, /, /, «, «', and h, h, slide alter- 
nately ;y;y; and j" are insulated from one another and from the hub, to 
which they are firmly secured ; g, g is also firmly secured to the hub 
and carries at its ends well insulated sectdrs, /(, //. 

The action of the switch is through one-quarter' of a turn, cither way: 
as will be seen by the diagram, one motion transposes the line and the 
other straightens it, so that on whatever contact the three-way switches 
may be, a single motion of these intermediate switches will either tuni 
the light on or off. 



Electromagnetic Turbine Supporter. 



Turbines used for driving dynamos are frequently constructed with a 
vertical shaft, the armature moving in a horizontal plane ; in such aa 
arrangement the pressure due to the weight of the turbine shaft and the 
greater part of the dynamo must be taken upon some part of the rotating 




involves the construction of the turbine it cannot be applied to existing 
installations. To overcome this, the Oerlikon Company, of Switzerland, 
has constructed a very simple apparatus, of which they have sent us a 
description. It consists essentially of an electro-magnet, as shown in the 
adjoining figure, made of one coil and a circle of alternate poles; 
this encircles the shaft and is firmly supported from the lower part of a 
suitable foundation ; th ? shaft has fastened to it the armature in the form 
of a ring madi^ of laminated iron consisting of a coil made of a band of 
iron ; the attraction of this electromagnet for the armature is adjusted so 
as to relieve the bearings of the vertical pressure due to the weight. It 
can be constructed to support a weight of 110,000 lbs. The largest at pres- 
ent constructed is for about 30,000 lbs., and is in use at the in.stallation of 
the Rhone Land and Water Power Company, Bellegarde, France. The 
power consumed is about one-third horse-power per ton pull, which is 
small as compared with the energy otherwise lost in an end bearing. It 
will readily be seen that such an apparatus is independent of the power, 
speed, water pressure, etc., and is readily adjustable by a resistance 
inserted in the circuit of the coil. The pull exerted by the magnet on 
the armature is about 42.6 lbs. per square inch, .■^n apparatus for 12 to 
14 tons requires about 20 amperes at 80 volts. 



Fan rtotors. 



The fan we illustrate, manufactured by the Wagner Electric Mfg. 
Company, St. Louis, Mo., is designed for both direct and alternating 
currents, and embodies the result of the improvements which three 
years of manufacture and service have suggested. The motors have self- 
feeding carbon brushes, w-hich will run a season without renewing, and 
self -oiling bearings, which hold an ample supply of oil for several 
months' run. All motors are adjustable in speed by means of a button 




Wac.nkr Fan Motor. 

conveniently placed They are finished in black enamel with gilt trim- 
mings, and have a polished brass fan and end caps. These brass end 
caps cntiiely inclose the ends of the motor, protecting the armature, 
commutator and bearings from dust and dirt. They are fastened to the 
motor frame by a simple bayonet joint, requiring a slight twist onlj' to 
disengage them entirely, withoivt the aid of screw'-driver or wrench. 
When removed they in no way interfere with the running of the motor, 
and the brushes and oil caps may be examined under normal running 
conditions. The weight and spread of legs make any fastening unneces- 
sary, and rubber feet effectuiilly prevent noise and vibration. 



iron Armored Insulating Conduits. 

The notable tendency in architecture of late years has been toward the 
u^e of the most subst.intial materials obtainable, and in keeping witli 
steel internal structure is the iron conduit system for wiring ; by its means 
electric wiring, whether in the main conductors or in the smallest 
branches, has been brought to a most satisfactory state of efficiency. 
Herewith we illustrate sonic <if the material used for this purpose, which 




Turbine .Supporter. 



Fig. 1 — Iron .Armored Insulating CoxDnT. 



shaft; this is sometimes accomplished, as in the Niagara Falls plant, by 
supporting this weight on a water column pressing upward near the 
bottom of the turbine shaft, but with very great weights and small falls 
this arrangement is not always practicable. Furthermore, it depends on 
the height of the w.iter column, is not capable of regulation, and as it 



is manufactured by the Interioi Conduit and Insulation Company, 44 Broad 
street, New- York, the pioneer with insulated iron-anuored conduit, as 
it was in the use of brass-armored conduit. 

The tubing consists essentially of plain insulating Interior Conduit tub- 
ing placed within a heavy wall of lap-seamed, wrought iron pipe, which 
thus furnishes an armor 'i in. in thickness. The union between the 



40 



The KIvECXRlCAL WOi^UlJ. 



Vol. XXIV. No. 2. 



inner lube and its iron wall is finuly consolidated and welded together, 
and yet each is integral, the outer for protection from mechanical injury 
and the inner for electric insulation. 
The flexibility of the system is maintained by the U'^e of iron armored 




iMC. 2.— Iron .Armored Insi'latino Conduit. 

insulatiuK junction boxes, elbows, couplings, etc. The conduit possesses 
the qualities of gas or water pipe, and by means of the tools furnished 
for cutting, threading, etc., can be installed with equal ease. It can be 
used under concrete, tiled or mosaic floors, etc., without the precautions 




means of a "third rail" placed at the outside of each service track. A 
sliding shoe contact, hanging from the truck of each motor car, will take 
up the necessary current for the motor. 

The first order covers fifty-five complete equipments, to comprise at first 
two powerful motors with the necessary controlling apparatus, and elec- 
trical air pump for the air brake, and the subsidiary apparatus and 
appliances. The motors will be to a great extent similar to those used at 
the Exposition. Two motors only to each motor car are to be used at 
present, but eventually two additional motors will be placed on each 
motor car. With the two motor cars four car trains will be run during 
the crowded hours of the morning and evening, and three car trains dur- 
ing the hours of slack travel, at a speed of thirteen miles an hour, includ- 
ing stops. With the four motor cars the trains will consist of six 
cars and the speed will be increased to fifteen miles an hour. 

According to the present indications, the electric cars should be run- 
ning on the elevated by the middle of November next. 



Combined Switch and Rheostat. 



In installing motors the switch and rheostat are generally placed side 
by side, and being entirely separate from each other, it oftentimes 




FiG.s. 3 .i^ND 4. — Iron Armored Insulating Conduit. 



necessary with plain or brass-armored conduit; and at the same time a 
great saving in labor is due to the fact that it can be installed at an early 
stage in the construction of a new building, without anxiety as to the 
rough usage it may have to sustain. 

Fig. 1 shows the actual size of 3-8 inch (inside diameter) iron conduit. 
Fig. 2 shows an ordinary and continuous insulating nipple, with the 
application of the latter to a junction box, illustrating how the continuity 
of the insulating system may be maintained if the tube should be too 
short by inaccuracy of measurement. Fig. 3 is a junction box; Fig. 4 
illustrates the flexibility of the system and shows corner elbows and 
outlet boxes. 

Electric Elevated Railroad in Chicago. 



The West Side Elevated Railroad of Chicago is to be operated entirely by 
electricity. Influenced by the success of the Intramural electric railway 
at the World's Fair, which transported during the short time the Exposi- 
tion was opened not less than 5,803,895 passengers, without a single acci- 
dent and without any serious stoppage, and has proved an agitating leaven 
in the minds of the steam rail^'oad men, only wedded to their steam power 
until a more economical system can be found, and after careful and 
thorough investigation of every possible system of passenger car propul- 
sion, the president and directors of the West Side road decided that elec- 
tricity was the most economical system. The generators and motors 
are already uudcr construction in the Schenectady shops of the General 
Electric Company, where those for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Com- 
pany art also nearing completion. 

The company operating this road is the Metropolitan Elevated Railway 
of Chicago, the president of which is Mr. R. Summers Heycs, President 
of the St. Paul and Duluth Railroad, Chairman of the Reorganization 
Committee of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fc road and Director of 
the Metropolitan Traction Company, New York. The West Side Koad, 
which connects that part of Chicago with the main city transit system, 
is to be a four track road for a greater part of the way, to allow of an 
express service. The line will cross the river on a four track way laid 
upon a drawbridge. 

The power is to be generated by four dynamos. Two of these arc to be 
of 2.000 h. p. each, and will be counterparts of the huge machine which 
ran in the Intramural power house during the Fair. This, at that time, 
was the largest ever built, but since these four have been installed in 
Brooklyn, N. Y. , and three in Philadelphia, Pa. The two smaller dyna- 
mos are to be of 1,000 h. p. 

The current will be carried from the power house over the line by 



happens that through liaste or carelessness the current is thrown on by 
the switch before the resistance is cut in by the rheostat, and as a con- 
sequence the motor armature is burned out or the fuses blown. The W. 
S. Hill Electric Co., of Boston, Mass., have placed on the market a self- 
locking starting switch, which we illustrate, in which the switch and 




Combined Switch and Rheost.\t. 



rheostat are combined, as shown, in such a manner that the former can- 
not be thrown in without first putting in all of the resistance, thus 
obviating accidents of this kind. .\n additional advantage is that the 
cost of the combination is less than that of a switch and rheostat separate. 



July 14, 1894. 



THE ELECTRICA^Iv WORLD. 



41 



financial 3ntclHgcncc, 



The Electrical Stock Market. 



New York, July 7, 1894. 
THE ELECTRICAL STOCK MARKET'S course these days is governed by much 
the same causes that bring about the dullness at present characterizing all 
speculative markets. Just in the same way, though, electrical stocks, like the 
whole stock market, betray an inherent strength that has much of promise 
in it in the way of improving quotations. The whole situation is governed by 
the strike news, the uncertainty attending the fate of tariff legislation, the gold 
export question, etc., and until these disturbing influences are so far removed 
as to leave commerce uninterrupted, electrical stocks must continue to reflect 
the dearth of business by remaining inactive. 

GENERAL ELECTRIC has displayed great strength within the last day or two. 
On Friday especially, there was good buying to the stock, purchases in many 
instances being directly traceable to insiders. There is an influential bull pool 
at work, but they have not been doing anything of late by reason of the inac- 
tivity in the stock market. But with the first signs of revival General Electric 
will be found to be a leader in the spurt toward higher quotations. It is well 
kuown that the business of the company has picked up a good deal of late. In 
addition to securing the contract for equipping the Metropolitan Elevated Rail- 
road of Chicago, the company announced this week that it has closed a contract 
with the West Side Electric Railway of Chicago, to equip its entire line with 
electricity on a principle similar to that employed last year on the Intramural 
Railway at the World's Fair. The contract price is understood to be a little 
over $300,000, and was awarded to the General Electric Company after spirited 
bidding with the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, of Pitts- 
burg; the Siemens & Holske Electric Company, of Chicago; the Walker Manu- 
facturing Company, of Cleveland, and the Electric Construction Company, of 
London, Eng. Boston advices are that these two large contracts are only sam- 
ples of tlie company's enterprise. It is said to be now doing more than 
$10,000,000 gross manufacturing business per annum, and, if there is 20 per cent, 
profit in this— and there ought to be— the accumulation of a surplus for distribu- 
tion among stockholders does not seem very far distant. The railroad business 
for May was the largest month's business in the history of the company, and 
June's total is likely to eclipse even May's big record. The shops at Schenectady 
have already begun work on the Metropolitan Elevated contract, and the 
force will now be increased to take up the West Side job. There are hints in 
many quarters that much of the new business is taken at a loss, but most of the 
derogatory rumors concerning General Electric now afloat are directly traceable 
to disgruntled bear sources. 

THE STREET RAILWAY AND ILLUMINATING PROEPRTIES' trustees 
knew what they were about when they bought last year some $12,000,000 General 
Electric treasury assets for one-third their face value. They managed to have 
enough money on hand this week from interest and dividend payments on their 
holdings to buy in 456 additional shares of the preferred stock, paying $98.48 per 
share. This makes a total of 11,943 preferred shares cancelled to date, while 
another $60,000 have been set aside to buy in more on July 11. The assets of the 
trust are certainly good, and had the General Electric been allowed to retain 
them there would be no occasion for the necessity of capital reduction or the 
talk of reorganization. 

WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC issues have been unsually quiet since the deter- 
mination of the Board of Directors not to make any distribution of profits among 
common stock holders at this juncture. Quotations have fluctuated only frac- 
tionally, and hardly any interest has been manifested either in the preferred or 
common shares. Official statements as to business conditions continue encour- 
aging, as entire satisfaction with the situation and prospects is expressed. The 
new works at Brinton, near Pittsburg, are being hurried to completion, and the 
installation in the fall of the new factory plant means an era of increased 
prosperity. 

THE AMERICAN TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH COMPANY'S stock- 
holders, in pursuance of a call signed by Directors John E. Hudson, James D. 
Davis, Edward J. Hall, W. D. Sargent and John Jameson, held a special meeting 
in this city yesterday "for the purpose of voting upon a proposition to increase 
the capital stock of said company to $12,000,000, consisting of 120,000 shares of 
the par value of $100 each." The officers of the company declined to divulge 
the business accomplished at the meeting. 

ELECTRICAL STOCKS. 

Par. Bid. Asked. 

Brush 111., New York SO 10 30 

Cleveland General Electric Co 100 80 90 

Detroit Electrical Works 10 3 4 

East River Electric Light Co 100 — SO 

■►Edison Electric 111., New York 100 100 11X% 

* •• ■■ " Brooklyn 100 101 102 

" Boston 100 116 lis 

Chicago 100 13S 145 

* Philadelphia 100 128 130 

Edison Electric Light of Europe 100 1 3 

Edison Ore Milling 100 10 IS 

Electric Construction & Supply Co., com IS Is 17j^ 

" pref IS IS 17)^ 

Fort Wayne Electric 100 1 2 

General Electric 100 36>.4 36^ 

Interior Conduit & Ins. Co 100 45 55 

Mount Morris Electric 100 25 SO 

Westinghouse Consolidated, com SO 35 36 

.. •• pref SO 501^ SlJs 

BONDS. 

Edison Electric III., New Y'ork I'-OOO 106!^ 107 

Edison Electric Light of Europe 194 <5 85 

General Electric Co., deb. S's 1.000 S6>4 S6}^ 

TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE. 

American Bell Telephone . . . .' 100 195 1% 

American District Telegraph 100 — 45 

American Telegraph & Cable 100 88 89 

Central & South American Telegraph 100 105 110 

Commercial Cables 100 125 — 

Gold & Stock Telegraph 100 102 104 

• Mexican Telegraph 100 190 200 

* Western Union Telegraph 100 83>^ 83% 



THE INTERIOR CONDUIT AND INSULATION COMPANY'S Board of 
Directors, in declaring the 5 per cent, scrip dividend, touched on in these coluras 
last week, pointed out that the iiet earnings that have accumulated for the past 
three years are now, after charging off to profit and loss account some $38,000 
arising from expenditures for experimental purposes, hitherto carried as an asset, 
in excess of $100,000, represented by bills receivable, material and manufactured 
goods on hand. Pending the conversion of the scrip into fully paid capital stock, 
when an increase of capital stock has been provided for, the scrip possesses, so 
far as legal, all the qualities of stock and is entitled to all such dividends and 
privileges as may hereafter be declared upon the outstanding capital stock. It 
is further provided that the scrip shall be converted into stock before the declara- 
tion of the first cash dividend. The dividend was made payable in scrip 
instead of cash because the directors deemed it "sound policy to keep the com- 
pany in strong financial condition by retaining its earnings in the form of quick 
available assets, instead of distributing any part in cash at this time." 

BELL TELEPHONE is to have its $50,000,000 capita! after all. Governor 
Greenhalge having signed a new bill permitting the company to sell $30,000,000 
new stock at auction. Naturally stockholders who anticipated getting the new 
stock at par are somewhat disgruntled, and are expressing their disappointment 
by selling stock bought some weeks ago. There is a strong movement in favor 
of bringing the company to this State, where there is no statute preventing the 
issue of new capital at par, when the market price is higher, and the agitation 
in favor of removal may lead to something definite. It is charged that the 
lobbying and other expenses attending the recent legislation cost the Bell 
Telephone Company over $250,000. 



New Incorporations. 



THE HERCULES ELECTRIC POWER COMPANY, Salt Lake City, Utah, has 
been incorporated. 

THE CEBOLLA RAILWAY COMPANY, Denver, Col., capital stock $100,000, 
has been incorporated. 

THE FANNER ELECTRIC COMPANY, St. Louis, Mo., capital stock $60,000, 
lias been incoruorated. 

THE UNION TELEPHONE COMPANY, Plum City, Wis., capital stock 
$250, has been incorporated. 

THE JOHNSON ELECTRIC SERVICE COMPANY, Milwaukee, Wis., capital 
stock $150,000, has been iuctirporated. 

THE HUMPHREY MANUFACTURING & PLATING COMPANY, Kalamazoo, 
Mich,, capital stock $15,000, has been incorporated. 

THE AMBLER ELECTRIC RAILWAY' COMPANY, Reading, Pa., capital stock 
$12,000, has been incorporated by W. B. Krick and others. 

THE EMMONS ELECTRIC COMPANY, Chicago, 111., capital stock $15,000, 
has been incorporated by Charles P. Emmons and others. 

THE OTTAWA MUTUAL TELEPHONE COMPANY, Ottawa, 111., capital stock 
$15,000, has been incorporated by C. H. Hamilton and W. F. Heath. 

THE GAS, HEAT AND POWER COMPANY, Mechanicsburg, Pa., capital 
stock $50,000, has been incorporated by Amos Z. Meyers and others. 

THE WESTERVILLE & WORTHINGTON STREET RAILW.W COMPANY, 
Columbus, O., has been incorporated with a capital stock of $35,000. 

THE COUNCIL BLUFFS & LAKE MANAWA ELECTRIC RAILWAY COM- 
PANY, Council Bluffs, la., capital stock $40,000, has been incorporated. 

THE NORTHWESTERN MILLING & POWER COMPANY, Spokane, Wash., 
capital stock $750,000, has been incorporated for operating mills, electric Hues, 
etc. 

THE MOMENCE ELECTRIC BELL STORAGE COMPANY, Momence, III.. 
capital stock $15,000, has been incorporated by C. H. Lettigh, Lincoln Walker 
and Frank E. Lane, 

THE ELECTRIC BOILER COMPANY, Rochester, N. Y., capital stock $50,000, 
has been incorporated by J. Henry Howe and others, to manufacture boilers and 
steam heating apparatus. 

THE FREDERICKTOWW ELECTRICAL AND MANUFACTURING COM- 
PANY, Fredericktown, Md., capital stock, $6,000, has been incorporated and will 
erect an electric light and power plant. 

THE DARRIETT ELECTRIC MOTOR & DYNAMO COMPANY. New York, 
capital stock $20,000, has been incorporated by J. R. Anderson, of Montclair, 
N. J., and others, to manufacture electric dynamos and motors. 

THE CHICAGO CROSS ARM COMPANY, Chicago, 111., capital stock $6,000, 
has been formed to manufacture, buy and sell cross arms and electrical 
machinery and specialties. The promoters are H. M. Angle, E. H. Willard and 
C. S. Marshall. 

THE ZUCKER. LEVETT & LOEB COMPANY, New York, capital stock 
$100,000, has been incorporated by Alexander Levett, Charles Loeb, W. R. W. 
Hentz and Henry L. Haas, to manufacture electrical apparatus, platers' sup- 
plies and polishing material, 

THE CO-OPERATIVE HEAT, LIGHT AND POWER COMPANY, Sioux Falls, 
S. D., capital stock $50,000, has been formed to manufacture and sell electricity, 
etc. J. H. Drake, Chicago, I!!. ; W. C. Bolton, New Y^ork, and Jno. Sunback, 
Stoux Falls. S. D.. a.-e the interested parties. 

THE OSBORNE SWITCH COMPANY', Newark, N. J., capital stock $100,000, 
has been formed to manufacture and sell machinery and appliances, e'c. The 
promoters are L. A. Osborne, D. Demarest, H. C. Hines, J. P. Beatty, F. E. 
Osborne, R. D. Beatty and Wm. C. Morton, all of Newark. 

THE K.\NSAS CITY ELECTRIC RAILWAY COMPANY. Kansas City, Kan , 
capital stock $1,000 000, has been incorporated by E. L. Euggrow, Ozone Park, 
N. Y'. ; F. B. Wilcox, Kansas City, Mo. ; Louis Hummer, West Chester, Pa., and 
J. H. Parrott, R. A. Kope and P. F. Spickler, Kansas City, Kan. 

THE UNITED ELECTRIC CORPORATION, Minneapolis, Minn., capital slock 
SlO.OOO.has been formed to manufacture, buy and sell electrical apparatus for 
light, heat and power purposes and to construct and operate electric railways 
and power plants. The promoters are Samuel Grant, Faribault; George R. 
Kibbe, Paul W. Bossart and John H. Finney, St. Paul, Minn. 

THE ELLICOTT ELECTRIC HE.\TING COMP.\NY', Buffalo, N. Y., capital 
stock $25,000, has been formed to manufacture apparatus for utilizing electricity 
for heating and power purposes. The directors are C. W. Pardee, John M. 
Schatcard, Daniel O'Day, Edwin T. Evans, G. Barrett Rich, George Urban, Jr., 



42 



THE KLECTRICAL WOUl^U. 



Vol.. XXIV. No. 2. 



Jos. L. Huusicker, Charles k. HuntlL-y, John J. Albright, Kdinund Hayes and 
Franklin D. Locke, Buffalo. N. Y. 



Pittsburgh Notes. 



Special Corrcsponbcncc. 

New York Notes. 



Office of Tiik Elkctrical World, 
253 Broadway. New York, July 9. 1894. 

KILLED BY ELECTRICITY.— Lawrence Arnold, a porter in a store at 777 
Broadway, was killed on July 3 while oiling an electric fan, installed on an arc 
light circuit. 

THE NASSAU ELEcrkIC RAILROAD COMPANY, of Brooklyn, will erect 
a one-story brick power house on the whart between Thirty-ninth and Fortieth 
streets, 100 by 150. with a corrugated iron roof. 

MR. JOHN D. CRIMMINS is authority for the statement that a new trolley 
hue will be built and be in operation on Jerome avenue in the next twelve 
months. The road will begin at MacComb'sDam Bridge, and run to Woodlawn. 

THE WADDELL-ENTZ COMPANY. Bridgeport. Conn., has, through its re- 
ceiver, applied to the court ior permission to lease its works to E. P. BuUard, 
and a hearing on the application will be had at the Superior Court room, Bridge- 
port, on July 13. 

MESSRS. HENRY HOLGATE and George. W. Hunt, of The Royal Electric 
Company, Montreal. Quebec, were callers at the offices of The Electrical World 
on Tuesday. July 3. They expressed themselves as being highly pleased with 
the many interesting features of New York and Brooklyn. 

MR. F. A. MASON, formerly secretary and treasurer of the Interior Conduit 
& Insulation Co.. like all who stray from the flock, is now desirous of returning 
to his first love, "electricity." Mr. Mason's experience will make him valuable 
to any electrical concern with which he may become identified. 

MR. JAMES E. M'ELROY, head of the firm of James E. McElroy & Co., of 
Chicago, formerly of New York, died suddenly on Saturday, July 7. He will be 
succeeded by his brother, Mr. Robert L. McElroy, the resident partner in Chi- 
cago. There will be no other changes in the management of the corporation. 



New England Notes. 



Branch Office of The Electrical World,) 

■ Room 91, Hathaway Building. 620 Atlantic Ave., V 

Boston, Mass. , July 7, 1894. j 

THE BROWN ELECTRIC COMPANY. Boston. Mass., has just issued an illus- 
trated catalogue covering its various electric light and railway supplies and 
general electrical specialties. The catalogue has evidently been carefully com- 
piled, is neatly printed, and will be found to contain in "nutshell" form valu- 
able information for the electrical trade. 

THE HOLTZER-CABOT ELECTRIC COMPANY has issued a new edition of its 
descriptive catalogue of electrical house goods and supplies, which is in keeping 
with the current advance in catalogue work, the paper and press work being ex- 
cellent and the cover tasteful in design and tint. A number of cuts are printed 
in colors on special paper, including views of a 300-number return call Keno 
annunciator, and a switchboard designed and built for the new Ames Building, 
Boston. The numerous cuts, as a rule, are excellent, as well as the descriptions 
and arrangement of matter. 

AMONG THE RECENT REMOVALS of electrical firms in Boston, by no 
means the least important is that of Ziegler Bros., who now occupy the upper 
part of the Channmg Building, in which is also located the establishment of 
The Pettingell-Andrews Company, the entrance to the office and factory being 
at 141 Eranklin street, where they have a home of which they may justly feel 
proud. The office is spacious, with abundance of light and affords splendid 
opportunities for the display of its various marmfactures. and the manufacturing 
department is a model in every respect, embracing about 34.000 square feet, with 
abundance of light also, and plenty of room for the locating of its machinery. 
As is well known, the firm of Ziegler Bros, manufacture all kinds of electrical 
and mechanical apparatus. In its particular line of electrical specialties for 
schools, colleges and laboratories, the finest and most correct electrical and 
mechanical testing instruments, railroad .signals, fire alarm and general pro- 
tective apparatus, and, in fact, electrical and mechanical goods of all kinds, the 
firm enjoys deserved prominence. Its manufactures include from the smallest 
and most simple device to that of one and one-half tons weight, and it possesses 
all the facilities now tor quick and satisfactory work. It is also kept very busy 
with repairing of all kinds, which is done promptly. Another important fea- 
ture of the firm's business is the help it renders to invyMitors in the completion 
of new electrical ideas and models for patenting. 

MR. HRED. A. SWAN, ISO Summer street, Boston, Mass., has recently com- 
pleted the installation of an electric plant on Mr. W. H. Crane's yacht "The 
Senator, " which for general design, neatness and workmanship certainly re- 
flects great credit upon him. The plant installed consists of one "^ h. p. verti- 
cal engine, connected directly to a 3J^ kilowatt dynamo. This apparatus was 
constructed especially for Mr. Crane's yacht, and is very compact, the whole 
taking up only three feet in length. The switchboard is of polished black 
slate, mounted with nickel-plated knife switches and instruments, and is very 
compact and unicjue in design. There are (lO cups of storage battery capable of 
running forty 1(> c. p. incandescent lights, which are to be used in case of acci- 
dent or when it is not convenient to run the engine and dynamo. The cabin 
and pilot house are each fitted with four bull's eye nickel-plated fixtures, put in 
Hush with the ceiling. All other parts of the boat are .supplied with an abund- 
ance of light, there being a row of lights completely around the boat under the 
edge of the awning, and a three-light cluster in the centre of the awning over 
the entrance to the cabin. On the top of the pilot house there is mounted one 
4.000 c. p. search light, capable of penetrating the darkness and bringing 
objects plainly to view at a distance of one mile. All of the electrical apparatus 
was designed by Mr. Swan; the dynamo was built by the Adams Electric Com- 
pany, Worcester, Mass. ; the engine by the Fore River Engine Company, Weymouth, 
Mass. ; the switchboard by the Consolidated Electric Manufacturing Company. 
Boston ; the storage battery by the Eastern Electric Light & Storage lialtery 
Company, of Lowell, Mass. 



Pittsburgh. July 7, 18*t. 

TllK PENNSYLVANIA GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY has entered suit 
against the Citizens' Passenger Railway Company, of McKeesport, to recover 
$13,356.22. The amount is claimed to be due for electrical appliances sold and 
delivered to the defendant company. A similar suit has also been entered by 
the same plaintiff against the McKeesport Light Company for $39,118.47 for 
amount dne on electrical appliances. 

STREET RAILWAY STATISTICS.— The following figures give a very fair 
idea as to the condition of the electric railroads in this city, being receipts and 
expenses for one year; 

Receipts. Expenses. 

Central Traction Company SIiS3,721 5171,677 

Citizens' Traction Company 711.677 387 6-H 

Duquesne Traction Company . . ■ 387,714 2£6'oo4 

Pleasant Valley Traction Company 397.123 312 326 

Manchester Traction Gortijiftliy 482.347 274 6t!7 

Pittsburgh Traction Company 422.£<j0 365,784 

Birmingham Traction Colnpnny 332,049 171874 

Second Avenue Traction Company 111,379 71 686 

West End Traction Company 121. S76 72^726 

' The number of passengers carried by these companies were : Central. 3,926,521 ; 
Citizens', 14,S'M.850; Duquesne, 6,889,970; Pleasant Valley, 7,942,480; Manchester, 
9 646,946; Pittsburgh, 8.364,852; Birmingham, 6,875,378; Second Avenue, 2,362 %2 
West End, 2,528,177. 



Canadian Notes. 



Ottawa, July 7. 

MONTREAL.— The Electric Surface Company of Canada (Limited) has taken 
an action for $10,000 damages against the Merchants' Electric & General Ser\ice 
Company (Limited). This is an outcome of the recent difficulties between the 
two companies. 

MONTREAL.— The city has entered an action against the Montreal Street Rail- 
way Company for $26,354. The city claims this amount under the by-law 
which provides for the company paying half the cost of clearing snow during 
the Winter. The company's lawyers interpret the by-law differently. 

MONTREAL —The Montreal Street Railway Company is making extensive 
alterations to its buildings on Cheneville and Vitre streets. It is the companv's 
intention to transfer the motor and repair shops from Hochelaga to this place 
when the changes are completed, which will probably be in about two months. 

MONTREAL— A number of Canadian and American capitalists met recently. 
and discussed at some length the advisability of organizing a new line of street 
cars which would be propelled by gas instead of electricity, as at present. The 
necessary plans will be shortly drawn and submitted to a committee for ap- 
proval. 

BELLEVILLE, ONT.— The City Council has granted a franchise to S. E. Legier 
& Sons to build, equip and run an electric street railway in Belleville: also for 
the privilege of erecting poles for stringing wires for supplying light, power 
and heat. The promotors are well known business men of this city, and the 
work will be begun at once. 

ST. GEORGE. N. B.— Notice of application for the issuing of letters patent 
to incorporate "the Saint George Electric Light Company (Limited)" is pub- 
lished this week. The object of the company is to light St. George and adjoin, 
ing districts with electricity. The applicants are Albert T. Dunn. T. H. Esta- 
brooks, Fred. B. Dunn, A. P. Banhill and Wm. Bayard, M. D., all of Saint 
John. 

OTTAWA. ONT.— The annual meeting of the Ottawa Electric Railway Com- 
pany was held last week. The report declared a dividend of 4 per cent, for the 
half year, and gave the following figures: During the year there have been 
2. 7')7.a81 passengers carried, against 2.395,504 during the previous year. This 
gives 8,900 for every working day. The receipts are given as $129,484.02. the 
expenses being $83,324.64. The cars traveled 759,433 miles T8e company now 
operate 23 open cars. 31 closed, 3 postal, 2 closed and 2 open trailers, 5 sweepers 
and S3 electric equipments. 

TORONTO.— A report was read at the last meeting of the Fire and Light 
Committee, showing that the cost of operating a city electric plant would be 
$103 per year per lamp for 1.300 lamps. Aid. Hubbard favored adopting Mr. 
Keatillg's report, which estimates the cost of operating the plant at S81.7.S per 
lamp per year, but he was defeated. In the secretary's report four engineers 
are said to be necessary, at a total for .salaries of $6,500 per year; seven inspec- 
tors, tweiitv trimmers, several foremen, clerks, siorekeepers. machinists and 
other employees are reckoned as necessary, and altogether a staff large enough 
to run a plant sufficient to light a city six times the size of Toronto is provided 
for in Mr. McCowan's liberal estimates. 

OTTAWA, ON'r.— The bill now before the Dominion Parliament bringing 
electric lighting under Government inspection provides that an electric company 
before commencing to supply light to a purchaser must declare to the purchaser 
the constant pressure at which they propose to supply the eiiergj* at his termi- 
nals. No variation greater than 3 per cent, from this pres.sure to be peimitted. 
The bill authorizes electric companies to inspect purchasers' premises in ca.sc of 
a dangerous connection. They may also discontinue a supply of electricity until 
the defect has been remedied. For every default in complying with any of these 
provisions a penalty not exeeding $20 for every day during which the default 
continues is provided. Any person fraudulently using or diverting any elec- 
tricity is to be deemed guilty of theft. Officers of electric companies are author- 
ized to enter consumers' premises to inspect or remove apparatus belonging to 
the companies. If t'he consumer so desires, the quantity ol electricity he uses 
shall be ascertained by means of a meter. Inspectors appointed to carry out the 
provisions ol the act are to certify to the correctness of all meters before they 
are put in operation. 

English Notes. 



{From our own Correspondent.) 

London, June 27. IS94. 
MULTIPLE-FILAMENT LAMPS.- Experiments with multiple-filament lamps 
having proved that there is practically no after-glow when the current is 



July 14, IS'U. 



TUB BI^KCXRICAL WORLD, 



43 



switched off, the Admiralty have directed that they shall be adopted throughout 
the service for uiast-head flashing lanterns. 

MUNICIPAL STATIONS.— Two municipal electric light stations have been in- 
augurated duriug the past month. At one of these, viz., Portsmouth, Mr. Ferranti 
has introduced several novel features. His flywheel alternatorH are the first to be 
used in this countrj-. and his alternate current rectifiers, which were used on the 
arc light circuits, have proved to be a great success. By means of these recti- 
fiers Mr. Ferranti obtains a uni-directional constant current from an alternating 
constant potential, enabling the arcs to be run in series. The transformers at 
Portsmouth are of special design, being arranged so that by means of a key the 
windings may be altered for half or full load. The transformers are placed in 
pits below the foot pavements. At Burton, where the municipal station was in- 
augurated May 25. transformer pits are also used, and a man is sent round with 
a key to connect or disconnect them as the load rises or falls. This station is 
run in conjunction with the gas works, and uses the refuse coke breeze from the 
latter. 

A MYSTERIOUS PHENOMENON.— The Portsmouth municipal electric light- 
ing station was recently opened with the usual ceremony and feasting. Af*er 
the feast the corporation and their guests proceeded to the central station, and 
were there subjected for some time to a somewhat trying after-dinner phenome- 
non. The station plant consists of two Ferranti flywheel alternators, and is 
illuminated by arcs, current for which is obtained from the alternators, but 
made pulsating and uni-directional by means ot an appropriate commutator. 
The result was that the feasters witnessed the mysterious phenomenon of a 
steam engine driving ahead full speed, whilst the dynamo connected to it re- 
mained unconcernedly at rest. Worse, however, was to follow. The arcs were 
next run off another machine; the result was that the alternator, which had 
been previously remaining at rest, appeared to move first one way and then 
another, to rush suddenly round from left to right, pull up, and revolve slowly 
back from right to left. No ill consequences are reported. 

AIR MOTORS FOR TELEGRAPH WORK.— At the last Royal Society Conver- 
sazione the Postmaster-General exhibited a Hughes telegraph and a Wheatstone 
transmitter, each of which was driven by a little Willmott air motor. The 
adoption of this means of driving these instruments results in an important 
gain. In the case of the Hughes apparatus, the air motor enables the 132 pounds 
weight, the winding gear, and practically all the train of wheel work to be dis- 
pensed with. In the case of the Wheatstone high speed transmitter the 42 pound 
weight, which requires rewinding every few seconds, together with its complicated 
train of wheel work, is also got rid of. The motor for the Hughes instrument 
consists of a fan with radial vanes, the air being admitted at one end of a 
diameter, and following the fan round the circle; this motor is practically self- 
regulating, since any interference with the motion causes the air pressure to be 
pulled up behind. The Hughes apparatus, although invented by an English- 
man, has not till now been used in this countrj-. although its use has been 
widely extended on the continent. When, however, the submarine cables between 
England and France were taken over by the joint Governments, our French 
neighbors insisted that the line to Paris should be worked by the Hughes appa- 
ratus. The result has been that Prof. Hughes' invention has been forced upon 
the notice of the Post Office officials, and some of our busiest lines are now, or 
shortly will be, provided with Hughes apparatus, it being found that they can 
be worked out under conditions which entirely stop the working of other in- 
struments. 

WOODHOUSE & RAWSON UNITED (LIMITED).— The public examination of 
the directors, managers and auditors of Woodhouse & Rawson United, which 
went into litigation some time ago, has recently been taking place, 
considerable interest being shown in the proceedings by the general pub- 
lic. So far as the matter has gone up to the present it would appear as if on 
the occasion of the numerous progeny of small Woodhouse & Rawson concerns 
being taken over by a single big concern, to which the public were invited to 
subscribe, transactions of a somewhat peculiar kind took place. As usual the 
new directors of the big concern (Woodhouse & Rawson United) made no in- 
quiries until the public had been invited to, and had actually subscribed, though 
they then became .so uneasy with regard to the whole matter that they promptly 
retired, leaving the new concern eutirely in the hands of gentlemen interested 
in the old concerns. The good will of the old businesses was valued at i;75,000 
by, the vender of them, and this valuation was accepted without demur by the 
purchasing company; one of the directors of the concern blandly admitting in 
court that if he had been purchasing property with his own money, and for him- 
self, he should not tamely accept the vender's estiraale of its value. The auditor 
appears to have certified the general correctness of various balance sheets, sup- 
plementing his certificates by reports which were of course suppressed. The 
law at present seems to be that an auditor is bound to address these sort of re- 
ports to the shareholders, but is not empowered to see that they get them. It is 
a great pity for the electrical industry that the firm of Woodhouse & Rawson 
should have obtained the reputation of being an electrical manufacturing firm, 
where their business was little more than that of company promoting. 



Heirs of t\}^ IDeck 



Electric Light and Power. 



HASTINGS, NEB.— The electric light plant will be improved. H. W. Miller 
is manager. 

NASHVII.I.E, TENN.— The Cumberland Light and Power Company is prepar- 
ing U) enlarge its plant. 

OSHKOSH. WIS.— Address the city clerk concerning the mtmicipal electric 
light plant to be established. 

SPRINGFIELD. O.— The Hess Storage Battery Company will establish a plant 
to construct the Hess battery. 

MT. CARROLL. ILL.— Address the town clerk for information concerning an 
electric light plant to be established. 

FT. DODGE, lA.— The City Council has granted a franchise for 21 year^ to 
S. T. Meservj' for a street railway and electric lighting plant. 

HILLSBORO, TEX.— The Hillsboro Investment and Electric Company intends 
erecting an electric plant, and is in the market for the apparatus. 

NORWALK, CONN.— The Norwalk and South Norwalk Electric Light Com- 
pany is about to be placed in the hands of a receiver, who has been applied for. 



BRUNSWICK, MO.-The Franklin Electric Company, of Kansas City, has been 
awarded a contract to erect an electric light and water works plant at a cost of 
$10,600. 

PENSACOLA. FLA.— The Citizens' Electric Light and Power Company has 
given out a contract for the erection of buildings, and is now in the market for 
the necessary apparatus. 

AUGUSTA, GA.— C. V. Walker, Dyer Building, will give information in re- 
gard to free sites for manufacturing purposes. Power will be supplied at SS.SO 
per horse power per year. 

JAMESTOWN, N. Y.-O. E. Jones asked that the Board of Public Works be 
empowered to employ an architect to assist in preparing plans and estimates 
for the electric light building. 

JACKSONVILLE, FLA.— Commissioner King has presented plans and specifi- 
cations for an electric light plant on which to base advertisements for bids at the 
meeting of the Board of Public Works. 

BEL AIR. MD.— The Record Manufactnring Company will construct an elec- 
tric light plant to light the town. The plant will be installed two liiiles from 
the village, and will be operated by water power. 

HOPKINS. lA. -Hopkins has decided to have electric lights, and the council 
has passed an ordinance giving to Peter Milroy the exclusive franchise to main- 
tain an electric light plant there for a term of twenty years. 

BINGHAMTON, N. Y.— The State Hospital trustees held a special meeting, at 
which time Capitol Commissioner Perry's plans for an extension of the present 
el^tric lighting .system to the adjoining farms were adopted, and Secretary 
Rogers was instructed to advertise for proposals for the construction of the same. 

BAY CITY, MICH.— It was erroneously stated in these columns in the issue of 
June 30, that the Common Council had decided to expend $13,000 on its munici- 
pal plant. We are informed by the superintendent of the plant that this is a 
mistake, as the Common Council has concluded not to expend any money on the 
plant this year. 

NIAGARA FALLS, N. Y.— At the last meeting of the Common Council the 
petitions of the Niagara Falls Hydraulic Power and Manufacturing Company and 
the Niagara Falls Power Company for franchises to erect poles and string wires 
for the transmission of power and heating, lighting and manufacturing purposes 
by electricity were finally terminated by granting both of these companies the 
desired franchises under restrictions. 



The Electric Railway. 



HANOVER, MASS.— Hanover citizens are agitating the question of building a 
new electric railroad. 

EAST MA^CH CHUNK, PA.— The citizens of East Mauch Chunk have decided 
on the extension of the electric railway. 

CHESTER. PA.— The Crozier property, in South Chester, has been sold to a 
company that will erect an electrical engine works. 

CHICOPEE. MASS.— The Chicopee Street Railway Company has petitioned 
for a franchise to construct a line from Holyoke to Springfield. 

HUMMELSTOWN, PA.— The Citizens* Railway Company of Harrisburg has 
asked permission to build an electric railway through the borough. 

JOPLIN, MO.— It is proposed to form a syndicate to buy the property of the 
JopUn Electric Railwayand Motor Company and to extend the railway to Galena. 

BALTIMORE. MD.— The Walbrook, Gwynn Oak and Powhattan Railroad 
Company has executed a mortgage for $100,000 to secure funds to build il-s elec- 
tric road. 

YOUNGSTOWN. O.— Sealed proposals wilt be received at the office of the 
Board of City Commissioners of Youngstown until July 14, for the construction and 
operation of a street railway line. Howard Edwards is city clerk. 

BROCKTON, MASS.— A number of citizens, with Mr. J. C. Snow, the real 
estate man, as prime mover, have associated together as the We.st Side Street 
Railway Company to build and operate a new line of electric street railway in 
this city. 

OMAHA, NEB.— L. W. Hardy, of Chicago, and T. J. Peachy, of Omaha, have 
invented an underground trolley system, consisting of a conductor in a trough, 
covered by a flexible rubber diaphragm, heads of rivets which are pressed 
against the conductor by a traveling device underneath the car. thus making 
contact for the motor current. 

STROUDSBURG, N. Y.— The Delaware Valley Electric Railway Company. 
stock $1,000,000, all of which has been subscribed for by wealthy Philadelphia 
parties, will construct the electric road from Stroudsburg to Port Jervis. It is 
expected that a portion of the road between Port Jervis and Milford and Bushkill 
and Stroudsburg will be completed by October 1 of the present year, and be- 
tween Milford and Bushkill on or before June 1, 1895. 

WHITE PLAINS, N. Y.— The Board of Trustees has finally adopted the Elec- 
tric Railroad Committee's report. The companies desiring the franchises to 
construct a railroad from Mamaroneck to White Plains and from Elmsford to 
White Plains must deposit $5,000, to be forfeited if the roads are not built within 
a year, and must give a $20,000 bond for fifteen years, asa guarantee to fulfil every 
requirement exacted by the village authorities. The vote granting franchises to 
the New York, Elmsford & White Plains & Mamaroneck Railway Company 
were reconsidered. 

PORT JERVIS, N. Y.— The Delaware Valley Railway Company, of Pennsyl- 
vania, capital 51,000.000, has been chartered. The treasurer, Simon Friedberger, 
is also treasurer of the Wakefield Electrical Engineering Company, of Philadel- 
phia; Mr. Ellicott Fisher is president, and Mr. Michael W. O'Boyle, secretary. 
Among other incorporators are G. H. Lang, Joseph S. Potsdamer and Louis 
Lang. This company will construct and operate forty miles of road, from Port 
Jervis, N. Y., to Stroudsburg. A large force of men will equip the work at both 
ends of the line at once, and at least twenty-five miles will be built before the 
end of the year. 

POTTSVILLE. PA.— The Car Equipment Company of Philadelphia has pur- 
chased the controlling interest of the Schuylkill Electric Railway Company, of 
Pottsville, Pa., and intends to extend the line about twenty-five miles in and 
around Pottsville, connecting St. Clair, Middleport. Tremont, Schuylkill Haven 
and other towns near by. Jesse Newlin and Robert Alliston have retired from 
the old Board of Directors, and W. A. Barritt, Jr., and Charles H. Barritt, presi- 
dent and treasurer respectively of the Car Equipment Company of Philadelphia 



44 



THE EIvECTRICAI^ WORLD. 



Vol. XXIV. No. 2. 



have been elected to fill the vacancies. J. B. Stuart, of Philadelphia, has been 
appointed electrician and general superintendent, and his success in the con- 
struction of the Pottslown, Camden and Gloucester roads will assure an efficient 
system for the roads at Pottsville. The Schuylkill Electric Railway Company 
has a capital stock of $150,000, which was raised by popular subscription from the 
residents of Pottsville and fully paid in. The road was originally built out of 
the capital stock, and the improvements or betterments from time to time were 
contracted for out of an issue of bonds. The road has a bond indebtedness of 
J95.000. The Schuylkill Electric Railway proper consists of ten miles of road 
with eighteen car equipments, about half of which are new and the remainder 
consisting of Short apparatus, which will be no doubt replaced in the very near 
future with a more modern equipment. New feeder wire will be put in on the 
entire system to supply suflicient and additional power for the extra car equip- 
ment that will be added, and a new car barn will be built at Palo Alto. The 
entire system will be overhauled and will be put in a first-class position as soon 
as possible. 



Personal Notes. 



TWO NAMES well known u: 
thronghout New England and the 
Ziegler and J. Oscar Ziegler. mei 




electrical circles, not only in Boston, but 
whole country as well, are those of A. Arthur 
libers of the firm of Ziegler Bros., of Boston, 
Mass., manufacturers and dealers in elec- 
trical specialties for schools, colleges and 
laboratories. Mr. A. Arthur Ziegler is now 
about 31 years of age, was born in Sw'it- 
zerland, and was about 7 years of age when 
his parents came to this country. He was 
given a good public school education, and 
at the early age of 16. in the year 1879, he 
commenced his electrical apprenticeship 
with the old establishment of Charles Wil- 
liams, Jr., of Boston, where his brother. J. 
Oscar Ziegler. was foreman of the instru- 
ment and experimental department. This 
was in the early days of electric work, 
when the telegraph was supreme and the 
telephone just entering. He remained with 
Charles Williams and the Western Elec- 
tric Company, which succeeded him, until 
just previous to the removal of the plant 
to New York, in all about six years, dur- 
ing which time, through close applica- 
tion and well-directed energy, he acquired a thorough knowledge of the busi- 
ness. Desiring to familiarize himself with large macliinery, he afterwards iden- 
tified himself with the South Boston Ironworks. Fn.ni Ih^rncL- he became ns^^oci- 
ated with the SchaefTer Electric Manufac- 
turing Company, afterwards known as 
the Germania Electric Company, leaving 
this company to connect himself with A. 
L. Russell, of Boston, who succeeded to a 
portion of the business of Charles Wil- 
liams, with whom he remained for a num- 
ber of years. He was also identified for a 
short period with the Holtzer-Cabot Elec- 
tric Company. On May 1, 1889, he organ- 
ized the present firm of Ziegler Bros., 
composed of himself and his brother, J. 
Oscar, Mr. J. Oscar Ziegler was also 
born in Switzerland, and is now about 43 
years of age. He was given an excellent 
school and college education in Switzer- 
land, and at the age of 17 was appren- 
ticed to A. Saurer & Sons, in the city of 
Arboxi, on I.,ake Constance, who are large 
manufacturers of steam engines and silk 
embroidery machinery. He was about 20 

years of age when his parents located in this country, and began his 
here with the American Safe Company, confining himself particularly to the 
intricate mechanism of "time locks." In 1873 he associated himself with Charles 
Williams, Jr., of Boston, and was closely identified through this connection with 
Prof. Bell in all his early experimental work upon the telephone. He was also in 
these early years brought into intimate contact with Moses G. Farmer. Previous 
to the organization of the firm of Ziegler Bros., like his brother, he was associ- 
ated with A. L. Russell and the Holtzer-Cabot Electric Company. 




Miscellaneous Notes. 

JUDGE RICH'S DECISION in the case of the Buckeye Company, of Cleveland 
O., was sustained by Judge Dallas in an opinion handed down from'the bench 
of the United States Circuit Court at Lancaster, Pa. 

THE VIADUCT MANUFACTURING COMPANY. Baltimore. Md., lost its ex- 
tensive electric manufacturing plant liy fire on June 30. During a .storm the 
buildings were twice struck by lightning, the second stroke shattering the 
machine shop and starting the fire. The damage is estimated at S.^0, 000, on which 
there is $35,000 insurance. About 125 workmen are thrown out of employment, 
but temporary quarters will be occupied at once, as the company has many 
orders ahead. Presideni Davis and his associates have our sympathy, but their 
well-kuowu business enterprise will doubtless meet with a stimulus from this 
misfortune, which will more than counterbalance it. 

Crabc gnb Snbustnol Hotcs, 

WILMINGTON, DSL.— Worrell & Ryon, electrical engineers, have dissolved 
partnership. 

J. JONES & SON. 67 Cortlandt street. New York, report that they have just 
closed a contract with one of the large motor companies to furnish them with a 



year's supply of their Anti-Thunderbolt paper. They will also in the near 
future keep in stock a com^plete supply of the Kester lamps, made by the F. B. 
Little Company, of Buffalo. 

THE J.T. CARPENTER TAP & DIE COMPANY, Pawtucket, R. I., has issued a 
new catalogue and price list containing illustrations, descriptions of its taps, 
dies, tap wrenches and other goods manufactured by it. 

THE HARRISON INTERNATIONAL TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION COM- 
PANY will move its general offices to the Chamber of Commerce Building. 
Chicago, this week, the general offices of The Harrison International Telephone 
Company remaining here. This change is made imperative from the great 
growth ol the Western business of this flourishing company. 

THE ST. LOUIS RAILWAY COMPANY, of St. Louis, Mo., have placed the 
order for their new car barn with the Berlin Iron Bridge Company, of East 
Berlin. Conn. The building will be 64 feet in width, and 185 feet in length, with 
brick walls, the roof being of iron covered with The Berlin Iron Bridge Com- 
pany's patent anti-condensation corrugated iron roof covering. It is the inten- 
tion of the railroad company to make -this station absolutely fireproof and 
thereby save insurance. 

THE ELECTRIC APPLIANCE COMPANY, Chicago, states that it started into 
the Summer season without any special arrangement on a direct current fan 
motor, intending to devote all of its energy to the sale of the Meston alternating 
current outfit. A heavy demand set in, however, for a direct current fan motor, 
and it has succeeded in getting hold of such a desirable article in the Acme direct 
current fan motor that it is pushing them extensively, and claims to have the 
best direct current fan motor introduced thi: 



THE STANDARD ELECTRIC TIME COMPANY, on and after June 30, IS'M, 
will have its main office and factory located at 23 Jefferson street, Waterbury, 
Conn., where all communications, express and freight, should be sent, instead 
of to New Haven, as heretofore. The company will here have greatly increased 
facilities for the manufacture of its electric time system, self-winding clocks, 
electric tower clocks, and electric dial system, all of which have established 
an enviable reputation for simplicity and reliability. 

THE MASON TELEPHONE COMPANY is the name of a new concern which 
has just been organized in Richmond. Va.. to manufacture telephones. Messrs. 
C- T. and W. A. Mason are the inventors of the telephone, and have perfected 
an exchange system that has been introduced with success in several cities. The 
advantages claimed for the new system are non-infringement, simplicity of con- 
struction and superiority of transmission of sound. A number of the most 
prominent men in Richmond are interested in the company. 

THE WAKEFIELD ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMPANY, No. 731 
Reading Terminal. Philadelphia, Pa., is very busy in railway work; it is just 
finishing a seven mile extension from Harleigh to Freeland, Pa., for the Lehigh 
Traction Company, and have started work On an eight-mile road from Tamaqua. 
through Lansford, to Summit Hill, Pa., and has also closed contracts for a 
40-niile road from Port Jer\'is, N. Y., to Stroudsburg, Pa. Mr. Charles E. Hague, 
formerly with the Pennsylvania General Electric Company, is general u'.anager 
of the Wakefield Electric Engineering Company, 

QUEEN & CO., INCORPORATED, of Philadelphia, have a new form of cen- 
tral station voltmeter, the dial of which is arranged in the shape of a semi- 
circle 14 inches across, the scale covering 180 degrees. Thus it will be eWdent 
that the divisions are far apart so that small fractions of a volt can be easily 
read at some distance. An adjustable index, which can be set at any desired 
point, is also supplied. This voltmeter can be left in circuit all day long with- 
out injur>-. and is described in circular No. 535, which the makers will mail 
upon request. They also have a full line of switch-board instruments for isolated 
plants. 

THE E. G. BERNARD CO., 43 Fourth street, Troy, N. Y., have bought out 
the stock of material, completed and partly completed machines and special 
tools of the Adams Electrical Company, of Worcester, and will continue the 
manufacture of the Adams dynamos and motors, making a specialty of sizes up 
to 10 k.w. capacity, both high and low speed. The above stock of completed 
and partly completed machines will enable the E. G. Bernard Co. to continue 
the business at once. Mr. A. D. Adams, late manager of Adams Electrical 
Company, will be connected with the E. G. Bernard Co. in the manufacture 
and sale of the machines. 

BARTLETT & CO.. engravers and printers. 21 Rose street, have issued a beau- 
tiful pamphlet entitled "A Modern Triumvirate." which describes in an agree- 
able style the different departments of their business. The exceeding fine char- 
acter of the work done by this firm is well illustrated in this brochure, not only 
in engraving but in press work and binding. The embossed cover and title page 
are works of art in every sense, and the whole production is one that could 
scarcely be equalled outside of France, though even there we know of no firm 
that can rival Bartlett & Co. in commercial catalogue work. Though the Ger- 
mans have recently issued some ver>* elaborate commercial catalogues, they lack 
the artistic element so predominant in the work of this firm. 

THE ELECTRIC STOR.\GE BATTERY COMPANY. Drexel Building. Phila- 
delphia, has issued a new edition of its catalogue of the chloride accumulator, 
which contains considerable new matter, including some particulars of the 
Paris-St. Denis storage batterj- tramway, an account of which appeared in our 
columns several months ago. Five types of cells are now listed, ranging in 
capacity from 12J-^ to 5.000 ampere hours. Types C and I) have been added, the 
plates of these being 4x4 inches and 6x6 inches respectively. An appendix 
contains a number of flattering testimonials to the merits of the chloiide 
accumulator, among the writers of which are Professors Houston, Chandler, 
Callender and Barker. A. E. Keunelly, the North American Phonograph Com- 
pany, the American Graphophonc Company, the electrical engineer of the 
Edison Kiuetoscope, and users of the battery for isolated and central station J 
lighting purposes, and some others. 

.THE CHAS. E. GREGORY COMPANY. Chicago. HI., report the followingj 
sales for June: Fifty light D 12 Thomson-Houston arc dynamo, to P. Norcross.r 
Janesville. Wis. ; two 30 and one 20 light Sperry arc dynamo, to B. Marks.i 
Chicago: one 6-light Sperr>' arc dynamo, to Jas. I. Ayer. New York, N. Y.j 
one 3-liRht Excelsior arc, to J. P. Karr. Reynolds. Ind.; one 500-light 1.000-vo 
Thomson-Houston alternator, to P. Milroy. Hopkinton, la. ; two 180 ampen 
Westinghouse generators, to International & Wells Packing Company 
180 ampere Westinghouse generator, to W. T. Osborne & Co.. Kansas City 
Mo.; one 210- light Edison generator, to Geo. B. Weiss & Son, Chicago; ond 



July 14, 1894. 



THK BlvECTRICAI^ \VORivl3. 



45 



25-h. p. direct-connected Westinghouse motor, to O. H. Parker, Auuistou, Ala. ; 
three 3-h. p. and cue 5-h. p. Westinghouse motors, to Andrews & Johnson, 
Chicago ; one 2-h. p. Sperry series generator, to John Raber. Chicago ; one 3 kw. , 
SOO-volt Edison motor, to M. Schu, Aurora, III.; one 3 kw. 220-volt Edison 
motor, to Chicago Braid and Embroidery Company; one 1 h. p. Crocker-Wheeler 
motor, to Four JLakes L. & P. Company. Madison, Wis. ; one I h. p. C. & C. 
motor, to A. L. Daniels, Marion. la. ; one 1-h. p. Jenney motor, to E. J. Davis, 
Aurora, 111.; one 1-h. p. Rockford motor, to George Wolfe, Chicago; one 1-h. p. 
Detroit motor, to Baltimore Cafe. Chicago; one 1-h. p. Crocker-Wheeler, to Lyon 
& Healy, Chicago; one 1-h. p. Edison motor, to Goltz & Sinclair, Milwaukee, 
Wis. ; 14 Edison arc lamps, to W. T. Osboru & Co., Kansas City, Mo. ; 6 Knowles 
D. C. arc lamps, to Kuh, Nathan & Fischer, Chicago; 15 Edison arc lamps, to 
Max Eichberg, Chicago; 6 Edison arc lamps, to B. F. Harris, Jr., Champaign, 
111. ; and a total sale of 47 fan motors of various sizes and inds. 



Business Hotices. 



BATTERY CUT-OUT CHEAP.— Sensitive, reliable, never requires attention. 
Gas lighting much improved by its use. Electric Supply Company, of 105 South 
Warren street, Syr 



OPEN AND CI,OSED CIRCUIT CELLS.— The Hayden carbon porous cup No. 1; 
the Hayden carbon porous cup No. 2 cell; a Leclanche clay porous cup cell ; a 
standard Fuller cell; a No. 2 Fuller cell; a single cylinder carbon cell; a double 
cylinder carbon cell. All reliable and efficient, and at prices lower thaii ever. 
THE HAYDEN-BOOKER MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 2140 DeKalb 
street, St. Louis, Mo. 



ILLUSTRATED RECORD OF ELECTRICAL PATENTS. 



UNITED STATES PATENTS ISSUED JULY 3. 1894. 
(In charge of Wm. A. Rosenbaum, 177 Times Building, New York.) 

532,189. ELECTRIC RAILWAY TRUCK; F. O. Blackwell, Lynn, Mass. Appli- 
cation filed May 1, 1891. The combination with the driving axle of a rail- 
way truck and motor shaft connected thereto through flexible coupling and 
gearing, of a gear wheel casing having ji portion flexibly mounted to follow 
the movement of the motor shaft. 

522,209. ORGAN; R. Hope-Jones, Birkenhead, England. Application filed 




Application 
rent, 
acid, 

Application 



No. 522,241. — Alternating Current Dynamo 
Electric Machine. 

September 18, 1891. The combination of a portable console frame, a key 
frame adjustable as a whole thereon, and a separable portable pqdal frame. 

522.231. AUXILIARY FIRE ALARM SIGNAL SYSTEM; J. Sachs, New York, 
N. Y. Application filed November 8, 1893. This comprises an alarm box, 
an auxiliary releasing circuit, a working generator, an automatic switch for 
throwing said generator into circuit, a tell tale signal, and a circuit breaker 
in the circuit, the generator being operated by the tell-tale mechanism. 

522.232. ELECTRIC SAFETY FUSE; J. Sachf, New York, N. 
filed April 10. 1893. This comprises a strip melted by an i 
in combination with a material surrounding the strip, such a 
that will combine with the metal and form a non-conductor. 

522.233. ELECTRIC ARC LAMP; A. Schweitzer, Alleghany. Pa. 
tiled December 28. 1893. The combination with oppositely extending i 
supporting the carbons, oneof the arms having a hinged joint, of means for 
adjusting the hinged section laterally to align and bring the carbon points 
in coincidental relation. 

522.241. ALTERNATING CURRENT DYNAMO ELECTRIC MACHINE; Elihu 
Thomson, Swampscott, Mass. Application filed October 21, 1893. The 
method of varying the periodicity of an electric current, which consists in 
successively and continuously changing the points of line connection in 
either direction around a rotating commutator independently of its own 
rotation. (See illustration.) 

522.242. PROCESS OF MANUFACTURING INSULATING MATERIAL; A. F. 
Tinnerholm and C. F. Paterson, Schenectady. N. Y. Application filed July 
31, 1880. A sheet composed of scales or pieces of mica, and made up by 
adding less than 10 per cent, of powdered gum or resin between the scales. 

522.274. DYNAMO ELECTRIC MACHINE; C. E- Scribner, Chicago, HI. Appli- 
cation filed June 1, 1889. The two pole pieces of a dynamo, each provided 
with two cores, each pole being on opposite sides thereof, and the coils 
thereof being included in a shunt around the translating devices which are 
being supplied with current from the machine, in combination with a third 
core for each pole piece connected with a projecting portion of each pole 
piece, the extra pole pieces being on opposite sides of the armature and in 
the same plane, and with the other cores in a plane at right angles to the 
axis of the rotation of the armature, the extra pole pieces being provided 
with coils included in the main circuit. 

523.275. REGULATOR FOR DYNAMO ELECTRIC MACHINES; C. E- Scribner, 
Chicago, 111 Application filed October 14, 1889. This comprises a brush 
carrier constantly impelled in one direction by a constant force, and an 
intermittently acting motor adapted to impel it in the opposite direction, 
the frequency of the operation depending upon the strength of the main 



532,276. ELECTRIC ARC LAMP; A. W.Smith.San Francisco. Cal. Application 
Sled April 2, 1894. This comprises a sliding frame, a solenoid coil, a core, 
bell cranks fulcrumed upon yielding springs, gripping shoes and links 
connecting the bell cranks with the core. 

523,377, WINDOW SPRING FOR BURGLAR ALARMS: J. Steiner, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. Application filed November 4. 1893. A window spring provided with 
a lever and a circuit spring carrying upon one side of it an insulating disc. 



and a contact point to make connection with a base, and upon its other side 
a distance post to hold it at a fixed distance from the lever. 

!,286. DYNAMO ELECTRIC MACHINE OR MOTOR; Charles S. Bradley, 
Avon, N.Y. Application filed October 29, 1893. A dynamo electric machine 
or motor having its field magnet circuit in series relation to the armature 
circuit and provided with an electrical connection at a point intermediate of 
the terminals with the frame. (See illustration.) 

:.294. ELECTRIC ARC LAMP; E- and F. W. Heymann, Boston, Mass. Appli- 
cation filed April 14, 1893. A carbon for arc lamps consisting of a block 
provided with grooves alternately arranged on its opposite faces. 

;,302. SELF LOCKING CLEAT FOR ELECTRIC WIRES; E- Nashold. Chicago, 
111. Application filed February 23, 1894. This consists of a block having 
recesses adjacent to its support and grooves extending obliquely across the 
cleat, and with a vertical bend therein, and terminating in flaring openings. 

2,337. ELECTRIC ARC LAMP; J. F. Kester, Buffalo, N. Y. Application 
filed November 23, 1893. The combination with the frame and feed mechan- 
ism, of a magnet controlling the movement of the frame, rock lever having 
one arm connected with the armature of the magnet, and a block adjustably 
secured to the oth'er arm of the lever and connected with the carrying frame. 

1,332. ELECTRIC SWITCH; John Van Vleck, New York, N. Y. Application 
filed May 28, 1894. In combination with a three wire distributing system, 
three pairs of contact fingers respectively connected to the terminals of each 
conductor, a rotary support, and three circuit closing plates on the periphery 
thereof; with each of said plates each pair of fingers makes contact, the 
fingers connected with the neutral conductor of the system being of such 
length relatively to the' fingers connected with the other two conductors as 
that when said contact plates are moved by the rotation of said support into 
contact with said fingers, circuit shall be closed through said neutral con- 
ductor before it is closed through the remaining conductors. 

2,344. ALTERNATING CURRENT MOTOR; John F. Kelly. Pittsfield. Mass. 
Application filed February 6, 1894. An alternating current motor consisting 
of an inducing system having, when energized by an alternating current, 
a symmetrical single phase alternating current magnetic field in com- 
bination with a closed symmetrical induced system, the two systems being 
relatively movable. 

2,346. AUTOMATIC FIRE ALARM; C. A. Mann, Buffalo, N. Y. Application 
filed March 16, 1894. The combination of a base and terminals of a switch 
spring adapted to connect the contacts on the terminals, a supporting rod in 
front of the terminals, and a laterally sliding fusion link mounted on the rod 
and engaging with the switch spring. 

2,349. RAIL JOINT AND BOND FOR ELECTRIC RAILWAYS; J. Meyer, 
New York, N.. Y. Application filed October 21, 1893. This comprises a base 
plate, angle plates connected to the rail ends and to flanges on the base 
plate, a bond connecting the base of the rail ends, and a filling of asphalt 
run into the trough of the base plate. 

3,356. ALTERNATING CURRENT MOTOR; William Stanley. Jr., Pitts- 
field, Mass. Application filed April 3, 1894. An alternating current motor, 




No. 522,286. — Dynamo or Motor. 



consisting of a field magnet, the energizing coils of which do not coincide as 
to their average centre with the centre of the figure of their pole piece and 
the field of which, when energized, is of single or uniform phase, in com- 
bination with an induced system symmetrical about an axis, around which 
one of the members is free to rotate. (See illustration.) 

522,363. SUSPENSION CLIP FOR TROLLEY WIRES; W. F. D. Crane, East 
Orange, N. J. Application filed March 10, 1894. The means for applying a 
trolley wire clip having opposed hooks, consisting of a handle with projec- 
tions adapted to engage the upper side of the wire and the under side of 
the clip. 

522,370. DISTRIBUTING BOARD FOR ELECTRIC CIRCUITS: Rienhold 
Herman, Crafton, Pa. Application filed December 14, 1893. A terminal for a 



46 



THE ELECXRICAI^ WORl^l). 



Vol. XXIV. No. 2. 



distributing board having in combination a socket portion provided with a 
shoulder or flange, a threaded stem, a holding nut and a lock nut fitting on 
the threaded stem. 
522.374. HLECTRIC RAILWAY SUPPLY CIRCUIT; Rudolph M. Hunter, 
Philadelphia, Pa. Application filed May «, IS94. In an electric railway the 
combination of two railway tracks, feeding conductors connecting respect- 
ively with the conductor of similar polarity of the two railways, separate 
generators having their similar poles respectively connected with the two 
supply conductors; and a common return circuit connecting conductors of 
other polarity in parallel and in electrical connection with the other termi- 
nals of the said generators. 
J.'.388. ELECTRIC RAILWAY SWITCH AND TROLLEY: Frederick S. 
Perrin. Lynn, Mass. Application filed March 12, 1892. The combination with 
tlae trolley wheel of side arms whose ui)per ends are arranged to extend 




No. 522,345. — Production of Continuous Motion by Alternat- 
ing Currents. 

over the trolley wire, and are movable toward and from each other, and 
rollers on the ends of said arms, the axes of said rollers being inclined. 

522,404. TELEPHONE TRANSMITTER; William R. Cole, Detroit, Mich. 
"Application filed April 30,1894. The combination with the transmitting 
diaphragm of a curved spring bar ananged across the diaphragm and 
carrying one of the electrodes centrally in contact with the diaphragm, the 
inward' movement of the diaphragm tending to straighten the bar, and a 
bell crank lever against one arm of which one end of the spring bar bears, 
and a spring bar forming the long arm of the bell crank, and carrying the 
other electrode bearing against the electrode on the spring bar. 

522 428. INSULATOR; Romaine Mace, New York. N. Y. Application filed May 
3,1804. A tubular insulator inserted in an opening in a timber or support and 
provided with a lug or extension in combination with means for securing 
said lug or extension to the timber or support. 

.•^22.431. ELECTRIC ALARM SIGNAL FOR RAILWAY CROSSINGS; James J. 
Ross, Detroit, Mich. Application filed April 17, 1894, In an electric railway 
signal, the combination of two normally closed rail circuits at opposite 
sides of a cnwsing, each including a track relay, adapted to be short cir- 
cuited by the train while passing over the rails of an electric alarm circuit 
having two branches containing normally open breaks, controlled by the 
track relays, a controlling relay provided with a main and shunt circuit. 




insulating material arranged parallel with .said stringers and on the ties, an 
electric conductor on the lop of said strip and the lower part of the conduit, 
openings being provided between the ties and leading into said lower part. 

522,461. CONDUIT FOR TROLLEY ARMS; Albert T. Fay. Minneapolis, 
Minn. Application filed July 26. 1892. The combination with a car, of the 
track for the same, an underground conduit provided with a surface 
slot, a trolley arm having the thin flattened portion and the yoke to receive 
the trolley wheel, and a breakable section of weaker metal arranged lietween 
the top of the conduit and the car. 

522,473. TORPEDO MACHINEOR APPAR.Vl'US FOR RAILW.\Y SIGNAI.ING; 
Jacob W. Lattig, Easton, Pa. Application filed February 15. 1894. In combina- 
tion, the pivoted track lever, the upright rod pinned to said lever, the vibra- 
tory armature lever carried by the upright rod, the toe or projection against 
which said vibratory arm acts, the rock shaft on which said toe is mounted, a 
hammer mounted upon the same shaft and an electromagnet whereby said 
armature lever may be influenced. 

522.470. ELECTRODE FOR SECOND.\RY BATTERIES; William Morrison, Des 
Moines, la. Application filed April 25, 1894. An electrode for secondary 
batteries, the body of which is formed by a band composed of a plurality of 
lead ribbons in close contact throughout, said band being folded and refolded 
flatwise of the ribbons, and having spaces within the folds to provide for the 
thickening of the ribbons by the expansion of the lead. 

522,500. TELEGRAPH REPEATER; Aldred Dee Pinckney Weaver. Jackson. 
Miss. Application filed December 26, 1893. A telegraphic repeater, com- 
prising a sounder consisting ot the combination of an armature lever, two 
independent .sets of electromagnets, both arranged upon the same side of 
the fulcrum of said armature lever and both in local circuits, a frame, and a 
spring contact combined with and interposed between the armature lever 
and frame, and the circuits and batteries arranged. 

522,506. ELECTRIC CONVERTER; George D. Burton, Boston, and Edwin E. 
Angell, Somerville. Mass. Application filed November 14, 1893. In an 



No. ,522,3.%.— .^I.Tl■:RNATI^(•. Current Motor. 

two normally open breaks in branches of the shunt circuit controlled by the 
track relays, a normally open break in the shunt circuit controlled by the 
controlling relay, and a normally closed break in the alarm circuit con- 
trolled by the controlling relay. 

522,440. CONDUIT ELECTRIC RAILWAY; John H. Tyrell, New York, N. Y. 
Application filed January 23, 1804. The combination with the car of the 
trolley arm suspended beneath it, a support momited on the lower end of the 
arm and adapted to swing relatively thereto and transversely of the car, and 
a trolley on the said support. 

522,454. MACHINE FOR TEACHING TELEGRAPHY; Thomas Mortimer 
Crepar, Clare, Mich. Application filed March 20, 1804. The combination 
with the case, the pulleys therein, the circuit breaker and the belt carried 
by the pulleys and adapted to actuate the circuit breaker, of the hanger 
having pulleys to carry the outer end of the belt, and the longitudinally 
adjustable rails supporting the hanger and extending into the case. 

522.460. ELECTRIC RAILWAY CONDUIT; Albert T. Fay, Minneapolis. Minn. 
Application filed April 15, 1804. In an electric railway conduit, the com- 
bination with the cross ties and the rails thereon, of the stringers resting 
upon the tops of said cross tics, surface plates secured upon the tops of said 
stringers, a slot being left between the inner edges of said plates, a strip of 




□ □ 



No. 522,564. — Mui,TlPi*K TklKPHONV. 

electric transformer, the combination of two conuected standards composed nf 
magnetic material and provided with eyes at their upper ends, a core sup- 
porjed at its opposite ends in said eyes, and primary and secondary coils 
on said core. 

:,S07. ELECTRIC CONVERTER; George I). Biirtou, Boston, and E<iwin E. 
Angell, Somerville. Mass. Application filed November 2*). 1892. An electric 
transformer having a secondary coil composed of a series of incomplete 
rings, and a movable brush for completing the circuit of any one or more of 
said rings. 

!.S27. ELECTRIC AUTOMATIC CIRCUIT BREAKER; C. W. Larson. Lynn, 
Mass. Application filed October 17, 1893. This comprises fixed contacts, a 
sliding rod carrying a bridging contact, a spring, an electromagnet arranged 
in circuit, a yielding armature carrying a catch, a toggle lever fixed at one 
end and connected at its other end to the sliding rod, and a hook carried by 
the toggle lever and adapted to engage the catch. 

1,528. ELECTRIC TORPEDO APPARATUS AND SYSTEM FOR RAILWAY 
SIGNALING; J. W. Lattig, Easton, Pa. Application filed February 27, 1804. 
This comprises a track circuit and relay, a toipedoapparattis having a break 
in its exploding mechanism, a magnet controlling the same, and a circuit 
including the torpedo magnet, a branch circuit, a torpedo track section and 
connections whereby, by and during the passage of a train over the torpedo 
i put in condition to cause the torpedo mag- 
break in the torpedo exploding mechanism. 
F. Fullner. Chicago, III. Application filed 
of a zinc clement in a solution of potash, the 
proportions being substantially one pound of potash to seven quarts of water, 
and a carbon element in a porous cup containing a solution of sulphuric 
acid and nitrate of soda, the proportions being substantially four parts of 
sulphuric acid, three parts of water, and oue part of nitrate of soda. 

2.564. MULTIPLE TKLFIPHONY; Maurice Hutin and Maurice Leblanc. 
Paris, France. Application fil d June 1, 1S94. The improvement in the art 
of telephony, which consists in transmitting vocal or other sounds by gener- 
ating electrical undulations similar in form to the sound waves, and select- 
ing therefrom and charging a line with components of these electrical 
undulations. (See illustration.) 



tjack section the branch circuit : 
net to maintain or restore the br 
t.559. GALVANIC BATTERY; 
August 28. 1893. This consist; 



The Electrical World. 



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CONTKNTS. 



Editorial 

Judge Rick's Decision 

Fort Wayne vs. General Electric 

New French Electric Launch 

Electro-Dynamic Machinery, by Honston and Kennelly 

Resonance Analysis of Alternating and Polyphase Currents, by M. I. 

Pupin 

The Meeting of the Canadian Electrical Association 

.Susmie, Magnetic and Electric Phenomena 

How the Telephone Company Reaches a Subsciiber, by W. L- Heden- 

berg 

.\inateur Motor Building— I., by G. E. Dutiton 

Practical Notes on Dynamo Calculation — X. , by A. E. Wiener . . . . 
The Electrical World's Digest of Current Technical Electrical Litera 

ture, by Carl Hering 

A .Simple Fire Alarm 

The Hamilton Elevator • 

A Diminutive Battery 

Safety Automatic Gauge Cock 

New Telephone .\pparatus 

Trolley Wheel 

Automatic .Switch for Charging Storage Batteries 

Electric Heating . . 

Portable .Alternating Current Meter 

Small Motors 

Wenstrora Direct Connected Outfit 

DEPARTMENTS: 
Financial Intelligence . 



AMATEUR MOTOR BUILDING. 

The article on amateur motor building, in another column, will 
be found of interest by those who have the time and opportunity to 
indulge in the very profitable, from an educational standpoint, 
pleasure of constructing amateur apparatus. The actual construction 
of such a model will convey a better idea of the technical principles 
concerned than a small library of books, and in this case the maker 
will have the satisfaction of possessing, when completed, a motor of 
good efficiency, which can be utilized for a fan or for experimental 
purposes. The directions given are so minute that there should be 
no difficulty in any one carrying them out, whether with respect to 
the mechanical construction or the electrical details, which latter 
will be given in the next section of the article. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY NETWORKS. 

Every few months one or more of the New York dailies has an 
article of some length on New Jersey networks of electric railways, all 
of which almost seem to be written from the same original copy. 
Sometimes rumors in regard to a network from Camden approaching 
to connect with one in Northern New Jersey are elaborated, and 
the impression likely to be received bj' the lay reader is that there 
is something both wonderful and mysterious in these "network" 
schemes. As far as we can learn, however, towns between which 
the traffic is likely to be profitable have been connected by electric 
railways, and the only significance of "networks" is that these 
lines, on a map, may present such an appearance. If the traffic between 
towns north of Camden and south of Jerse}- City is likely to be 
large enough to justify the construction of lines, they will probably 
some time meet at Trenton, or some other place, and then we will 
have what might be called a network system between those ex- 
tremes, but it does not seem that this implies any strange develop- 
ment of electric traction. 



THE ORIGIN OF UPPER HARMONICS. 

In another column we print an abstract of the valuable paper read 
by Dr. Pupin at the Philadelphia meeting of the American Institute 
of Electrical Engineers, in which, however, only the conclusions 
are given. Those who would like to know the details of the beau- 
tiful method of resonance analysis employed are referred to the 
original in the Transactions of the Institute. The paper has an 
important practical bearing, for it clearly shows how the presence 
of the upper harmonics accounts for rupture of insulation of alter- 
nating machines, and it is pointed out that lines should be con- 
structed in such a way that conditions favoring resonance with the 
frequency of the fundamental, or with one of its odd upper har- 
monics, will seldom occur, or, when they do occur, there will be 
no resonant rise of potential capable of doing damage. To the 
same end, slotted armatures and armatures with projecting pole 
pieces should be avoided, and the magnetization kept as low as 
possible. Another conclusion of interest is that hj'steresis will not, 
as has been claimed, account for the abrupt cyclic changes which 
may be the cause of the upper harmonfcs. The resonance analysis 
of a rotar\' field, described in the paper, proves that rotary magnetic 
fields, if produced b}' reasonably well constructed machines, are 
not accompanied by fluctuations in their intensitj-, which should 
definitely settle a question which had no reason for its existence. 



Special Correspondence .... 

News of the Week 

Trade and Industrial Notes . 

Business Notes 

Illustrated Record of Patents 



THEORETICAL VS. PRACTICAL ELECTRICITY. 

We have frequently referred in these columns to the dubious 
advantage of a technical education, in which the teaching of prin- 
ciples is subordinated to purely practical training, and our views 
receive another confirmation in some remarks by Prof. Ostwald in 
an introduction to a paper to which we quote elsewhere. He refers 



48 



THE El^KCXRlCAIv WORIvD. 



Vol. XXIV. No. 3. 



to the fact that the bulk of benzol made in England i.s exported to 
Germany, wliere it serves for the preparation of colors, perfumes 
and drugs, and then asks the cause that leads to another country 
obtaining thus the greater share of a profit, all of which might he 
retained in England where the raw material is produced. The 
ans\\cr he found during a visit to that country, where he learned that 
the English student has too great a belief in the value of "practi- 
cal" subjects to waste time in learning pure cheuiistr}'. Wishing to 
become a technically trained dyer, he learns dyeing instead of the 
chemical principles upon which d5-eing depends, and the natural 
result is that at the first notable departure from the art of dyeing, 
as he learned it, he is utterly at a loss, and has to begin learning 
new empirical methods, instead of applying that general knowledge 
which the technical man, who has studied chemistry before dyeing, 
has fully acquired. The Professor states that the secret of German 
industrial success is that Germans have grasped the fact that science 
is the best practice. That this is true with respect to chemistry 
there is abundant evidence in the fact that Germany, which pays 
immeasurably more attention to the teaching and investigation of 
chemical theory than any other country, also controls the chemical 
trade of the world, while her chemical graduates find profitable 
employment the world over. 



ELECTRO-DYNAMIC MACHINERY. 

Under the above caption we begin in this issue the publication of 
a series of articles by Houston and Kennelly, in which will be 
considered the principles underlying the construction and use of 
apparatus for the production, distribution, utilization and measure- 
ment of electrical energy. This series of articles will, we think, be 
one of the jnost valuable to the student of any treatise of the kind 
that has yet appeared, not only from the exceedingly clear manner in 
which it is written, but from the logical sequence of the subjects, 
the numerical examples based upon practical data and used as illus- 
trations, and the fact that it will be up to date in all the matters 
treated. The series will lack a common fault of much technical 
writing, which too often has no perspective, treating .some subjects 
at much greater length than necessary, while others of importance 
are passed over, mere whims often appearing to have dictated the 
choice and arrangement of matter, rather than logical considera 
tions. No attempt will be made in these articles to treat of the 
actual construction of machines and apparatus, which is a subject 
that would be out of place where the object is the development of 
general principles, whose application in most cases is an engineer- 
ing question in which commercial and other considerations fre- 
quently demand notable modifications. The modern tendency is to 
give an increasing importance to the study of principles, and that 
this is based upon sound wisdom cannot be denied. The practice 
of the constructive branches of a profession consists largely, as 
intimated before, in compromises between conflicting principles, or in 
modifications to suit given conditions. In other words, principles 
are the raw material which have to be worked and fitted to meet 
the recjuirements of practice. As a consequence, to be successful, 
one should have a thorough knowledge of the elements he is thus 
required to deal with, or otherwise he becomes helpless when a new 
set of conditions presents itself. The object of this series is to 
teach these underlying elements of the profession of the electrical 
engineer; not, however, in the language of the matheni.<itician and 
the physicist, as usually attempted, but in the terms cni])loyeil hv 
the engineer. 

ELECTRO-CHEMISTRY. 

In the Digest will be found an abstract of an important German 
paper, by Prof. Ostwald, in which it is pointed out that electro- 
chemistry contains possibilities that are startling in their scope. It 
is asserted that if we had a cell in which electrical energy was pro- 
duced by the direct oxidation of carbon ( not with heal, however i, 
and with an output approaching the theoretical, we would be on 
the brink of an industrial revolution, compared with which the 
invention of the steam engine sinks into insignificance. Numeri- 
cally, as a pound of carbon contains 14,000 heat units, this is equiv- 



alent to saying that S.4 hourly horse power would be obtained 
from each pound of carbon used in this way. Prof. Ostwald says 
that the one essential for such a cell is a suitable electrolyte to inter- 
pose between the carbon at one end and the oxygen at the other, 
which will pennit the occurrence of the necessary electrical inter- 
actions and itself suffer no permanent change. This, of course, 
offers us no solution, but it is encouraging to have the problem 
assume a definite shape with definite requirements pointed out, 
for then the mind has something tangible upon which to bring its 
forces to bear. While Prof. Oswald thus indicates the direction in 
which it will be profitable to explore, he also warns against expect- 
ing to obtain notable economy in the production of electricity from 
coal through the intermediary of heat. An apparatus of this kind 
would be a thermo-dynamic machine, and therefore subject to the 
law of thermo-dynamic efficiency, which is that the portion of heat 
energy utilized cannot be greater than the ratio of the working 
range of temperature to the extreme absolute temperature. Another 
problem offered to the electro-chemist is the utilization in a storage 
battery of a metal having a low electro-chemical equivalent. For 
example, it is .shown that, if aluminium were available for this 
purpose, the weights of the electrodes could be reduced to one- 
eleventh of their present amount. It seems to be the opinion of 
Prof. Ostwald that the fundamental problem in electro-chemistry is 
that of osmotic pressure, as he asserts that a galvanic cell is nothing 
more than a machine driven by this pressure. While the origin of 
osmotic pressure is yet a mysterj-, its existence has been proved by 
interposing a septum between two solutions, to one of which it is 
impervious; a solution of sea water, it is stated, thus gives a pressure 
of 20 atmospheres. It will be seen that the field of modem electro- 
chemistr}' is one with boundless possibilities, and would even appear 
to offer greater inducements to a young man seeking a professional 
career than any other branch of electrical science. Unlike most of 
the other branches, however, it involves a theoretical training of 
the highest order, and is of all the least likely one to prove profita- 
ble to the empiric and dabbler. 



Judge Ricks' Decision Sustained. 

We referred last week to Judge Dallas' decision in the United 
States Circuit Court at Lancaster, Pa., sustaining Judge Ricks' 
opinion in the Buckeye lamp case, and we give below the full text: 

"This is a motion for a preliniinar)- injunction to restrain the 
defendant from using certain electric lamps in alleged violation of 
the rights of the complainants under what is known as the Edison 
patent for incandescent lamps. The substantial question is as to 
the weight which should, upon this application, be accorded to the 
action of the Circuit Court for the Northern District of Ohio, on 
certan motions made in that court, for, and to dissolve, preliminary 
injunctions in suits upon the same patent. In disposing of the 
motions referred to. Judge Ricks' delivered three opinions, which 
have been discussed at length by counsel, and attentively read by 
me; but I do not deem it necessary or advisable to express any 
opinion of my own upon the subjects with which they deal. It is 
enough to say that he has decided that the lamps now involved 
could he lawfully made and sold by the defendant's vendor, and, 
(([noting authorities) the user of a patented article is not liable as 
an infringer, where he purchased it of a person who had a legal 
right to sell it. Nothing is now indicated as to the view which 
may be taken of this case when considered upon pleadings and 
proofs, but I am of opinion that, because a preliminary injunction 
against the maker of these lamjis has been refused in the Sixth 
Circuit, this court should not, upon interlocutory application, enjoin 
the use of them by a defendant who bought them from that maker. 
The motion for a preliminary injunction is denied. ' ' 



The Calculation of Alternating Current Motors. 



The interesting serial by Jlr. 'B. Arnold on this subject, which 
has appeared in these Columns during the past year, has been 
reprinted from the " IClek Zeit.,"and in pamphlet form by the j 
Poljtechnischen Buchandlung, A. Seydel, Berlin. The treatise is] 
there given in full, and developed considerably beyond the point it I 
reached in our columns. Those who have followed the series will ] 
undoubtedly be interested in the complete work. 



July 21, 1894. 



THE ELECTRICAL WOKLU. 



49 



Fort Wayne vs. General Electric. 



The Fort Wayne Electric Corporation, in the New York ' ' World" of 
last Sunday, has an article of more than a page in length devoted 
to a history of the company and a description of its works, from 
which we extract the following account of Mr. R. T. McDonald's 
recent coup d'etat. 

The article states that it was know'n that for some months Mr. 
McDonald and President Cofiin, of the General Electric, had been 
considering various fonns of a contract to be entered into between 
their respective companies. Mr. Coffin's idea was to close up the 
Fort Wayne factories and to manufacture their apparatus at Schenec- 
tady. Mr. McDonald had in mind three points he was bound to 
accomplish, and which he would not compromise on. 

The first was that he insisted on the General Electric Company 
guaranteeing the paper of the Fort Wayne Electric Company which 
he had indorsed. The second was that the minority stockholders, 
many of whom were Mr. McDonald's friends, and some of whom 
had bought Fort Wayne stock on that account, should be fully 
protected. This it was proposed to do by buying their stock and 
adding it to the already large, though not controlling, holdings of 
the General Electric Company. The latter company would then 
own the Fort Wayne outright, and could do with it as it pleased. 
Mr. McDonald was willing to leave the company under these 
circumstances, or he was willing to serve the company for one year 
without salary. The third point insisted on by Mr. McDonald was 
that the works at Fort Wayne should be kept running. The pay- 
roll of the company, as already stated, amounts to about $20,000 a 
month, and it can be easily seen that this is not a small item to a 
city the size of Fort Wayne. Mr. McDonald's course throughout 
these transactions was of a most commendable character. As a 
business man, he wanted to protect himself; as a friend, he insisted 
on taking care of the minority stockholders, and as a citizen, he 
desired to help Fort Wayne all he could. 

After numerous contracts had been drafted and considered, the 
negotiations came to naught, and the matter rested where it had 
started. Finally, about May 25 last, a meeting was held in New 
York, at which were present, among others, Mr. Coster, of Drexel, 
Morgan & Co. and the General Electric Company; President R. T. 
McDonald and his counsel. At this meeting, Mr. Coster told 
President McDonald that further negotiation was ui>ele.ss; that the 
General Electric Company intended to send its own men to Fort 
Wayne on June 9, when the annual meeting of the Fort Wayne 
Electric Company's stockholders would be held, and that a Board 
of Directors satisfactorj- to the General Electric Company would be 
elected. This ended the meeting, but it did not take long for 
President McDonald and his counsel, Mr. Putney, to get their heads 
'ogether and evolve a scheme to checkmate the General Electric. 

With only two weeks before the annual meeting to work in, Mr. 
McDonald immediately set about getting proxies from his friends 
among the minority .stockholders. He found many such among the 
ex-officers and employes of the old Thomson-Houston Company. 
The Thomson -Houston people had come into possession of a large 
block of stock for the regulator patent, the validity of which they 
had sustained against Mr. Wood, the Fort Wayne Company's 
inventor. The par value of Fort Wayne Company's stock was $25 
a share. President McDonald owned about 3,000 shares. Among 
the proxies which he secured were those from ex-President Pevear, 
of the Thomson-Houston Company, representing 8,000 .shares, and 
from Mr. J. N. Smith, a former director, and at one time the 
largest stockholder in the Thomson-Houston Company, representing 
1,600 shares. Proxies of many other persons were secured. The 
General Electric Company had about 42 per cent, of the stock. Mr. 
Coffin had a considerable block, and it was thought that the holdings 
of the General Electric Company, together with the holdings of others 
immediately connected with it, would control the election. There- 
upon Mr. McDonald made application to the Court for the appoint- 
ment of receivers. 

E. J. Hathorne, of Boston, and H. J. Miller, of Fort Waj-ne, 
were appointed receivers, and simultaneously came the organization 
of the Fort Wayne Electric Corporation, which is at present con- 
ducting the business. It has made a contract with the receivers to 
continue the business of the old Fort Wayne Electric Company. 
Its capital stock is $1,500,000, paid in cash, and the stockholders, 
who are widely scattered, are practicalh' the holders of the old Fort 
Wayne stock, with the exception of the General Electric Company. 
The contract with the receivers has been sanctioned by the courts. 
The officers of the new Fort Wayne Electric Corporation are: 
Ronald T. McDonald, president; C. S. Knight, vice-president, and 
C. C. Miller, secretary and treasurer. 



About the first of the year an expert from the General Electric 
Company went over the books of the Fort Wayne Company and 
decided that the stock was worth $4.80 per share. The Fort Wayne 
Company's expert at the same time figured that the stock was worth 
$6 per share. It is predicted that when the receivers wind up the 
Fort M'ayne Electric Company the assets will be sufficient to meet 
all the debts and leave a considerable surplus. 

New French Electric Launch. 



The accompanying illustrations represent an electric launch 
recently constructed in Paris for use at a pleasure resort on the 
Mediterranean. The boat is said to be an exceedingly trim little 
craft, and the trial trips in Paris a few weeks ago are said to have 
been exceedingly satisfactory from every point of view. The launch 
is 29 feet 3 inches over all, and it has three feet three inches 
breadth of beam. Under the seats, which are shown at A in the 
drawing, and which are designed to accommodate fifteen pas.sen- 
gers, is located a battery of 52 accumulators of the Gadot type. 
The cells are slipped into place at the sides of the seat, the panels 
being removable. The batteries are contained in wooden boxes 
carefully sheathed with lead. The tops of the containing cells' are 
closed b)- lids which press against a rubber gasket. When it is 
necessary to replenish the liquid it is poured into the cells through 
openings in the covers which are ordinarily closed by rubber 
buttons. 

The motor, which is installed slightly abaft of amidship, is a 
Gramme machine of a capacity of 44 amperes at 100 volts. The 
propeller shaft is driven with a single reduction gear, the speed 
being reduced in the ratio of 4 to 1. As the armature makes from 
1100 to 1200 revolutions per minute, the propeller is driven at the 




A French Elfxtric L.\unch. 

rate of about 300 revolutions. The pinion on the annature .shaft is 
of rawhide, a material which has been used little for this purpose 
in France; it is found to be especially useful in this special case, 
as the noise is found to be much less than if a metal pinion were 
employed. 

The motor is sheltered by a case of varnished wood, and just aft 
of it sits the operator. He has in front of him the necessary' 
switches, and an ammeter and voltmeter, so that he can at all times 
keep informed of the state of the accumulators. A rheostat is also 
provided, but this is seldom used. 

To charge the accumulators there has been installed a Gramme 
dynamo, having an output of 41 amperes and 140 volts. This 
machine is driven by a two-cylinder vertical gas engine of 20 horse 
power capacity. The dynamo at the time it charges the 52 cells on 
the launch also furnishes current to a battery of 56 accumulators 
which supply 100 16 c.p. lamps arranged about the owner's house. 

The charging process occupies about ten hours, and the launch 
is then ready for a trip of four hours. The average speed, as deter- 
mined by the tests at Paris, was about 6J4 miles per hour. 

The weight of the launch, with its cells, is about 10,800 lbs. 
This is not great enough to prevent the builders fiom constiucting 
a frame on wheels, or moving the launch from the waterside to a 
store hou.se. 

Practice vs. Theory. 

' 'The secret of the success of the chemical industry in Germany 
lies in the fact that it has learned that science is the best practice. " 
—Dr. Ostwald. 



so 



THE ELECXRICAL AVORLO. 



Vol. XXIV. No. 3. 



Electro-Dynamic Machinery. 



BY KDWIN J. HOUSTON AND A. E. KENNELIvY. 



I. GP^NERAI, PROPERTIES OF DYNAMOS. 

1. By electro-dynamic machinery is meant any apparatus for the 
]7iO(hiction, transference, utilization or measurement of energy 
through the medium of electricity. Electro-dynamic machinery 
may, therefore, be classified under tlie following heads: 

(1.) Generators, or apparatus for converting mechanical energy 
into electrical energy. 

(2.) Tran.smission circuits, or apparatus designed to receive, 
modify and transfer the electrical energj' from the generators to the 
receptive devices. 

(3. ) Devices for the reception and conversion of electrical energy 
into some other de-sired form of energy. 

( 4. ) Devices for the measurement of electrical energy. 

Under generating apparatus are included all forms of continuous 
or alternating current dynamos. 

Under transmission circuits are included not only conducting 
lines or circuits in their various forms, but al.so the means whereby 
the electric pressure ma\' be varied in transit, or the capacity of 
the line altered between the generating and receptive devices. This 
would, therefore, include not only the circuit conductors proper, 
but also various types of transformers, either stationary or rotar)'. 

Under receptive devices are included any devices for converting 
electrical energy into mechanical energy. Stricth' -speaking, how- 
ever, it is but fair to give to the term mechanical energy a wide 
interpretation, such as would, for example, permit the introduction 
of any device for translating electrical energy into telephonic or 
telegraphic vibrations. 

Under devices for the measurement of electrical energy would be 
included all electrical measuring and testing apparatus. 

In this series of articles the principles underlying the construc- 
tion and vise of the apparatus described under the preceding heads 
will be considered, rather than the technique involved in their 
application. 

2. A consideration of the foregoing classification will show that 
in all cases of the application of electro-dynamic machinery, 
mechanical energy is transformed by various devices into electrical 
energy, and utilized by various electro-receptive devices that are 
connected with the generators b}' means of conducting lines of vari- 
ous descriptions. The engineering problem involved in the, practi- 
cal application of electro-dynamic machinery can therefore be 
resolved into the simple case of economically generating a current 
and transferring it to the point of utilization with as little loss in 
transit as possible. The best economic conditions under which to 
solve any particular problem will necessarily depend largely upon 
the conditions of the case, but, generally speaking, all such prob- 
lems resolve themselves into a variety of general cases, which will 
hereafter be discussed. 

3. A dynamo electric generator is a machine in which conductors 
attached to a moving part, generally the armature, are caused to 
cut magnetic flux paths under conditions in which an expenditure 
of energy is required to maintain the motion. Under these condi- 
tions, electromotive forces are generated in the conductors. 

Since the object of the electromotive force generated in the arma- 
ture is the production of a current, it is evident that, in order to 
make the current strength as great as may be desired, either the 
electromotive force must be increased, or the resistance diminished, 
as far as practicable. 

Electromotive sources must be regarded as producing, not electric 
currents, but electromotive forces, and, other things being equal, 
that type of dynamo will be the best which produces, under given 
conditions of resistance, speed, etc., the highest electromotive force. 
In designing a dynamo, therefore, the electromotive force of which 
is fixed by the character of the work it is required to perform, the 
problem resolves itself into obtaining a machine which will .satis- 
factorily perform its work at a given efficiency, and without over- 
heating. 

4. There are various ways in which the electromotive force of a 
dynamo may be increased. 

(1. ) By increasing the speed of revolution. 

(2. ) By increa.sing the magnetic flux through the machine. 

(3. J By increasing the number of turns on the annature. 

The increase in the speed of revolution is limited by well-known 
mechanical considerations. Such increase in speed means that the 
same wire is brought through the .same magnetic flux more rapidly. 
To double the electromotive force from this cause, we require to 
double the rate of rotation, which would, in ordinary cases, carry 
the speed far beyond the limits of safe commercial practice. 



Since the E. M. F. produced in any wire is proportional to its 
rate of cutting magnetic flux, it is evident that to double the E. M. 
F. in a given wire or conductor, its rate of motion through the flux 
nuist be doubled. This can be done, either by doubling the 
rapidity of rotation of the armature, or by doubling the density of 
the flux through which it cnts, leaving the rate of motion the 
same. 

Since the total E. M. I", in any circuit is the sum of the separate 

E. M. Fs. contained in that circuit, if the number of separate wires, 
each the seat of an E. M. F. , be connected in series, the total E. 
M. !•". will be the sum of their separate E M. Fs If, therefore, 
several loops of wire be moved through the magnetic field, and 
these loops be connected in .series, it is evident that, with the same 
rotational .speed and flux density, the E. M. F. generated will be 
proportional to the number of turns. 

,\n increase in E. M. F. under any of these heads is limited by 
the conditions which arise in actual practice. As we have already 
seen, the speed is limited by mechanical considerations. An 
increase in the magnetic flux is limited by the permeability of the 
iron — that is, its capability of conducting magnetic flux — and the 
increase in the number of turns is limited by the space of the arma- 
ture which can properly be devoted to the winding. 

5. It will subsequently be shown that a definite relation exists 
between the output of a dynamo, either for continuous or alter- 
nating currents, and the relative amounts of iron and copper it 
contains — that is to say, the type of machine being determined 
upon, given dimensions and weight should produce, at a given 
speed, a certain output. The conditions under which these relations 
exist will form the subject of future consideration. 

6. Generally speaking, there exists in the case of everj' machine 

a constant relation between its electromotive force and resistance, 

E- 
which may be expressed by the ratio, — where E is the E. M. 

F. of the machine at its brushes, and r the resistance of the 
machine; i.e., its internal resistance. In any given machine, the 
above ratio is nearly constant, no matter what the winding of the 
machine may be; i.e., no matter what the size of the wire em 
ployed.* This ratio may be taken as representing the electrical 
activity of the machine, on short circuit, in watts, and may be 
conveniently designated the electrical capability of the machine. 
For example, in a 200-kw. (200,000 watts) machine — /. e., a 
dynamo, whose output is 200 kw. (about 267 h. p. ), the value of 
its electrical capability would be about 10,000 kw. , so that, if its 
E. M. F. were 155 volts, its resistance would be 0.0024 ohm. 

7. Hitherto we have considered the energj' absorbed by the 
dynamo, independently of its external circuit — that is, we have 
considered only the electrical capability of the machine. 

When the dynamo is connected with an external circuit, two 
extreme cases may arise. 

(1. ) When the resistance of the external circuit is verj' small, so 
that the machine is practically short circuited. Here all the elec- 
trical energy is liberated within the machine. 

(2. ) When the external resistance is so high that the resistance 
of the machine is negligible in comparison. Here practically all 
the energy in the circuit appears outside the machine. Between 
these two extreme cases an infinite ninnber of intermediate cases 
may arise. 

8. By the output of a dynamo is meant the electrical activity of 
the machine in watts, as measured at its terminals; or, in other 
wbrds, the output is all thfe available electrical energy. Thus, if 
the dynamo yields a steady current of 500 amperes at a steady pres- 
sure or E. M. F. , measured at its terminals, of 110 volts, its output 
will be 110 X 500 = 55,000 watts, or .55 kilowatts*. 

The intake of a dynamo is the mechanical activity it absorbs, 
measured in watts. Thus, if the dynamo last considered were 
driven by a belt which ran at a speed of 1,500 feet per minute, or 
25 feet per second, and the tight side of the belt exerted a stress or 
pull of 2,500 pounds weight, with the tension on the slack side of 
710 pounds weight, the effective force, or that e.xerted in driving 
the machine, would be 1,790 pounds weight. This force, moving 
through a distance of 25 feet per second, would do an . amount of 
work represented by 1,790 X 25 = 44,750 foot-pounds per second; 
and one foot-pound per second is usually taken as 1.356 watts, so 
that the intake of the machine is 60,680 watts, or 60.68 kw. 

By the commrniat efficiency of a dynamo is meant the ratio of 
its output to its intake. In the case just considered, the commer- 

55 



\ 



cial efficiency of the machine would be 



60.680 



: 0.9064. 



•This ratio would be constant if the ratio of insulation thickness to diameter 
of wire remained constant through all sizes of wire. 



4B 



July 21, 18'»4. 



THE ELECXRICAJU WORLO. 



51 



By the electrical efficiency of a dynamo is meant the output, 

divided by the total electrical activity in the circuit. Thus, if the 

dynamo just considered had a total electrical energy in its circuit 

of 57 kw. , of which 2 kw. was expended in the machine, its 

. 55 
electrical efficiency would be -^ = 0.965. 

9. The output of the machine would be greatest when the 
external resistance is equal to the resistance of the machine. In 
this case, the output would be just one-quarter the electrical capa- 
bility, and the electrical efficiency would be 0.5. Thus, the resist- 
ance of the dynamo considered above would be 0.008 ohm, and the 

110- 
electrical capability of the machine x-^^ttt,^ 1,512,500 watts, or 1,512.5 

kw. ; and if the external resistance were equal to the internal 
resistance — namel}-, 0.008 ohm — the total activity in the circuit 
would be 756.25 kw. ; the output would be 378.12 kw. , and the 
electrical efficiency 0.5. 

That is to say, in order to obtain a maximum output from a 
dynamo machine, the circumstances are such that half the electrical 
energj' must be developed in the machine and half in the external 
circuit; or, in other words, the electrical efficiency can be only 0.5. 
In practice, however, it would be impossible to operate a machine 
of any size under these circumstances, since the amount of energ)' 
dissipated in the machine would be so great that the consequent 
heating effects would destroy the machine. 

10. We have seen that whenever the resistance in the external 
circuit is indefinitely great, compared with that of the machine, the 
electrical efficiency of the machine .will be 1.0, or 100 per cent. It 
is evident, therefore, that in order to increase the electrical effi- 
ciency of the dynamo, it is necessary that the resistance of the 
external circuit be made great, compared with the internal resist- 
ance of the machine. For example, if the external resistance be 
made nine times greater than that of the internal circuit, then the 

electrical efficiency will be , - =0.9; and, similarly, if the exter- 
nal resistance be nineteen times that of the internal resistance, the 

9 
electrical efficiency would be raised to .■„,.. = 0.95. 

11. Care must be taken not to confound the electrical efficiency 
of a machine with its electrical output. The electrical output of a 
machine would reach a maximum when the electrical efficiency was 
0.5, or 50 per cent., and the output would be zero when the electri- 
cal efficiency reached 1.0. 

The electrical efficiency of large d)nanios is verj' high, about 
0.985. Indeed, the electrical efficiency of such machines must 
necessarily be made high, since otherwise the loss of energy within 
them would cause them to overheat. 

The commercial efficiency of a dynamo is always less than its 
electrical efficiency, since all mechanical and magnetic frictions, 
such as air resistance, journal-bearing friction, hysteresis and eddy 
currents come into account among the losses. The commercial 
efficiency also depends upon the type of machine, whether it be 
belt-driven, or directly mounted on the engine shaft. It will also 
vary with the character of the iron employed in its field magnets 
and armature, and with the care exercised in securing its proper 
lamination. in large machines, of sa}' 500 kw. capacit}', the 
commercial efficiency may be as high as 0.95. In very small 
machines, of say 0.5 kw. , the highest commercial efficiency may be 
only 0.65. 

Laboratory of Houston and Kenneli,y-, Philadei.phia. 
(To be continued. ) 



Resonance Analysis of Alternating and Polyphased Currents. 



UV M. I. PUPIN. 

The method described in this paper of analyzing alternating cur- 
rent waves by electrical resonance is one suggested by Dr. Pupin in 
a paper which appeared in the American Journal of Science, of May, 
1893. The aim of the experiments was to detect the presence of 
harmonics, to trace their origin, and to study their variations with 
the variation of the load, and of other elements of the circuit on 
which these harmonics seem to depend. For the details of the 
experiments, and of the resonance apparatus employed, the reader is 
referred to the original paper. 

The presence of upper harmonics in an alternating current wave 
is a fact which deserves careful consideration, both on account of 
the purely scientific interest which is attached to it, and also on 
account of the technical bearing of electrical resonance upon the 

* Abstract of a paper read before the Philadelphia meeting of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers. 



construction of conductors po.ssessing appreciable distributed capa- 
city. 

That alternating current and electromotive force waves of a great 
variety of fonns can be produced by properly designing the pole 
pieces of the field magnet and the iron core of the armature of an 
alternator is a fact nearly as old as the discovery of electromagnetic 
induction. Fully as old is also the knowedge that a great variety of 
alternating current and electromotive force waves can be obtained by 
means of the induction of an intermittent current. 

The first .set of experiments to locate the origin of higher har- 
monics was performed with a 10 h. p. Fort Wayne 8-pole alternator 
with a smooth core armature and a vStanley 5 kw. transformer. 
The general conclusion of this group of experiments is summed 
up as follows: 

I. A ferric self-inductance in circuit with an alternator which 
gives a simple harmonic electromotive force distorts the current by 
introducing higher odd harmonics, principally the harmonic of 
three times the frequency of the fundamental. 

II. This harmonic (and" in all probability all other harmonics) 
increases at the same rate as the fundamental when the excitation 
increases, the rate of increase being up to 4,000 C. G. S. lines of 
force per sq. cm. proportional to the intensity of magnetic induction 
in the core of the ferric inductance. 

III. When this ferric induction is a transformer, then the distortion 
appears, but not seriously, in the induced secondary electromotive 
force if the transformer has an open magnetic circuit; it does not 
appear there to any extent worth considering if the magnetic circuit 
is a closed one. 

IV. A practically simple harmonic electromotive force is produced 
by alternators with smooth core armatures, even if the machine is 
worked at considerable degrees of magnetization of the armature 
core. 

Another set of experiinents was performed with the same object, 
using a oiie-h. p. 16-pole' alternator with a Crocker-Wheeler slotted 
core armature wound for 500 volts, but run at a spee<l giving 1,500 
volts. 

The transformer connected with it was of induction coil type, with 
a cylindrical iron core made up of very carefully insulate<l thin iron 
wire. As a result of the experiments made with this apparatus the 
following conclusions can be added to the above: 

v. An alternator with slotted core armature produces a complex 
harmonic electromotive force in which the upper harmonic of three 
times the frequency of the fundamental is generally by far the 
strongest. 

VI. The amplitudes of the fundamental and the harmonic 
increase at the same rate with the increase of excitation ; this rate 
is proportional to the excitation, that is to say, proportional to the 
magnetization of the armature. 

VII. A ferric inductance in circuit with a slotted iron core aniia- 
ture introduces no new harmonics. It seems to strengthen those 
already existing in the electromotive force, that is odd harmonics, 
especially the first Odd harmonic. 

The same conclusions will evidently hold true for alternators of 
ordinary types, that is alternators whose armature is made up of 
coils wound on iron cores which are bolted to a cylindrical iron 
drum common to all of them. 

It is a well-known fact that the distortion of the primary current 
disappears gradually with the increase of the secondary load, that 
is when the external part of the secondary circuit is a non-self- 
inductive resistance. The question arises now, what becomes of the 
harmonics which produce the distortion in the primary when the 
secondary current increases? To answer this question experiments 
were performed with the large alternator and 5 kw. transformer, 
the more important conclusion being that the harmonic which mani- 
fests itself in the distortion of the primary current when there is no 
load in the secondary' is present at all loads, if not stronger, then 
certainly with about the same strength. At full load this harmonic 
could not possibly be detected by Joubert's method of sliding con- 
tact, being so exceedingly small in comparison to the fundamental. 
This persistence of harmonics at all loads, even when completely 
hidden by the fundamental wave, holds true also when their origin 
can be traced to the action of the armature of the generator, as in the 
case of the machine with slotted iron core armature. In all cases their 
strength seems to depend upon the mean intensity of magnetization 
of the magnetic circuits to which they owe their origin and upon 
nothing else. 

Whatever the ultimate meaning of the appearance and the per- 
sistence of the odd harmonics in an alternating current wave may 
be, Dr. Pupin says he is not quite prepared to state with any 
high degree of confidence. One thing is certain and that is that 
they are present at all loads with almost undiminished strength. 



52 



THE ELECXRICAIv WORLD. 



Vol. XXIV. No. 3. 



Their presence is hidden by the fundamental wave at heavy loads, 
but when conditions favoring resonance with any one of them arise, 
they will certainly come out and do all the mischief they can to the 
insulation. The self-induction of a motor or that of a clo-sed mag- 
netic circuit transformer has practically no bearing upon the con- 
ditions of their resonance. The.se conditions depend in such circuits 
solely upon the self-induction of the alternator on the one hand and 
the self induction .ind static capacity of the line on the other. 
According to the experiments just described, the resonant current is 
confined entirely to the alternator and the line, the di-electric form- 
ing a part of its circuit. These observations will be modified in the 
case of transformers with open magnetic circuits and their equiva- 
lents, that is, closed m.ignetic circuits possessing considerable mag- 
netic leakage, especially when the conditions of the line favor 
resonance with the fundamental frequency, this frequency being 
low; such magnetic circuits possess much less magnetic sluggishness 
and can influence considerably the conditions of resonance with a 
low frequency. 

It was pointed out that the superposition of harmonics upon the 
fundamental wave was confined to the primary circuit when the 
secondary is closed by a non-self-inductive resistance, that is, if the 
transformer is of closed magnetic circuit type. With an open mag- 
netic circuit transformer the deviation of the primary current wave 
from the simple harmonic form, due to action of the generator or 
the transformer or both, is felt more or less in the secondary current 
also. If, however, the secondary is closed by a ferric self-induc- 
tance, then odd harmonics will appear in this circuit also in both 
types of transformers. In fact, the secondary circuit should now, as 
far as the harmonics are concerned, be considered as a separate 
circuit in which the secondarj' coil of the transformer and the 
ferric inductance in the secondary circuit play the same part as 
the armature of the alternator and the transformer play in the pri- 
mary circuit. 

The series of experiments which related to the origin and growth 
of harmonics in the secondary circuit was exactly the same as the 
one described above, by means of which the so-called distortion of 
the primary current was studied. The results were the same. The 
presence of harmonics is due to the action of the ferric inductance; 
their strength increases proportionally to the intensity of magnetiza- 
tion of the iron in the ferric inductance. They seem to be entirely 
independent of hysteresis, that is, if by hysteresis the process be 
understood by means of which most of the heat is generated in a 
very finely laminated, well insulated and well annealed iron core, 
when such a core is subjected to rapid reversals of magnetism. An 
experiment is then described which seemed to demonstrate that the 
theory which ascribes the origin of harmonics to the hysteretic action 
of iron is completel}- untenable. 

While Dr. Pupin does not think th'at the proper time has arrived 
for the formulation of a physical theory which will give a complete 
account of the peculiar behavior of iron, by means of which it 
superposes odd harmonics upon the wave of a simple harmonic 
current, yet the view which irresistibly suggests itself to his mind 
is as follows: Upper harmonics will be generated whenever more 
or less abrupt changes of the magnetic state in any part of the mag- 
netic field through which an alternating current flows occur. A 
slotted core armature or an armature made up of coils with iron 
cores distriVnited over a drum common to all of them will introduce 
such abrupt changes. An alternating current motor, especially 
when it is not of a. smooth core armature type, will also cause 
abrupt changes of magnetism and hence cause strong deviations of 
the feeding current from the simple harmonic form. Bui if this 
view be correct, then every complete C3'cle of magnetization to 
which iron is subjected when under the inductive action of a simple 
harmonic current must be accompanied by some abrupt changes 
in magnetism, and that, too, whether the mean magnetic inten.sity 
of the cycle be large or small. A great many things maj' be 
suggested which could account for such cyclic abrupt changes. One 
thing is certain, and that is, that hysteresis, as commonly under- 
stood, will not account for them; for these peculiar abrupt cyclic 
changes, if they really exist and are the cause of harmonics, are not 
affected by mechanical vibrations by which, as is well known, all 
hysteretic effects are influenced very much. Hut whatever the real 
theory underlying these upper harmonics may be, the bare fact 
which the engineers have to face is: There is no cure against har- 
monics as long as the circuits contain iron. Hence construct your 
lines in such a way that conditions favoring resonance with the 
frequency of the fundamental or with one of its odd upper har- 
monics will seldom occur, and whenever they do occur the resonant 
rise of potential .should not be capable of producing any damage. 
Avoid slotted arm.itures and armatures with projecting pole pieces 
and keep the magnetization down as much as possible. 



The closing section of the paper is a description of the application 
of the re.sonance method of analysis to the study of the intensity 
fluctuations of a rotary magnetic field. The method, briefly stated, 
is this: A suitable number of turns of wire are subjected to the 
induction of a rotary magnetic field. These turns form part of a 
resonator. Whatever fluctuations there be in intensity of the rotary 
field they will be periodic, their period bearing a perfectly definite 
ratio to the periodicity of the current which produces the rotary 
field. For instance, in a three-phase combination of alternating 
currents, the intensity of the rotary field will, according to theory, 
show six maxima and six minima during each complete revolution, 
the maxima differing from the minima by about 14 per cent. A 
circuit subjected to the inductive action of such a field should have 
a periodic electromotive force induced in it whose frequency will be 
either three or six times the frequency of the fundamental, accord- 
ing to the shape of the curve of fluctuations. Similarly in a rotary- 
magnetic field produced by a two-phase combination of alternating 
currents. If such electromotive forces were induced the resonator 
would detect them, and from the resonant rise of potential the 
extent of the fluctuations producing these electromotive forces could 
be estimated. 

No electromotive forces of this type were detected in either a 
tripha,se or a two-phase combination. Hence the inference: Rotary 
magnetic fields produced by reasonably well constructed machines 
are not accompanied by fluctuations in their intensity. 



The Meeting of the Canadian Electrical Association. 

The next convention of this association will be held in Montreal 
the latter part of September, and will be one of unusual interest. 
The date of the convention will, if possible, be arranged to suit the 
usual fall railroad excursions to Montreal and Quebec. The meet- 
ings will be held in Mechanics' Institute, and will extend over 
three days. The following papers will be read: 

"The Possibility of Securing Better Regulation at Central Light 
and Power Stations by means of Fly Wheel Accumulators of 
Improved Construction," by Mr. John Gait, Toronto; "A Method 
of Distribution with Equalization of Potential Difference," by Mr. 
D. H. Keeley, of the Government Telegraph Ser\'ice, Ottawa; 
"The Application of Electricity for Medical and Kindred Purposes, 
from Light and Power Circuits," by Mr. W. B. Shaw, Montreal; 
"Electrolysis," by Mr. J. A. Baylis, Bell Telephone Company, 
Toronto; "Telephone Cables, their Construction and Maintenance," 
by Mr. F. J. F. Schwartz, Bell Telephone Company, Montreal; 
" Alternating Motors, " by Mr. L. M. Pinolet, Montreal; and papers 
by Mr. E. C. Breithaupt, Beriin, Out., Mr. T. R. Rosebrugh, 
Lecturer in Electricity, School of Practical Science, Toronto, and 
Mr. John Langton, Toronto. 

The social part of the programme will be looked after by the 
Montreal Committee, and will include vi.sits to McGill University, 
the power station of the Montreal street railway, and other elec- 
trical works; an excursion to Lachine and down the Rapids; drive 
to Mount Royal Park; trip over the Montreal Island Railway, and 
inspection of the docks and ocean steamers, etc., etc. 



Seismic, Hagnetic and Electric Phenomena. 



The current issue of the Seismological Magazine contains an inter- 
esting article on "Seismic, Magnetic and Electric Phenomena," 
by John Milne, I'rofessor of Mining and Geology in the Imperial 
University of japan. Perhaps no one is so well qualified to speak 
upon this subject as Prof. Milne, and consequently his conclusions 
given below will be read with interest: 

"Although in this and other papers I have brought together a 
considerable number of obser\'ations that would lead us to believe 
that there might be a connection between earthquake and magnetic 
and electric phenomena; that hypotheses have been fonnulated to 
assist in the conception of the possibility of such connection; that 
a variety of experiments and investigations have been made to test 
whether earthquakes were preceded, accompanied, or followed by 
magnetic or electric phenomena, the results obtained do not guar- 
antee the exi.stence of such connections. 

"It does not seem likely that earthquakes can result from electric 
discharges, and it has not yet been proved that they give rise to j 
electric phenomena. When they have resulted in the displacement I 
of large masses of rocky strata, as happened in 1891 in Central 
Japan, slight local changes in magnetic curves have resulted, but 
beyond this and effects due to the mechanical shaking of earth 
plates, our certain knowledge is exceedingly small." 



JUI.V21, 1894. 



THE ELECXRICAL WORLD. 



Ho.v the Telephone Company Reaches a Subscriber. 



BY \V. h. HEDENBERG. 

The telephone is in such general use at the present day, not only 
for business purposes, but for social intercourse as well, that it ma}- 
be of interest to describe the usual method of reaching a subscriber 
from a central station, and to point out, at the same time, a few 
improvements that have recenth- been made in this city in house- 
top construction work. 

Many of raj- readers have no doubt visited telephone exchanges, 
and there seen a number of girls busily engaged in answering calls 
and connecting different subscribers. The attention of an operator 




The L.^rgkst Pole Line in the Wori^d. 

is called to the want of a patron by the falling of a little brass drop. 
This drop is worked by a small mechanical device, too intricate to 
discuss at length in this article; and we will simply pass over it 
with the statement that the subscriber, in ringing his bell, causes a 
current of electricity to pass through a small coil of wire with an 
interior core, which core, when electrified, attracts a small lever, 
and this lever, in moving, allows the above mentioned drop to fall. 
Consequently, when a person becomes impatient and rings the bell 
of his telephone long and hard, he does not startle the telephone 
office by the noise, as he might be led to suppose; the drop simplv 
falls. 

The wires are brought to the switchboard in an oval-shaped cable, 
the ends being fanned out and connected with the various drops. 
The other end of this cable terminates, in the new e-xchanges which 
are now being built in this city, in what is known as an interme- 
diate distributing board. This consists of an iron frame, in which 
all of the wires are numbered. Another cable starts from the other 
side of this frame and terminates on one side of the main distribut- 
ing board. The ends of the two cables just mentioned are con- 
nected across the intermediate distributing board by insulated wires. 
The cable then starts from the main distributing board, being con- 
nected with the cable on the opposite side, as in the intermediate 
board, and next passes through the lightning arresters. At this 
point the wires of the cable are connected directly with the subway' 
cable, which terminates in a cable head. 

The intermediate distributing board is something comparatively 
recent, its principal advantage being the ease with which a number 
of subscribers may be transferred from one operator to another, in 
case the first operator receives more calls than she can readily 
answer. 

The method of connection just described may seem to be com- 
paratively simple; but the difficulties rapidlj' increase when there 
are some 15,000 wires to be looked after, as is the case in the Cort- 
landt street exchange of the Metropolitan Telephone and Telegraph 
Company. 



Under the streets of New York city, as every one is aware, there 
is a network of subways. They have all been built in recent years, 
and others are in course of construction. The New York Board of 
Electrical Control is steadilj' forcing all overhead wires and pole 
lines under ground. Bj' the end of this year no pole lines will 
exist in New York city, except the great east and west pole lines, 
the latter being, b}- the way, the largest pole line in the world 
carrying twenty -eight cross arms. As soon as a -new subwaj- is 
completed in a street where a pole line exists, the overhead wires 
arc ordered down, and are placed in the subway, in the form of a 
lead cable. These cables contain usually fifty-one pairs of wires, 
and are pulled through the three-inch subwaj' iron pipe, called a 
duct. 

The method of drawing a cable through a long stretch of subway 
between two manholes is quite ingenious. A man stands in the 
manhole with a bundle of short rods, about three feet in length, 
with brass ends so constructed that one will fit into another and 
stand a large amount of pushing or pulling without parting. A rod 
is inserted in a duct; another one is then clamped on and pushed 
forward, this process of joining being continued until the first rod 
appears at the next manhole. The last rod has a small rope fastened 
to it, the latter being, in turn joined to a No. 6 wire, which is made 
fast to the end of the cable. A man in the second manhole discon- 
nects the rods and draws the rope and wire through. The latter is 
made fast to a windlass, and by this means the lead cable, weigh- 
ing about six pounds per foot, is slowlj' unreeled and drawn through 
the duct. 

We will now go back a step and follow a cable after it leaves the 
cable head above mentioned. On emerging from the basement of 




Old Style Link vSuitort. 

the central station, it enters a manhole, where it is spliced to 
another cable having the same number of wires, but running at 
right angles to it. After each wire has been connected with the 
corresponding one in the other cable, hot paraffine is poured over- 
the loose wires; a lead sleeve is slipped over the joint, each end of 
the sleeve being sealed with hot lead, thus making a water and air 
tight connection with the lead covering of each cable. Great care 
must be exercised to prevent the wires of the cable from becoming 
moist or damp, due to poorly connected joints, for there would then 
he electrical leakage, or the resistance of the wires would be 
reduced, as water, saturated with impurities is a good conductor of 
electricity. 

After passing through a mile or so of subway, the cable finally 
arrives in the district where the wires are to be distributed. A roof 
privilege is then obtained; or, in other words, the roof of some 



=;4 



'PHK KLECTR^CAU WOl-fLI). 



Vol.. XXIV. No. 3. 



liij;h buiUliiig, centrally located, is rented for a stiiJiilated length of 
time. A fixture to hold the wires is then placed on the roof. 

Until within a short time, the fixture used was of wood, a.s shown 
in the illustration. This, however, was found to be clumsy and 
unsightly, and an advance was made in the adoption of a light iron 
fixture (see illustration below), constructed of hollow iron pipe. 
This structure has many advantages over the old wooden one, as 
will appear later on. 

Having reached the house selected, the cable is run up eitlier the 
front or rear of it, in an iron pipe, to the roof, where it is boxed. 
It then enters the lower end of the cable box, as shown in the 
illustration of the wooden fixture. The end of the cable is fanned 
out, and the wires are fastened to brass binding posts; are then 
passed through lightning arresters, and finally come out of openings 
in the right and left-hand lower corners of the bo.x. These wires 
are called bridle wires, and are heavily in.sulated. On the wooden 
fixtures, the bridle wires are taken up to the cross arms in a bunch, 
then fastened to the glass insulators, and conducted to any desired 
building in the neighborhood. 

With the new iron fixture, the method of procedure is somewhat 
different. On leaving the cable box, the wires enter an oblong 



Amateur Motor Building. 




j\K\v .STsi.i-; l.iNi-: jsrri'okT. 

hole in one of the hollow iron uprights. Passing up the upright, 
a certain number of wires branch off and pass through each of the 
hollow cross arms. Near each insulator, and on the imder side of 
the arm, there is a small opening, out of which the bridle wire is 
drawn, then fastened to the glass and run wherever required. It 
will thus be seen that the iron fixture has advantages over the older 
form in having the wires protected from the weather, and being 
decidedl3' more sightly in general appearance. 

Iron fixtures for house tops have long been in use on the Conti- 
nent; but until recently there has been a prejudice against their use 
in this country, owing to the fear that a telephone wire might 
become cros.sed with an electric light or other high-voltage wire, 
and thus be the means of electrifying the whole fixture. This is 
now remedied to a large extent, however, by the use of a heavily 
insulated telephone wire. The type of iron fixture which has just 
been described has been in use, in connection with the telephone 
plant of this city, for a number of months, and it has proven to be 
entirely satisfactory. There are now about 160 of them in working 
order, and additional ones are being erected nearly every day. 

Subways are now being constructed throughout some of the 
principal streets in such a manner that subscribers may be served 
directly from the ducts, without any overhead wires whatever, so 
that in the near future even the roof fixtures may be a thing of the 
past. 

A Definition of Darkness. 



A German police regulation is said to require that every vehicle 
must have a lighted lantern from the beginning of darkness, dark- 
ness being defined as beginning when the street lamps are lighted. 
This reminds us of another police regulation in the same country 
which states that the lamps .should not be lighted when the almanac 
says that the moon ought to .shine; whether it is cloudy or not on 
.such theoretically bright nights does not seem to make any 
difference. 



II V G. K. DINTON. 

In the foltowing article a complete and clear description is given, 
with working plans and drawings, of a small electric motor, which 
an}' amateur of ordinary ability may be able to construct. The 
reader is not presumed to have any previous experience in electrical 
construction, or even any knowledge of electricity. Some of the sim- 
ple laws, however, that are found in beginners' text books will 
be of benefit to the amateur, but all descriptions and methods 
used in these articles will be made so simple and concise that the 
beginner can, with their aid, understandingly construct an electric 
motor that will give as satisfactory' results as the model described. 
The only condition presumed is that the amateur has some mechani- 
cal knowledge, though not necessarily being a technical machinist ; 
also, that he possesses or has the use of a good engine lathe with 
jaw chuck that will hold work two and three-quarter inches in 
diameter, an assortment of drills, a vise and files. 

The mechanical part of the constrtiction will first be taken u]). 
From a piece of good wrought iron steam pipe, two and one-half 
inches internal diameter, cut off a length of two and five-eighths 
inches. Wrought iron pipe of quarter inch stock will give better 
results, although the model illustrated is made from pipe of one- 
eighth inch stock. Put the piece into the lathe chuck, and at very 
slow speed bore out or turn the inside smooth from end to end, 
using a stiff diamond pointed tool. One very light cut will give 
the surface required. Square up both ends, round off the edges, 
and make the extreme length of the finished piece exactly two and 
one half inches. 

. The next step will be to drill the necessary holes in this, which 
will now be called the "magnet core;" seventeen in all will be 
necessar)', biU; we will now drill nine only. With a small square 
butted across the end, draw a line with a scratch awl, down the 
outside from end to end. Turn the core over and at a point dia- 
metrically opposite draw a second line parallel to the first. Particular 
pains should be taken to have these lines come exact in relative 
position. Mark off points on each line half an inch from each end 
and "prick punch" the centres. Four quarter-inch holes may now 
be drilled on these centres and countersunk for flat head 14-20 
machine screws. The pole pieces (see Fig. 1, A) are to be fastened 
to the core through these holes, so it will be at once apparent that 
it is important to have them come exactly opposite. We shall now 
need to draw two more lines, one on each side and exactly half 
wa)' between the two already drawn. Prick punch on these lines 
for holes half an inch from each end of the core, and on one line 
only, a hole in the centre of its length. Drill the five holes, two 
on one line and three on the other or opposite line, which will be 
the top of our core. Use a No. 37 drill for these holes as they will 
be tapped for a 6-32 screw. 

The easiest way to make the pole pieces is to make a pattern and 
have them cast; though unless a steel or wrought iron casting 
can be procured, the\' cannot be made nearly as efficient as those 
shaped from wrought iron. The pole pieces on the model are 
shaped out of Norway bar iron, and although it takes more time 
and patience, the writer believes that the builder will feel belter 
satisfied in the end if he uses the wrought iron. From a piece of 
the best Norway bar iron, one inch by one and one quarter inches 
and eight inches long, cut into two pieces four inches long. .\ 
flat arbor half an inch thick, as w^ide as our bar (a little wider will 
do no harm ) and about six or eight inches long will be needed. .\ 
boring bar will do. The two pieces of iron .should now be placed 
on the opposite and wide flat sides of the arbor and .strapped on 
.solidly, putting a piece of tin between each piece and the arbor. 
Fasten the straps on well out at the ends (see Fig. 2) and do not 
remove both strajis at one time until the pole pieces are fitted to 
the core finally. In turning up the ends, remove one strap at a 
time, setting it up into the middle while that en<l is being turned. 
Carefully turn down the pieces to a snug fit to the inside of the 
core. Aftdr this has been done nix:ely, and before the pieces have 
been taken off the arbor, square up both ends, turning as near 
down to the arbor as it is safe to run the lathe tool. The teats 
remaining may be taken off with a hack-saw. The finished length 
of the pole pieces should be just three and one-quarter inches. 
After taking them off the arbor, draw a line on each of the rounding 
sides which have been turning, up and down through the centre of 
the length and continue it across the ends. On the .sides and on 
this line centre for a hole seven-eighths of an inch from each end; 
<lrill these four holes with an eleven sixty-fourths of an inch, or 
a No. 15, drill and lap out with a No. 14-20 tap. Centre 
on each end on the line for a hole one-fourth of an inch from the 



July 21, 1894. 



THK KLECTRICAIv WORLI^. 



55 



rounding side, and <lrill in just five-eighths of an incli, using the 
same drill, and tap with a 14-20 bottoming tap ^see Fig. 1, 15 I. 

Before boring out our pole pieces, by planing the sides and also 
channelling out a V-.shaped groove up and down the sides, a better 
looking job will result, but is not absolutely necessary. The groove 
should be made one-quarter inch deep at the centre and bevelled 
flush up to the rounding side, or its edge, and to a line half an 
inch from the bottom edge. (See Fig. 1, C. ) Much of the stock 
may be also planed from where the bore will be made, thus saving 
much time. The pole pieces should be firmly bolted into place in 
the core and numbered, to insure their being returned to the same 
side after they are taken out. Do not use the machine screws 
intended for permanent or final use, but find some hexagon cap 
screws for temporary use. Place the core in the lathe chuck, centre 
very accurately, and at the slowest speed proceed to bore out 
between the poles, using a pretty stiff inside diamond tool. The 



4 fully illu.strates the front hanger or yoke, and Fig. 5 the back 
yoke. It will be noticed that the bearing boss or journal is most 
all on one side of the yoke in Fig. 4; the outside of this will be 
turned down to allow the brush yoke to swing around on it. The 
journal on the back or pulley end is longer and more evenly divided 
on each side of the yoke. ( .See Fig. 5. ) The bosses on the ends 
should be centred and drilled with quarter inch holes, to allow the 
ends of the studs, shown in Fig. 3, to pass through easily. To 
insure greater accuracy in locating these stud holes, with the studs 
in their respective places in the pole pieces, take the exact measure 
from centre to centre of the stud ends. Set your dividers to exactly 
half this measure. Centre the bearing boss, and then with the 
dividers the centres of the holes for the stud ends can be located 
very nicely. 

The castings should be all finished up smooth, and held in place 
with some little nuts made from three-eighths inch hexagon iron 



d d d 



-(Bj (^ 



Fig.l 

















-L 


l- 








-^^-=-- 




--^■-4- 












"% 







fe@- o^ m^ 1 1 ^^-.^-^^ 




Fig. 2 



Dkt.\ii,s of Motor. 



finished bore should caliper one and three-eighths inches, exact 
diameter. The studs that support the yokes and bearings for the 
armature shaft are made from a piece of five-eighths of an inch, 
round, refined iron, one foot long, which is cut into four pieces, 
making two of them three and three-eighths inches loiig, and 
the others two and three-eighths inches long. Each piece is 
centred and turned up, as shown in F'lg. 3, and nicely polished; 
threads are then cut on the ends of each with a 14-20 die or screw 
plate. 

The best way to make the bearing yokes or hangers, and the only 
way to insure a neat and finished result, is to make the patterns 
and have them cast, either of brass or phosphor bronze; if of brass, 
a phosphor bronze or steel bushing should be put in for the shaft 
to run in as the motor will have a speed of 3,500 revolutions per 
each minute, and should have an extra good wearing journal. The 
entire yoke could not be made from either steel or iron, as it must 
be some non-magnetic material, but the bushing can be steel. Fig. 



bar, tapped to the thread on the studs. The little brush yoke cast- 
ing should also be of brass. 

All patterns for small castings the writer makes of lead, such as 
electrot3pers use in their casting, turning out all the bosses and 
soldering together with bismuth solder; this makes an elegant 
pattern. The armature will run very snug between the magnet 
poles, having only three sixty-fourths of an inch total clearance. 
This will necessitate the bearings being bored perfectly true with the 
centre of the polar boie, which may be done by drilling a five six- 
teenths of an inch hole through the centre of the diameter of a cast- 
iron plug two inches long and one and one-half inches in diameter 
from end to end. Put the plug on an arbor and turn down to one and 
three-eighths inches, so it will just fit the polar bore snugly; place 
Ibis in the bore and drill one hanger at a time through it, mark it 
and take off. Put the other hanger on its respective end and 
do the same. Of course the drill is to go through the cast-iron 
guide first, drilling through the bearing from the inside. In this 
way the hole cannot fail to centre with the bore of the poles. If 
the beginner tries to locate these hole centres by measurements, he 
will find he has quite a difficult task to perform, and very likely 
not strike it exact after all. The hangers should be put in the lathe 
on an arbor, and all the bosses faced up nice and true. The outside 
of the bearing boss on the commutator, or front end hanger, 
should be turned down to seven-sixteenths of an inch, to allow the 
brush yoke to slip on over the outside of it. The dotted lines in 
Fig. 4 illustrate this. 

For the armature shaft use a piece of half inch round tool steel 
eight and one-halt inches long. Centre very accurately and turn 
down to seven-sixteenths of an inch. On the commutator end, for 
a distance of two and one-half inches /rom the end of the shaft, 
turn down to five-si 'steenths of an inch. On the pulley end do the 
same, for a distance of two and five-eighths of an inch from the 
end of the shaft. (See Fig. 7, A. ) In building up the armature 
core, a washer one and three-eighths inches in diameter, about 
seven sixty-fourths of an inch thick, and which has a seven-six- 
teenths of an inch hole, can be purchased at the hardware stores. 
(Fig. 8, A. ) This kind of a washer was used in the model and 
gives perfect .satisfaction, although the writer would recommend 
the builder to use the thinnest charcoal or Russia stove iron if he 
is able to shape the washers readily. On each end of the hub, or 
larger part of the shaft, which should be just three and three- 
eighths inches long, cut a fine machine thread one-eighth of an 
inch long, forty to the inch if the lathe will cut this fine. Two 



56 



XHE ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



Vol. XXIV. No. 3. 



washers, one-eighth of an inch thick, and one inch in diameter, 
tapped to screw on to this tliread on these hub ends will be needed; 
one edge should be nicely rounded off on one side only. (See 
Fig. 7, C. ) 

The armature core may now be built up. Mix up some shellac 
and lampblack, quite thick; get some thin tissue toilet paper, cut 
into pieces about one and one half inches square, and punch or cut 
a seven-sixteenths of an inch hole through the middle. Take the 
end washers, that have been tapped out, and file a key-way through 
the thread, one thirty-second of an inch deep and one-sixteenth 
of an inch wide, also throiigh the thread on the .shaft to corre.spoiul ; 
drill two one-eighth inch holes in each of the end washers, half way 
between the edge of the central hole and the outer edge, on a 
diametrical line through the centre. (See Fig. 9. ) This is for the 
use of a spanner in screwing the washers on. .Screw one of the 
washers on to the shaft tight, bringing the key -ways in line, the 
rounded side facing the end of the shaft, and drive in a key of 




The'ArmaTure.' 

soft iron, filing each end smooth (Fig. 7, D). Slip on over the 
shaft four sheets of the paper, and paint with the shellac mixture. 
Then dip one of the larger washers into the shellac and slip it down 
over the shaft on to the paper. The washer should slide down over 
the shaft readily and still fit tight. Put on two thicknesses of the 
paper, dip another washer, bringing it down on to the paper as 
before, and so on until the core is built up; putting only two thick- 
nesses of paper between each washer, until the last one is reached, 
and then put in four as at first. This core will require about thirty- 
two washers besides the two end or set ones. The washers will set 
down some and should be squeezed up as hard as possible before 
the end washer is screwed home and keyed. The core should be 
thoroughly dried out in some gentle heat, but do not heat too 
much; steam heat is the best. After it is all dry, put it in the lathe 
and turn down very slowly and carefully to caliper exactly one 
and twenty-one sixty-fourths of an inch. In the middle of its 
length, and three-eighths of an inch from each end around the 
periphery of the core, turn grooves three sixty-fourths of an inch 
deep, and three-eiehths of an inch wide. These are for the arma- 
ture binders. (See Fig. 7 and also the picture of the finished 
armature. ) The lathe should be fitted with centres that can be 
attached to the tool carriage in place of the tool rest, one centre 
lieing provided with an index and stop. Place the armature 
between the cenlres, and with a milling cutter or metal slitting saw, 
one-eighth of an inch wide on the cutting edge, running in the 
lathe, mill out twelve grooves or channels up and down the length 
of the core on its periphery, three-sixteenths of an inch deep and 
wide as shown in the washer in Fig. 8, B. 

The connnutator is one of the most particular and trying parts of 
the entire motor to nsake and get perfect. Most writers describe a 
commutator that in practice is worthless. The one herein described 
is one of the best, if the Ijuilder will only have the perseverance to 
construct it properly. The shell or sleeve is turned from a piece of 
.seven -eighths inch round brass bar; cut off a piece one and one- 
eigths inches long, and drill a five-sixteenths of an inch hole through 
the centre of its length. Put this on the arbor and turn down to a 
diameter of half an inch, leaving a .shoulder or hub on one end 
thirteen-sixteenths of an inch in diameter by one quarter wide or 
deep. (See Fig. 7, E. ) This hub should be turned beveling from 
its outer edge in to the sleeve, one-eighth of an inch on the sleeve. 
On the other end of the .sleeve a No. 24 thread should be cut one 
([uartir of an inch from the end. A brass collar must now be 
turned out, thirteen-sixteenths of an inch in diameter, one quarter 
of an inch wide, concaved or bevelled on the inner side the same 
as the hub of the sleeve, and tapped out with a No. 24 thread to 
screw on to the end of the sleeve. A neat little hexagon nut 
may be .shaped on the outer end, being careful not to file in 
nuire than one-sixteenth of an inch; or two one-sixteenth 
inch holes may be drilled on this end for a spanner to use in 
setting it up. (See Fig. 7, E. ) In making the bars or .segments 
of the commutator, it will be found much ca.sier to proceed as 
follows. From a one and three-eighths inch round bar, cut off a 



piece to finish up three-quarters of an inch in length, and drill a 
hole five -eighths of an inch through the centre of the length. Put 
on an arbor and turn down to orre and one quarter inches in diame- 
ter. Square up the ends to make the finished length three-quarters 
of an inch. On each end shape a bevelled lip or flange, projecting 
from the end, with its bottom resting on the arbor. ( See Figs. 7 , 
F, and 10. ) This beveled flange should be one-eighth of an inch 
deep, and three thirty-seconds of an inch long on the under side 
(on the arbor). Again turn the face of the piece down to a diame- 
ter of one inch, leaving a hub projecting radially on one edge 
three-sixteenths of an inch wide; turn a slight groove around the 
middle of this hub one thirty -second of an inch deep , by one-six- 
teenth wide. When the ring is sawed into segments, this hub will 
form the lugs into which to solder the wires coming from the arma- 
ture. Divide the ring into twelve equal parts around its circumfer- 
ence, and with a hack-saw saw down through the divisions nearly 
to the central hole, but not quite separating the bars. With the 
very finest saw that can be obtained (a bracket saw will do very 
nicely), saw a slot down through the middle of each lug (one 
thirtj'-second of an inch deep), into which the ends of the commu- 
tator wires are to be soldered. The bars may now be separated, and 
the rough surfaces, where thej- were sawed apart, smoothed off 
with a file. In putting the commutator together, cut out two rings 
of fibre one thirty-second of an inch thick and seven-eighths of an 
inch in diameter, and cut a half-inch hole in the centre. Then 
soak them in warm water for about twenty minutes, when the fibre 
will become perfectly pliable. Cut some pieces of mica the shape 
of the bar to go in the spaces between the bars that have been sawed 
out. A thickness of one good heavy piece of mica or one sixt\- 
fourth of an inch between each bar will do. Put one of the fibre 
washers on over the brass sleeve, pressing it well down into the 
groove. Cut a strip of thin asbestos paper exactly as wide as the 




The Completed MtiToK. 



connnutator bar is long on its bottom, and wrap twice around the 
brass sleeve, butting snug up against the fibre collar. The bars, 
with a thickness of mica between each, may now be put in place 
around the paper and two or three turns of fine wire wound around 
the outside of the bars to keep them from falling apart. Put on the 
other fibre washer, .screw on the end washer I the brass collar) and set 
it down firmly (See Fig. 7, F). Test each bar with its neighbor 
and also each bar with the brass to see that there is no short circuit 
anywhere. If proper care has been used it will be perfect. Shoidd 
there be a short circuit found, however, it must be located and the 
cause removed. The little commutator when all completed should 
be just one inch long. The material of which the bars are made 
should be phosphor bronze or tempered copper; either common bar 
copper or brass is not fit. The segments of the comnnitator in the 
model are made from a piece of cast steel. This has been in use al- 
most daily for over a year and is as smooth at this writing as the day 
put on ; it has not been turned down or smoothed off once during that 
time. The commutator may be keyed on to the shaft or have a 
one-sixteenth inch set screw go through the end collar and the 
sleeve into the shaft. Set the commutator with its front end seven- 
eightlis of an inch from the end of the shaft. (See Fig. 7. ) 

The construction of the biush holders and studs will give the 
amateur an opportunity to display his ingenuity. Drill a hole 



July 21, 1894. 



THE ELECTRICAIv W^ORLD. 



57 



through the centre of the boss on each end of the brush holder yoke 
three-sixteenths of an inch, and plug with hard rubber or fibre; 
finish off smooth with the face of the boss, then centre and drill a 
one-eighth of an inch hole through the centre of each plug. (See 
Fig. 6. ) Make four fibre washers five-sixteenths of an inch in 
diameter, and one thirty-second of an inch thick, and drill an 
eighth of an inch hole through the centre of each. Four brass or 
copper washers, one-quarter of an inch in diameter, one thirty- 
second thick, with a one-eighth hole drilled through the centre of 
each. Small copper rivet burrs make these very nicely. (Fig. 11, 
B. ) Make the brush holder studs of two pieces of three-sixteenths 
of an inch round brass rod, one and one-eighth of an inch long; 
turn down to a diameter of one-eighth of an inch, in a distance of 
three-eighths of an inch from one end. Cut a 6-32 thread on this 
extreme end, extending one-eighth of an inch from the end and 
provide two three-sixteenths hexagon brass nuts, tapped to that 
thread. (Fig. 11 A. ) Put one of the metal washers on the stud, 
then a fibre washer. Put the stud through the already insulated 
hole in the end of the brush yoke, then put on another fibre washer, 
then a metal one, and screw the nut on. The end of the brush 
cable goes on, and the tension springs of the brush holders are to be 
adjusted before the nut is set up finally. 

The brush holders are made from half-inch sheet or bar brass, as 
shown in Fig. 12, drilled with a three-sixteenth hole to go on over 
the studs, mortised out five-sixteenths of an inch by three thirty- 
seconds of an inch, with a small thumb screw through the top to 
hold the brushes in place. The uniform tension is given the brush 
by an eight turn coil of No. 24 brass spring wire, slipped on 
over the stud between it and the yoke. One end passes through a 
small hole drilled through the stud for it, and the other is bent 
around the under side of the brush holder. The brushes are made of 
very thin stencil copper, eight-ply, one and one-half inches long, 
one-sixteenth of an inch thick and nine thirtj'-seconds of an inch 
wide. (See Fig. 14. ) The wearing end should be cut to the shape 
of the commutator, and the butt end have a short lap bent round its 
end and soldered. 

The brush yoke must have a set or check screw ; shape this out of 
a piece of three-sixteenths of an inch brass rod seven-eighths of an 
inch long. Cut a 6-32 thread on the end, extending one-eighth of an 
inch from the end to screw through the little boss on the top of 
the brush yoke, which should be tapped out for it. (See Fig. IS. ) 
The oil cups are turned from five-sixteenths of an inch round brass 
rod, are three-quarters of an inch long, and have a 6-32 thread to 
screw into the little bosses on the upper side of the bearings, which 
should be drilled and tapped out for them. (Fig. 16.) The cables 
connecting the brushes with the fields are made from ordinary 
flexible lamp cord, each a single strand four inches long, the ends 
cleaned of their covering and fitted into pieces of small fish rod 
ferrule one-half inch long; the ends are flattened, then soldered, 
and a one-eigl?lh inch hole drilled in each. (Fig. 17. ) 

The best way to make a pulley is to turn it out of a piece of 
round cast iron, one and one-half inches in diameter, and one and 
one-quarter long. Drill a five-sixteenth hole through the centre of 
its length and put it on an arbor. It is a very easy matter to turn 
it to the shape shown in section in Fig. 7, G. Cut a key-way in the 
pulley and shaft one-sixteenth of an inch wide, and one thirty- 
second deep in each, and key on with a nicely made iron key. 

The construction of the base will depend on the use the motor is 
to be put to. If wholly for a fan motor, a taller base will be neces- 
sary. A light standard with spreading feet at the base would be 
very good. If to supply motive power, through a belt or gear, a 
base like that on the model will be the best. (See cut of the com- 
plete motor. ) The pattern is made from a piece of two inch pine 
plank, five and three-quarters of an inch long and four and one-half 
inches wide at the bottom. The pattern must be in halves, split 
up and down throughout the centre of its length from bottom to 
top and have core prints at the top and bottom, as the base must 
be hollow. The dotted line in Fig. 18 shows this. Four three- 
eighths of an inch holes are drilled through the front side of the 
casting and bushed with hard rubber tube. A piece of fibre two 
and one-half inches long, one-half inch wide, and one quarter inch 
thick, mortised into and screwed to the casting over the insulated 
holes, holds the binding posts and field armature connections. 
Drill two holes at points on each side, and tapped out for a 6-32 
threaded machine screw. Make out of black walnut two sections 
°f 'egging two and one-half inches long, two inches wide and one 
quarter of an inch thick, shaped to fit the periphery of the core 
nicely, and to be fastened in place with four machine screws, as 
shown in the picture of the finished motor. The two lower screws 
should be a little longer, as one end of the brass straps, holding the 
motor to its base, is fastened under these. Cut two more pieces of 



this lagging the same length and thickness as the first two pieces, 
but half an inch wide. Drill the holes to correspond with the screw 
holes in the magnet core. The edges should be beveled off radi- 
ally with the diametrical centre of the core. Make the bottom side 
only three-sixteenths of an inch wide, and the- upper one a full 
half inch. (See Fig. 1, D. ) This practically completes the machine 
work on our motor, as it cannot be fitted to the base until the field 
is wound, and a brass collar, which goes on the pulley end of the 
armature shaft had better be left until the armature has been 
wound. The next section will take up the electrical details. 
(To be continued. ) 

Practical Notes on Dynamo Calculation.— X. 

BY ALFRED E. Vl'IENER. 

2t. Running Value of Armature. 

In order to form an idea of the efficiency of an armature as an 
inductor, its "running value" has to be determined. 

In forming the quotient of the total energy induced by the pro- 
duct of the weight of copper on the armature and the field density, 
the number of watts generated per pound of copper at unit field 
density is obtained, an expression which indicates the relative 
inducing power of the armature: 

9= ^ ^ ^ = 20,000 X f^ ^ ^ . (=4, 



3C Iba 

Iba X 

20,000 

p = Running value of armature in watts per pound of copper, at 

unit field-density (20,000 lines of force per square inch) ; 

E ^ Total E. M. F., generated in armature, in volts ; 

C = Total current, " " " " amperes; 

Iba = Weight of copper in armature, in lbs.; formula (28); 

,TC = Field density, in lines of force per square inch ; 

The value of p for a newly designed armature being found, its 

relative inductor efficiency can then be judged at by comparison 

with other machines. The running value of modern dynamos, 

according to the kind of armature, varies between very wide limits, 

and the following are the averages: 

TABLE XXXIII.— RUNNING VALUES OF VARIOUS KINDS 

OF ARMATURES. 



Kind of Machine. 



Slow 
speed. 



Bipolar 


Ring 


Multipolar 


Drum 
Ring 


Bipolar 


Drum 


Ring 



Multipolar 



Kind of 
Armature, 



Ring 



Running Value. 

(Watts per lb. of copper. 

at 20,000 lines per sq. inch.) 



300 to 600 




200 " 400 


200 " 400 


ISO •• 300 


ISO •■ 300 


100 ■■ 200 


100 ■' 200 



7S 



22. Artnature Torque. 

The work done by the armature of a dynamo can be expressed in 
two ways: electrically, as the product of E. M. F. and current 
strength, 

IV = £ X C watts; 
and mechanically, as the product of circumferential speed and 
turning moment, or torque, 

746 



IV-. 



X A^ X r X - ^"- = .142 X A'X T watts ; 
33,000 



IV = Total energy developed by machine, in watts ; 
E = Total E. M. F. generated in armature, in volts ; ' 
C = Total current " " " •' amperes; 

A' = Speed, in revolutions per minute ; 
T = Torque, in foot-pounds. 
Equating the above two expressions, we obtain : 

Ex c=.u2 X A'x r, 

from which follows: 

^ X C _ ., „^, ^ EjiS . 

N 



r=- 



. = 7.042 X 



foot-pounds 



(55) 



.142 X jV 

But the E. M. F. generated in an armature can be expressed, 
compare formula (51), by: 

A-" X * X iV 



£=:t 



hence: 
r= 7.042 X 



PX 10^X60 
C 11.74 _ C 



X ^ X A' X* foot-pounds (56) 



R' X^ X N^ C„ 11.74 

PX 10^X60 J\' 
From this follows that in a given machine the torque depends in 
nowise upon the speed, but only upon the current flowing through 
the armature, and upon the magnetic flux. , 



58 



THB EIvECTRICAL WORLD. 



Vol.. XXIV. No. 3. 



2}. Peripheral Force of Armature Conductors. 

By means of the armature torque we can now calculate tlie draj; 
of the armature conductors in a generator, respectively the pull 
exerted by the armature conductors in a motor. 

The torque divided by the mean radius of the armature windiuf;, 
in feet, gives the total perii)heral force acting on the armature; and 
the latter, divided by the number of effective conductors, gives the 
peripheral force acting on each armature conductor: 

r ^ T 24 X r 



j'^: 



j2- X A- X /J' 



" at' X A- X /?' 



pounds. 



Inserting in this equation the vaUie of 7" from formula (55), we 
obtain : 



/,. = 



^X c 

24 X 7.042 X N 

_ 2 X 7.042 X 1^ 
~ 60 



k 



EX C 



N d' X 

X -^ 

60 12 



/„ = .7375 X 



ExC 

sx Kx jy 



pounds 



X A' X li' 



(57 



y;, = Peripheral force, per armature conductor, in pounds ; 
E X C^Total output of armature, in watts ; 
6"= Mean conductor velocity, in feet per minute; 
A'= Total number of armature conductors ; 

/3'=: Percentage of effective armature conductors, see Table 
XXXII. 
A second expression of the peripheral force can be obtained by 
substituting in the original equation for/' the value of T, from 
formula (56), thus: 

24 X 11.74 C K * 2 82 C X * 

/„ = X - X X ;i7 = X p^ ^, ^ a, lbs. (58) 

10 ■" P A'X /<' a 10« PX a^X li 

Replacing in this the total useful flux, *, by its equivalent, the 
product of gap area and field density, we find a third formula: 



2.82 CX '^a X 2 X fi' XlaX X •*-43 , C 



f„X X 

lO" 



PXd' XP' 



10» 



^ •— X /a X 3C (59) 



/], = Peripheral force, per armature conductor, in pounds ; 

_:^ = Total current flowing through each armature conductor, 
2P . 

in amperes ; 

/„ ^ Length of armature core, in inches ; 

,1C= Field density, in lines of force per square inch. 

It is on account of this peripheral force exerted by the magnetic 
field upon the armature conductors that there is need of a good 
])()sitive method of conveying the driving power from the shaft to the 
conductors, or vice versa; in the generator it is the conductors, 
and not the core-discs that have to be driven; in the motor it is 
they that drive the shaft. Thus the construction of the armature is 
aggravated by the condition that, while the copper conductors mu.st 
be mechanically connected to the shaft in the most positive way, 
yet they nuist be electrically insulated from all metallic parts of the 
core. In drum annatures the centrifugal force still more compli- 
cates matters in tending to lift the conductors from the core; it has 
therefore been 'found necessary to employ driving horns, which 
either are inserted into uicUs in the periphery of the di.scs, or are 
supported from hubs keyed to the armature shaft at each end of the 
core. In ring armatures the centrifugal force presses the conductors 
attheinner circumference towards the armature core, and thus helps 
to drive, while the spider arms, by interlocking into the annature 
winding, serve as driving horns. If toothed di.scs are used, no 
better means of driving can be desired. 

2/. Artnature Thrust. 

If the field frame of a dynamo is not symmetrical, which is par- 
ticularly the case in most of the bipolar types (see Figs. 22 to 31), 
unless special precautions are taken there will be a denser magnetic 
field at one side of the armature than at the other, and an attractive 
force will be exerted upon the armature, resulting in an armature 
thrust toward the .side of the denser field. 

The force with which the annature would be attracted, if only 
one half of the field were acting, in absolute (C. G. S. ) units, is: 



/.= 



/' = 2.X^-x(-5^^'y=^'xfl dynes; 

X, in square centim 
ensity, in lines of : 
h measure, 1 squa 
ind equal to 444,980 



(^/'^Gap area, in square centimeters ; 
.■(C/= Field density, in lines of force per cm'-. 

Or, in English measure, 1 square inch being equal to 6.45 cm.', 
and 1 pound equal to 444,980 dynes. 



6.45 X 



— = 7 X 10 ' X 6" X 



pounds (60) 



16 TT X 444980 
G = Gap area, in square inches ; 
3C 1= Field density, in lines of force, per square inch ; 

Expressing the gap area, 6", by the dimensions of the armature, 
we obtain : 

/, =7 X 10 ' X "^^^ Xla X P' X 3c;' 

= 11 X 10 » Xda X laX P' X ^C," pounds (61) 
If, now, both halves of the field are in action, but one half is 




Figs. 22, 23 and 24. 




FIGS.2S, 26 AND 27. 




FiG.s 28, 29, 30 AND 31. 

stronger than the other, the annature will be drawn towards the 
stronger side by the amount of the difference of their attractive 
forces. The armature thrust, therefore, is: 

/.=/. —/•.!= 11 X 10 » X </,. X /„ X y X (.It.' .''-aC;') pounds (62) 
/,i = Attracting force acting on annature, due to unsymmetrical 

field, or armature thrust, in pounds; 
da = Diameter of armature core, in inches; 
la = Length " " " " " 

fi' = Percentage of effective gap circumference, see Table 

XXXII.; 
^ = Density of field, on stronger side, in lines of force per 

square inch ; 
3C= Density of field, on weaker side, in lines of force per square 

inch. 

In such tjpes, where the attracting force of the field manifests 
itself as a downward thrust, as in those shown in Figs. 23, 25, 27 
and 30, the value obtained by (62) is to be added to the dead 
weight of the annature, in order to obtain the total down thrust 
upon the bearings. If, however, /„ is an upward thrust, as is indi- 
cated in Figs. 22, 26, 29 and 31, the down thrust upon the bearings 
is the weight of the annature, diminished by the amount of/, . 
In the c;ises illustrated by Figs. 24 and 28, the action of the field 
causes a sideward thrust, which has to be taken care of by a proper 
design of the bearing pedestals, or of the journal brackets. 

(To be continued. ) 



I 
I 



July 21, 1894. 



XHK KLKCTRICAL W^OFll^T). 



SO 














ELECTRO-PHYSICS. 

Pliosphoresence. — A chemical society paper by Mr. Jackson is men- 
tioned in the London " Elec. Eng.." June 2'). In many cases it 
cannot be ascribed to impurities ; he attempts to show that fluorescence, 
phosphorescence in air on exposure to light, and phosphorescence of sub- 
stances in a vacuum under the influence of electric discharge, are of the 
same nature, namely, a response on the part of the substances to the 
operation of radiant energy propagated like light in undulations of short 
length; some substances require very short undulations to which air is 
opaque, and they therefore phosphoresce in high vacua; the results of a 
very large number of experiments seem to indicate a close connection 
between phosphorescence of air and in vacua. 

Transforming Mechanical into Electrical Energy. — An Academy 
paper by Mr. Vaschy is abstracted in "L'Ind. Elec." June 2.S, and some- 
what more fully in "L' Elec," and "La Lum Elec. ." June 30. In the 
displacing of a conductor in an electric field, he establishes the fact that 
the work done by the dielectric on the conductor is the transference of 
the electric energy in the form of elastic energy or otherwise, localized 
in the volume abandoned bj' the dielectric; he discusses also the dis- 
placement of a dielectric body and of a magnet in a magnetic field. 

Hertzian ll'at'es. — A paper by Mr. Zehnder from the "Wied. Ann.," 
vol. 52, p. 34, is abstracted in the "Elek. Zeit.," June 14. He describes 
modified apparatus which enable the Hertzian researches to be demon- 
strated with much greater ease than heretofore. In place of the mirror 
of sheet metal he uses one made of woven wire, which may be made 
about one-third as large; the asphalt prisms are therefore also reduced 
in size ; for a current interrupter he finds that the Deprez form answers 
best. 

Magnetization by Hertzian Currents. — The researches of Dr. Birke- 
land are given briefly in the "Elek. Zeit.," June 14. 

Magnetic Deflection oj Cathode Rays. — Mr. Leonard's paper, mentioned 
in the Digest June 16 and 30, is abstracted in the "Elek. Zeit.," June 
14, and "L'Ind. Elec," June 10. A French translation of the article, 
together with the illustrations, is published in "L'Elec," June 16. 

Conductivity of Gases. — A note on a recently published article is given 
in the London "Elec. Rev." June 29. 

MAGNETISM. 

Variation of Hysteresis with Temperature. — A French translation of 
the complete article by Mr. Kunz, mentioned in the Digest May 12, 
together with the illustrations and tables, is published in "La Lum. 
Elec," June 9. 

UNITS, MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTS. 

Nomenclature. — In an article in "L'Ind. Elec," June 25, written 
undoubtedly by Mr. Hospitalier, he approves very highly of the recent 
decisions of the .American Institute of Electrical Engineers in adopting 
the names for the magnetic units, and remarks that in a few years these 
names will be as familiar to the electrician as ohm, volt and ampere. 
He also expresses approval of the recently adopted definitions, defining 
the meanings in which the words "inductance" and "reactance" are to 
be used. He gives a resume of the quantities used in connection with 
alternating currents, most of which are already well known ; among 

2 TT 

them may be mentioned the following: u ^ called the pulsa- 

T 
tion or angular velocity of the current, measured in radians per 
second (radians are numbers for representing angles and are obtained by 
dividing the arc by the radius), 7" being the time of a complete period 
in seconds; u, the difference of potential in volts at any in.stant /; the 
subscript efl'm connection with the letters /, E and I', for the effective 
values of these quantities; he uses the subsciipts s and in with the letter 
L for self and mutual inductances respectively ; w Ls for reactance of 
1 

self-induction in ohms; for reactance of capacitv in ohms, t" being 

w C 




the capacity in farad 

tion and capacity expressed in ohms ; and 



for the reactance of self indue- 



j-(-^r 



for the impedance of a circuit iti ohm'^. 

Phase Meter. — A paper by Mr. V. Dobrowolski is reprinted in full 
with illustrations in the "Elek. Zeit.," June 21. After indicating the 
well-known subdivision of an alternating current into its two compo- 
nents, the effective current and the idle or wattless current, he describes 
an instrument which is being introduced in Germany for indicating the 
phase difference; it is really an instrument for measuring the wattless or 
idle component of the current, but indicates indirectly the phase differ- 
ence ; it not only measures this current but indicates its direction, which 
is of importance when there is a capacity in the circuit. The apparatus 
resembles in principle a rotary phase motor and consists of an iron disc 
pivoted so as to enable it to rotate, containing a spiral spring to bring 
it to the zei o position and provided with a pointer. Around it are placed 
two fixed coils at right angles to each other, through which the two 
currents pass; when there is a difference of phase a torque will be pro- 
duced, which, for a given frequency, is proportional to the product of the 
currents and the sine of the phase difference ; if one of the coils is a fine 
wire shunt coil and the other a series coil, the instrument will indicate 
the phase difference between the voltage and the current, and by its 
direction will indicate which is in advance of the other. If used for the 
same voltage and frequency the torque will be directly proportional to 
the idle current ; for a small difference in the voltage or frequency the 
correction will be proportional to the difference. The principal appli- 
cation of the instrument is in central stations with alternators running 
in parallel, as also in the transmission of power with synchronous 
motors ; when alternators run in parallel there is a current, formerly 
called a synchronizing current, which it is required to reduce to zero 
before disconnecting a machine; by means of this instrument it is there- 
fore possible to see whether the alternator is running with any idle cur- 
rent or not, and if so, to indicate when this is zero. A diagram is given 
showing how this phase meter is introduced on the switchboard for 
facilitating the connecting and disconnecting of alternators in parallel. 
In a similar manner, by means of this instrument, the best exciting 
current can be determined for synchronous motors, thus giving the 
minimum current. in the line wires and thereby reducing the loss in the 
line to the minimum. In the discussion, Mr. Goerges stated that in his 
opinion it is preferable to use a wattmeter in central stations in which 
alternators are run in parallel, as the wattmeter indirates the load on the 
engine directly ; when a machine is disconnected the wattmeter must 
first read zero ; this is the system used with success in a number of 
installations of the Siemens & Halske Company ; he also describes an 
apparatus consisting of a small electric motor, which acts on the centrif- 
ugal governor of the steam engine, reducing the power delivered by the 
engine without reducing its speed, and used in disconnecting alternators 
in parallel ; he also calls attention to the fact that the phase meter 
assumes a sine current which is not always correct. In reply, Mr. 
Dobrowolski believes the phase meter to be preferable for this purpose 
as it indicates also the direction in which adjustments should be made, 
while with the wattmeter it is necessary to adjust by trial. 

Direct Reading fnstrumcnts. — A paper by Dr. Bruger, read before a 
recent meeting of German electricians, is published in full, together 
with a number of illustrations, in the "Elek. Zeit.," June 14. He describes 
some of the recent instruments made by the firm of Hartmann & Braun. 
The ampere and volt meters are similar in principle to the Weston 
instruments ; the wattmeter differs in principle from the usual form ; 
the construction is shown in the adjoining illustration, which also shows 
the damping device; by diminishing the cross section of the ring shaped 
series solenoid toward tlic ends and by ns-'ng two fine wire coils, one of 



60 



THK EJUKCXRICAL WORI^U. 



Vol. XXIV. No. 3. 



which moves from the middle toward the end, while the other moves 
from the end toward the middle, a nearly regular scale is obtained ; the 
coils are mounted on agate bearings and the connections are made by 
means of strips of silver foil, a flat spiral spring acting as the opposing 




Direct Reading Wattmeter. 

force. To overcome the objections inherent to the spiral spring, he 
suggests using a quartz fibre, which is stretched in the inside of the coil 
frame along the centre line of the coil axis, and is so secured that its 
torsion and its length are adjustable; the self-induction coeiEcient of 
the movable coils is about .001 henry; the mutual induction is small as 
the planes of the coils are parallel and the current circulates in opposite 
directions in the two coils; the same constant is therefore obtained for 
alternating as for direct currents. An ohmmeter is described, consisting 
of two coils at an angle of about 60 degrees with each other, moving in 
a magnetic field like in a d'Arsonval galvanometer, the polar faces of 
which, however, are peculiarly shaped, as is also the iron core, so as to 
produce a field whose density is different in different parts; one form is 
made for measuring resi.stance from 10,000 ohms to 1 megohm, but the 
same instrument can be adjusted for different ranges. A hot wire 
instrument is also described, modified so as to be used as an ampere 
meter, the instrument containing a shunt ; connections to the wire are 
made at a number of points so that the different parts are connected in 
parallel, thus requiring a small difference of potential and therefore a 
comparatively small shunt ; they are constructed for currents up to 500 
amperes. 

Portable Watlmetfr. — A Brillie wattmeter is described and illustrated 
in "L'Ind. Elec.," June 25. Its principle is the same as usual, it being 
a zero reading, torsional instrument ; in construction it appears to em- 
body a number of improvements ; the illustrations explain these ; they 
arc constructed to read from 1 to 10 kilowatts. 

Mirror Galvanometer.— TXx^t London "Elec. Rev.," June 29, contains 
results of some experiments of Mr. Perkins, showing that it is erroneous 
to suppose, as is often done, that it is a matter of indifference in what 
position a mirror galvanometer is set up relatively to the earth's field, 
and that the jieedle can always be brought to zero by the adjusting 
magnet, the sensitiveness remaining the same. The results are given in 
a table which shows that in two positions the instrument is unstable, it 
being impossible to bring and keep the spot of light to the zero position 
on the scale without reducing the sensitiveness considerably ; in all 
other cases the sensitiveness and rate of oscillation could be made sub- 
stantially the same. Another table is given showing the diminution in 
sensitiveness when the position of the instrument and the angular 
position of the magnet were altered, the height of the magnet remaining 
the same. 

Damping. — A mathematical article on the calculation of the damping 
and the application to galvanometers, from the "Wied.Ann,. " vol. 51, p. 
156. by Mr. Riecke, is published in "I.a Lum. Elec," June 9. 

,Thcoretical I'atue of the Ohm. — In an Academy paper of Mr. Ledue, 
published in "L'Elec. , " June 30, abstracted in "L'Ind. Elec," June 
25, and mentioned in the London "-Elec. Rev.," June 29, he states that 
the theoretical value is 106.32, which he deduces from a determination of 
Wuilleumier. 

Direct .Measure of Electromolive Force. — In an Academy paper by Mr. 
Limb, abstracted in "L'Ind. Elec," June 10, and "L'Elec. ," June 23, 
he describes a method for the absolute measurement of the E. M. F. by 
direct comparison with an E. M. F. of induction, whose value can be 
calculated ; he uses a coil and a permanent magnet revolving in the 
interior of it; the method and the apparatus are described and some data 
is given. 

// 'lieatxtoiie llridge zvith Alternating Currents. — An Academy paper by 
Mr. .'Vbraham is published in "L'Elec," June 30, and abstracted in 
"L'Ind. Elec," June 25. He discusses the general cases in which the 
four arms contain self-induction and the particular case in which one of 
these self-inductions is zero; if the arms of the bridge are known he 
shows that the arrangement will enable one to calculate the frequency of 
the current; some calculated and observed results show a very close 
agreement. 

.Synchronising Ctoc/;s for .Meters. — In an article by Mr. Jones in the 
London "Elec," June 29, he calls attention to an error in meters of the 
.\ron type, in which current is measured by means of the difference in 
the rate between tw'o clocks ; when no current is flowing it is very 
important that the two clocks should h.-ive the same rate, as otherwise 



they will register a current. He suggests accomplishing this by con- 
necting the two pendulums by a string with a weight attached to its 
middle point, but as there aje attending disadvantages he prefers two 
small magnets attached to the two pendulums with their unlike poles 
opposed to each other, their attraction and repulsion will then tend to 
make the pendulums synchronize ; this method is at present used with 
clocks on about 700 meters of a company in London. 

fnfliience Machine. —In a c<jmmunieation to the French Society of 
Physics, by Professor Holtz, mentioned in "L'Ind. Elec," June 25, he 
claims the priority of invention of the new machine of Mr. Bonetti, as 
also of the Winishur.st machine, giving references to his first published 
descriptions. 

Rheostat. — The Cance rheostat is described and illustrated in "L'Elec," 
June 30 ; it consists of a spiral of bare wire wrapped around a supporting 
frame, similar to the old Wheatstone rheostat, and a contact piece which 
is-njoved by a crank making contact with any desired point of the wire; 
the cross section of the wire increases from the high to the low resistance 
ends. 

TRANSFORMERS. 

Current Rushes in Transformers. — An article by Mr. Hay on "Impul- 
sive Current Rushes in Inductive Circuits, " is begun in the London 
Elee. ," June 29; he investigates theoretically and experimentally the 
phenomena of the abnormal rushes of current which sometimes occur 
when a transformer is suddenly switched on to live mains. In the 
present portion he describes the apparatus which enables him to studj- 
the action in detail and trace the various stages through which the cur- 
rent passes before arriving at a steady state; he defines a "current 
rush" as the ratio of the maximum value reached by the current during 
any half-wave to the normal maximum when a steady state has been 
reached ; in a comparatively simple mathematical discussion he shows 
that the current rushes will be greatest when the switch is closed at the 
instant when the voltage is passing through its zero value and that the 
current rush, as defined above, must always be less than two; by means 
of his special switching arrangement, he obtains the actual shape of the 
current curves, both normal and abnormal ; no further results are given 
in the present portion. 

Predetermination of Transformer Curves. — The "Elek. Zeit.," June 
21, contains an article by Mr. Korda, on the graphical determination of 
the '■nrrent curves of transformers with closed magnetic circuits. The 
well-known methods of Kapp & Hopkinson assume that certain factors 
may be neglected and that the specific induction of the iron follows the 
sine law, which though simpler is not strictly correct. In the present 
article he gives a general graphical solution of the problem ; the article 
is mathematical in its nature. 

Transformer Systems. — The leading editorial in the London "Elec. 
Rev.," June 29, discusses a system in which transformers are automati- 
cally cut out of circuit when not in use ; it claims that such a system is 
only a makeshift and that in good engineering practice the problem is 
being solved by building transformers having low magnetizing currents 
at no load, and it believes that transformers exist in which this loss is 
not more than 1 per cent, of the full load ; it is claimed that the scat- 
tered small transformer system is a thing of the past and that sub-stations 
with banked transformers is the correct system. 

ARC AND INCANDESCENT LIGHTS. 

Arc Ligfits in London. — According to an official report the number 
of arc lights used for public lighting in London at present is 479, the 
length of thoroughfares lighted being thirteen miles; from the number 
of gas lamps which have been replaced by the electric light, it appears 
that 2.74 gas lamps are replaced by each arc lamp. 

Lewis Arc Lamp. — An illustrated description is given in the London 
"Elec. Rev.," June 29; the arc is formed and the carbons are fed by the 
same apparatus, and governed by the same electromagnetic device but 
the two operations are absolutely independent of each other; a solenoid 
operates a train of three beveled gears, -the feeding apparatus being con- 
trolled by a fly escapement, which is locked when there is no feeding. 

Cored Carbon Litigation. — The recent decision is given at some length 
in the "Elek. Zeit.," June 14. 

Incandescent Lamp Manufacture. — In the serial of Mr. Bainville in 
"L'Elec," he discusses the subjects of the treating of the filaments, the 
mounting and the production of the vacuum, in the issues of June 9, 23 
and 30, respectively. 

ELECTRIC RAILWAYS. 

Railways and Central Stations. — In a paper by Mr. Hammond, briefly 
abstracted in the Lond. "Elec, "June 29, he recommends the coribina- 
tion of the power houses of electric railways with the central lighting 
station ; he recognizes that the two loads overlap for a part of the time, 
and suggests that either accumulators might be used at the station during 
that time to supply the necessary current in order to level the load line, 
or that it would be still more economical to use horses for the railways 
during the overlapping time ; in any case he believes that the overlapping 
difficulty is not insuperable. 

Electric Railways in £Kn>/ic.— According to a paper by Mr. Ham- 
mond, abstracted in the London "Elec," June 29, there are at present 
in Europe 47 electric roads in operation, the total length being l')4ii 
miles, and the horse power used 14,579. 

Budapest i'nderground Railroad. — A note in the "Elek. Zeit.," 
June 14, gives some further data about this projected road, regarding the 
concession but not including any engineering data. 

Accumulator Traction.— Some scant data regarding the Sydney line is 



July 21, 1894. 



THE ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



61 



given in the Lond. "Elec. Eng,," June 29; Epstein accumulators are 
used with an output of 20 horse power for five hours. 

Wormifhcel Gi'aring. — Some additional remarks regarding the article 
abstracted in the Digest June 9 and 16, describing Reckenzaun's gearing, 
are given by Mr. Dawson in the Lond. "Elec. Rev.," June 29. 

CENTRAL STATIONS, PLANTS, SYSTEMS AND APPLIANCES. 

High z's. Low Tension. — Mr. Crompton, in a discussion abstracted in 
the London "Elec. ," June 29, strongly advocates the low tension con- 
tinuous current system in preference to the high tension alternating cur- 
rent system ; although the latter requires less capital for the plant this 
is more than counterbalanced by the higher working costs; he claims 
that the results in England show this to be the case. 

Central Stations in Germany. — A translation of the article mentioned 
in the Digest June 2, 16, 23 and July 14, together with four full-page tables 
of data, is given in the London "Elec. Kev.," June 29. 

Alternators in Parallel. — See abstract under "Phase Meter." 

Bradford. — A paper on the results of four years' working by Mr. 
Shoolbred, giving a number of curves and tables of data, is reprinted in 
the London "Elec. Eng.," June 29. 

Brussels. — The descriptive article of this station is concluded in 
"L'Elec, " June 23. 

WIRES, WIRING AND CONDUITS. 

Insulators. — A novel flbim of insulator for exposed indoor wiring is 
described and illustrated in "L'Ind. Elec," June 10; it consists of a 
small cylindrical piece of rubber having a transverse hole through it, 
and a slot enabling a wire to be slipped sideways into this hole; after 
inserting the wire the insulator is fastened to the wall or ceiling by 
means of a suitable staple, which encircles the insulator and closes up 
the gap through which the wire was introduced, thus forming an equiva- 
lent of an insulator having a wire passing through a hole through its 
middle part. 

TELEGRAPHY, TELEPHONY AND SIGNALS. 

Telephones in Railroad Service. — According to the "Elek. Zeit.," 
June 21. the telephone is being introduced largely on the French railroads 
in place of the telegraph. An Ader microphone, with an iron line wire 
and earth return, can be used up to distances of 84 miles, but in practice 
it is not used for more than 30 miles; for this reason copper wires and 
metallic returns are introduced, the wires being crossed about every 1,600 
feet; on the main lines one-quarter of the service is done by telephone, 
while on many smaller lines the telephone is used exclusively. 

Telephone Induction Coils. — Mr. Pierard, in a recent paper on the 
rendering of telephone induction coils, mentioned in the London "Elec. 
Rev.," June 29, concludes from experiments, that the rendering of such 
coils for telephone currents does not vary appreciably with the charge 
and that the rendering is small and does not appear to reach 50 per rent. 

Simultaneous Telegraphy and Telephony. — The Pickernell system is 
described and illustrated in "La Lum. Elec," June 9. 
ELECTRO-CHEMISTRY. 

Electro-Chemistry. — An interesting papei by Professor Ostwald, 
entitled "The Scientific Electro-Chemistry of the Present and the 
Technical Electro-Chemistry of the Future," read at a recent meeting in 
Germany, is published in the "Elck. Zeit.," June 14, a full abstract being 
given in the London "Elec," June 29, in which journal it is also dis- 
cussed editorially and is commented on in the editorial notes. He points 
out the advantages of a .scientific education, claiming that the education 
of the engineer should be the same as that of the professor and that it is 
only at the completion of his studies that the student needs to decide 
which vocation to follow; he believes that the success of the chemical 
industry in Germany is due to the fact that it is appreciated there that 
"science is the best practice." He discusses the subject of electrolytes 
from a theoretical standpoint, and states that in every electrolyte the 
conductivity is proportional to the number of ions per unit of volume 
and depends furthermore on two constants, which might be called the 
velocity of propagation of the ions ; the latter is greatest with hydrogen. 
If a layer of water is poured over a concentrated solution of salt, diffu- 
sion will take place until the whole mass is equally concentrated; the 
cause of this motion, which has the property of a pressure, he calls the 
"osmotic pressure"; it can be surprisingly great in a solution of salt, 
like in seawater, a pressure of 20 atmospheres can be obtained ; for each 
material there will be a maximum of this pressure, which will depend 
on the solubility of the solid body; this pressure is quite analogous to 
steam pressure, and just as steam pressure can be used to drive an engine, 
so can osmotic pressure be caused to drive a corresponding machine ; he 
defines a galvanic cell as nothing more than a machine driven by osmotic 
pressure; the zinc, for instance, is dissolved, forming zinc sulphate ; the 
voltage of a Daniell cell depends on the difference between the osmotic 
pressures of the zinc and the copper ions; for each metal this pressure, 
which he calls dissolving pressure, is a perfectly fixed quantity, but a 
cell does not depend on this alone, but also on the liquid, as for instance 
on the concentration. He calls attention to the very poor efficiency of 
the transformation of the energy of fuel into mechanical energy, saying 
that in the very best case the efficiency is only 10 per cent. He points 
out the great field for improvement and believes the problem must be 
solved by electro-chemistry. He describes the following experiments, 
showing that some of ths views held are quite erroneous; Two vessels 
containmg sulphate of potassium are connected bya U tube, one contains 
an electrode of zinc and the other one of platinum ; no current is 
obtained until acid is added, but it is generally believed that the acid 
should be added to the vessel containing the zinc, which should be dis- 



solved by the acid ; he shows that this is erroneous as no current is ob- 
tained under those circumstances, while if the acid is poured in the 
vessel containing the platinum a strong current is obtained; in this con- 
nection he shows that Jablochkoff's recent experiment, in which he 
obtained a current from the direct combustion of carbon in a battery, was 
based on wrong principles; he places the carbon in fused saltpetre, and 
the failure of the experiment is claimed to be due to thj fact that the salt- 
petre should not be placed around the oxidizable electrode, but around 
that one which is not attacked by the oxygen ; in the future carbon cell 
the oxidizing material will not be placed around the carbon, but around 
the other pole ; in a cell of this sort the chemical process will be the 
same as in an ordinary stove ; what is still wanting";is a suitable electro- 
lyte which will merely act as a medium, but will not be consumed; he 
believes that the solution of this problem is not impossible. Regarding 
the question of the storage of electrical energy, he shows that if alumi- 
nium could be used the weight of an accumulator would be only one- 
eleventh of that of the lead accumulator but he does not believe that the 
aluminium accumulator will ever become a practical one. Regarding 
electrolysis, he does not recommend separating the reactions into pri- 
mary and secondary, as is often done. In an editorial mention of this 
paper in the Lond. "Elec.," it is stated that a carbon cell, such as that 
referred to, should yield theoretically nearly 6 h. p. hours or 4 kilowatt 
hours per pound of carbon. 

Aluminium. — A paper by Mr. Verrier on the present state of the 
aluminium industry is publishrd in "L'Elec," June 30, and abstracted 
in "!,'' Lum. Elec, "June 9. He states that itis hardly probable that the 
price of this metal will fall below 36 cents per pound when it is made by 
electrical processes, but that it is possible that cheaper chemical pro- 
cesses will be found ; he calls attention to the process based on the 
reduction of the sulphide of aluminium. (In this conection the com- 
piler calls attention to the fact that there exists a primary battery in 
which metallic aluminium is obtained as a by-product ; possibly some 
development might be expected in this direction.) 

Decomposition of Hater. — The Lond. "Elec. Eng.," June 29, mentions 
a paper by Mr. Leblanc, in which he upholds the view of the primary 
decomposition of water. 

Polarization. — An explanation of the phenomenon of polarization by 
Mr. Wiedeburg is given in the Lond. "Elec Eng.," June 22. 
MISCELLANEOUS. 

Concentration of Sulphuric Acid. — An editorial in the Lond. "Elec 
Rev.," June 29, calls attention to a paper in the "Chemiker Zeituug," 
vol. 17, p. 1,907, in which it was shown that in using the direct current 
electrolysis took place, producing sulphur and sulphuretted hydrogen , 
much better results were obtained by using the alternating current; 190 
grams of sulphuric acid at 60 degrees C. were concentrated to 65.8 degrees, 
with a loss of 35 grams in 3.25 hours, the temperature rising and remain- 
ing at 286 degrees C; no visible sulphur was deposited; the current was 
transformed down to 6 to. 7 volts and 14 amperes, and the energy con- 
sumed for 155 grams of concentrated acid was 296 watt-hours, or 1,490 
per kilogram. 

Tempered Copper. — "La Lum. Elec.,'.' June 9, extracts from a recent 
book by Mr. de Rochas a description of the process used by the 
ancients. 

Electric Log. — A translation of the article mentioned in the Digest, 
June 30, describing Fleuriais's log is published in the Lond. "Elec. 
Rev.," June 29, including the illustrations. 

Biographical. — The death of Edmund Carre is announced in the French 
journals; short biographical notices are given in "L'Ind. Elec," 
June 25, and "L'Elec, " June 30; he was the first to manufacture electric 
light carbons as usually made by the process invented by his brother, 
Ferdinand Carre. 

Photography. — ^In color photography the hygrometric state of the plates 
has an important influence on their sensitiveness; according to "La 
Lum. Elec," June 9, a French photographer has obtained good results 
by an electric process of heating the plates. 



A Simple Fire Alarm. 



A New York village of some 9,000 inhabitants 4Peekskill), desiring to 
install an inexpensive system of fire alarm, the apparatus described 
below was devised bv Mr. Louis Miller, Superintendent of Fire .Alarms, 
for this purpose and installed at small cost. The contract with the village 
required five miles of line through eight districts and connecting the 
houses of five hose companies, the electric light station, .at which there 
w'as a whistle to be used for night alarms, and a nlauing mill where 
there was a whistle to be used for day alarms ; in all 47 signal boxes were 
required. For indicators, needle annunciators were employed. To ring 
the local bell it w-as intended to have the needle close the circuit by 
contact with its attracting magnet ; but this was found to be impracticable 
and a special instrument, shown in Fig. 1, was designed. It consisted 
of an electro -magnet, a, and its frame attached to a bar, K (the side of the 
annunciator), an armature, b, lever, c, pivoted to the base independent!}- 
of the magnet and armature, and a spring, d. independent of the other 
devices. The operation of the several parts will be plain. Even a slight 
impulse through the magnet, a, would lift the armature, b, allowing the 
lever, c. to fall, and in falling press its spring, d, in contact with 
spring, d' . 

The arrangement of the circuit was as follows : I represents the needle 



62 



XHK EIvECXRTCAI^ WORLn. 



Vol. XXIV. No. 3. 



of the annmiciator, and y its attracting magnet, k is the local bell, 1 the 
local battery; I! is a hard rubber handle furnished with springs, m m, 
and suspended by flexible cord from the ceiling just over the fire 
apparatus. The springs, m m, are clasped over some metallic part of the 
hose carriage, represented by n. 

."Vn alarm would cause the needle, i, to make -contact with the magnet, 
closing the local circuit through them, allowing it to pass over the cir- 
cuit represented by a solid line, through the magnet, a, out of the mag- 
net into the magnet frame and armature, b, through the line, c, thence to 
the battery. The result would be the drniipin<r of the lever, c. causing it 




(Qi 



1 


/o) 




// 


I 


C--^w 


■::(0^^ 


-^ I 








tUf. World 



FiG.S. 1, 2 AND 3. 

to make contact with the spring and changing the course of the circuit, 
cutting out the needle and magnet, a, establishing the circuit 
through the broken line, which includes the bell, k. 

Moving the fire appar.itus from its place will cause the handle, B, to 
swing clear, which will open the battery circuit, there being no longer 
any occasion for ringing the bell. On the return of the apparatus the 
annunciator must be tripped before the other instruments in circuit can 
be reset. 

Fig. 4 is an illustration of the signal bo.x. It measured five inches 
high, three and one-quarter inches wide, and two inches deep. The sides 
and back were integral and all the box of cast iron. The front was held 
to the box by a single screw set in from the back, so that when the box 
was fastened in place with staples over the pipes, the box could not be 
opened. The front had a hood over the hinge of the drop cover to shed 
water. 

The open front under the drop cover was closed by a plate of glass, 
in.serted by pu.shing it up through a slot at the bottom, provided between 



of battery were used, but when put in oper.-iting trim the main battery 
was made to consist of forty cells. 

The system worked admirably, the chief objection to it being that the 
glass of the boxes was frequently broken by mischievous boys and false 
alarms sent in. This, of course, could be easily remedied by having 
locked boxes. 



The Hamilton Elevator. 



The great extent of space required by the present elevator systems in 
which a single elevator car, while occupying but a few feet vertically. 




1 








m. 


H HECr/t/CHL .VVDHttJ, /V.y. 



monopolizes a shaft running from top to bottom of the building, becomes 
a serious question in modem office buildings when size compels the use 



Fig. 4. — Sh.nai. I'.d.n. 



the front and the box, as shown in Figs. .1 and 4. The glass was easily 
inserted, but could only be removed by breaking it. Fig. 4 shows how 
a pair of levers pivoted to the side of the box were manipulated to 
insert a glass. The lever, a, was pushed back so the lever, b, would yield 
to the pushing of the glass. When the glass reached its topmost limit 
the lever, b, would be released and would fall to a horizontal position 
with its joint under the glass. .Vt the .same instant the lever, a, would 
fall to a vertical position and lock the lever, b, as shown in Fig. 3. The 
drop front was lettered with directions, thus: "Raise Cover, Break Glass, 
Press Key. ' ' 

Within the box illustrated the rubber button of a key is visible. It is 
a brass kev lever, having connection with the insulated wire passing out 
the pipe at the top of the box. The pipe extended above the box 
far enough to guard the wire from being tampered with. The key 
made contact with a spring connected to the pipe attached to 
the bottom of the box. This pipe extended several feet into the 
ground, and constituted the "ground" for most of the boxes.although to 
get a good ground for .some of them it was necessary to bury copper ' 
plates. The wire from the box extended up the poles to the line, to 
whicli it was thoroughly soldered. In the preliminary tests fifteen cells 




of a great number of cars to properly supply the public. Annoyances, 
perhaps not so serious as the loss of space, but still material, are involved, 



July 21, 1894. 



THE EIvECTRICAL WORI^D. 



63 



though indicators be used, in the confusion resulting from the same shaft 
having at one time an up-going and the next a descending elevator car. 
It would obviate all of these annoyances to have all up-going cars in one 
shaft and all descending cars in another. And the great height of the 
modern office building allows the adoption of such a method of opera- 
tion without changing the speed or headway of the cars as they are at 




Fig. 3. 

present operated. In the system which we illustrate, the invention of 
John R. Hamilton, 831 East 170 street, New York, the cars all travel up 
one shaft, and are at the top automatically shilted without stoppage to 
an adjoining shaft, whence they descend to the lower or ground floor, 
where they are in a similar manner transferred to the up-going shaft. In 




Fig. 4. 

each car is an indicator which shows the operator the exact position of 
the neighboring cars, but sole dependence is not alone placed upon the 
alertness of the attendant. Electric stopping devices are employed to 
entirely prevent the possibility of accident from collision. It is found 
that with ordinary speed, headway and number of cars by the use of this 
system, two elevator shafts will give the same serA'ice as five or more 
operated- according to the old plan, with a large saving in horse power 
required and great increase of convenience and efficiency in serving the 
public. 



The system, besides, is applicable to freight and mining elevators as 
well as to passenger elevators, and in its application to mines may be 
made a valuable adjunct to the mine ventilating devices if the ascending 
and descending shafts be boxed off so that the elevator platforms will 
act as air pistons. In the accompanying illustrations Fig. 1 is a view in 
elevation of an elevator operating on the Hamilton system. Separate 
racks, A and B, are provided, the former for ascending, the latter for 
descending cars, C. At top and bottom the racks and the guide tracks, D, 
are inclined to direct the cars from one side of the shaft to the other. 
Fig. 2 represents the automatically operating switches for effecting their 
shifting movement. Fig. 3 shows the mechanism at the upper part of 
the car. Worm geais, B, are operated by an electric motor, F, which 
takes current by trolleys, G, from wires, H. The worms on the two 
sides of the car ate pitched in opposite directions, thus doing away with 
end thrust of shaft. On the countershaft, I, is arranged a circuit breaker, 
J, connected to the indicator, K, of its own ca*- and by trolley, L, and wire, 
M, with the indicator of the car ahead. The divergence of the indicator 
arrows shows the distance in feet or time of the car from the car next 
ahead, so that the elevator men can maintain a substantially even head- 
way between the cars. .\ rod, N (Fig. 3), extending both above and below 
the car, controls the rheostat lever and so governs the motor, promptly 
stopping the car if it approaches too near another one. 



A Diminutive Battery. 



The limit of "multura in parvo" in primary batteries appeirs to have 
been reached by the Nassau Electrical Company, 106 Liberty Street. New 
York, in its new "Capo-Farad" sealed battery, as improved by Mr. J. J. 
Pearson, manager of the cciiiipaiiy. The problem of high efficiency, com- 




I iiMiNrTi\]-; r,ATTi;K\ . 

bined with mechanical reliability and small weight and dimensions, is a 
very important one, and this cell, shown in the accompanying illustration, 
which at 1-10 volt yields a current of two amperes, and is only a little 
over Ja inch in diameter, less than 2H inches long, and weighs less than 
one ounce, seems to have solved the question very satisfactorily. 



Safety Automatic Gauge Cocl<. 



The gauge cock illustrated, manufactured by Frank M. .\shley, 1.% 
Liberty street. New York, is especially adapted to locomotive and port- 
able boilers, and screws into the boiler or water column as shown. The 
sectional view shows two valves, and two valve seats in the cock, one 
behind the other; one valve is cast with the central stem as shown, 
having a pin projecting from its centre, designed to strike against the 
face of the second valve. The operation is as follows : Steam being on 




AUTOM.\TIC G.\UGK CoCK. 

the boiler, the pressure forces both valves to their seats, as shown. To 
open the valve the handle is turned from right to left, which advances 
the central stem ; then, by pushing the handle in toward the boiler the 
latter slides inward, forcing the first valve from its seat a short distance, 
while the pin attached to the back of the first valve strikes the face of 
the second valve and forces it from its seat. The steam then flows 
through the spiral wings of the second valve and through the first valve 
into the atmosphere, causing the second valve to rapidly revolve, and 
by its action on the spiral w-ings or flanges cuts loose all scale or sedi- 
ment which may have lodged in the valve chamber, which is carried off 
by the steam blowing through. When the engineer lets goof the handle 
the pressure of steam instantly forces the valves to their sea*s, but as the 
second or flanged valve comes to its seat a little before the first valve, 
and as it is being rapidly rotated by the action of the steam on its flanges, 
it strikes the seat while revolving and regrinds the valve seats lightly 



64 



THB KJUKCri^lC^L WOl^Ll). 



Vol. XXIV. No. 3. 



each time the valves are closed. Another feature is the arrangement of 
the second valve and its seat. Suppose the gauge cock should be broken 
off of the boiler by a blow, it would of course break just outside of the 
boiler sheet, the weakest part, which would leave the second valve 
within tlie boiler closed, and consequently the engineer would not be 
scalded, and if it should happen when his engine was running, he would 
not have to stop, as it would otherwise be necessary. A screw fits 
into the groove of the central stem and keeps the stem from revolving. 
.\fter the valves have automatically closed by the pressure of steam the 
engineer can screw up the handle which draws the fir"=t valve to its seat, 
so that it cannot be accidentally forced open by being pressed against. 



Trolley Wheel. 



New Telephone Apparatus. 



A new design of the Westiughouse type of trolley wheel, in which 
oil is used as a lubricant for the steel spindle in addition to the gra- 
phite bushing, is being manufactured by the Ohio Brass Company, 
of Mansfield, Ohio. The centre of the hub of the wheel is hollowed 
out around the graphite bushing and the recess filled with felt 
packing. Holes are provided so that the felt maybe kept saturated with 
oil, which in turn feeds through the bushing to the spindle, keeping the 
graphite moist and lubricating the bearing thoroughly. It is advisable 
that a few drops of oil be poured into the oil well every few days. It is 
claimed that this adds fully 2.=; per cent to the life of the wheel. The 
wheels are made from extra hard quality l)ron7.e metal and proportioned 
so as to give the longest possible wear. They are balanced and trued, 
and in consequence will run smoothly on the trolley wire. 



In the accompanying illustration is shown the telephone which the 
Columbia Telephone Manufacturing Company, 136, 138 and 140 Front 
street, New York City, is placing upon the market. The instrument is 
manufactured under the patents of Jas. W. McDonough, H. H. Eldred 
and other pioneers in the telephone field, and "non-infringement" is 
one of the strongest claims of ihe company. The receiver, it will be 
seen from the cut, is somewhat more compact than the ordinary form, 
and the connections are made inside ihe rubber shell, avoiding here, as 
well as elsewhere on the insliiiiiR til, thi.- exposure of unsightly thumb 



An Automatic Switch for Charging Storage Batteries. 




One of the most important adjuncts, if not the most important, 
to a storage battery plant, is the automatic charging switch, for 
the most serious results would occur if this instrument should 
refuse to act at the critical moment. The Electric Bell and 
Resistance Company, Newark, N. J., has recently placed on the 




COI.UMBI.V TlCLlvrilOMJ. 



.\lITOMATIC ST0R.\GK B.\TTKRY SWITCH. 



screws. .V multiple contact carbon transmitter is used, consisting of a 
series of pencils resting on bearings and having their bearing points rose 
shaped so as to afford a number of sharp contact points. The carbons are 
attached to the under side of a thin wooden diaphragm, against which 
the speaker's voice is directed. 

One of the interesting features is the batterj- switch. The receiver, 
when not in use, is suspended on a hook, at the top of which the switch 
is placed. When the receiver is suspended on the hook an alarm bell 
rings and can only be stopped by throwing the switch over, a movement 
which cuts out the battery and prevents its running down. A dry bat- 
teiy is employed. The company is also to bring out in the near future 
an automatic telephone exchange, by which the subscriber can place 
himself in connection with any other subscriber, and the ordinary switch 
board and telephone girl be dispensed with. The means of accomplish- 
ing this is exceedingly simple; two electro-magnetic operating ratchets 
by the attraction of their armatures, secures the necessary movement 
The apparatus is positive in its action and so simple that it requires 
little or no attention. In the first form the subscriber made his connec- 
tions by depressing keys marked "hundreds," 'tens," "units" and 
"release," respectively; by an ingenious device of Mr. H. H. Kldred, 
the keys have been replaced by wheels projecting slightly above the 
containing case, and whose coriugated rims permit them to be ea'^ily 
revolved by the hand, while at the same time figures plainlj- indicate to 
the eye whether connection is being made with the proper number. 
Such an automatic switchboard would find its greatest field of application 
in the smaller cities and towns, in factories, offices and other places, 
where the number of subscribers is not sufficiently large to warrant the 
presence of a day and night central exchange operator. 



market a new form of automatic switch for this purpose, illustrated here- 
with, which is claimed to be absolutely reliable, and speciallj- adapted 
where there are great variations in the voltage of the charging source. 
The action of this switch is positive and reliable, closing the circuit at 
any set voltage and opening it when the charging current falls to nearly 
zero or before it can commence to flow in a reverse direction. 



Electric Heating. 



A patent has been issued, under date of July 10, 1894, to Mr. H. Ward 
I,eonard, for an electric heater which involves quite a radical change 
from present practice. The device is perhaps best explained in the fir.st 
claim of the patent, which reads as follows: "A device in which electri- 
cal energy is converted into heat, having a thinly insulated conductor 
embedded in and completely surrounded by a closely applied mass of 
metal." 

One of the objections to electrically heated tools hitherto has been that 
the conductor was surrounded by a considerable thickness of fireproof 
insulation made of various materials which are b.ad conductors of heat, 
and the heat developed in the resistance is conducted but slowly through 
this bad conductor. The conductivity for heat, however, through such 
insulation would be greatly increased by means of strong mechanical 
presstire. Another great difficulty has been the gradual deterioration of 
the heated resistance because of its oxidation by more or less perfect con- 
tact with the air through the intervening insulation. The necessity of a 
resistance which would stand a very high temperature has been such 
that platinum wire is often used in the construction of electric tools, the 



July 21, 1894. 



THE EIvECXRICAL WORLD. 



65 



expense of which is of course extremely high, but even this has failed 
under such conditions. 

Mr. Leonard has many modifications of the general principles of his 
invention, but the description of one modification will give a general 
idea of the invention: The resistance, which is a metal wire, is thinlj- 
coated with some form of fireproof insulation which hermetically seals 
the conductor from the air, such as enamel or glass. The wall of insula- 
tion around the conductor is quite thin. The conductor so insulated is 
placed in a mould, and a suitable metal is cast about the insulated resist- 
ance so as to completely embed it in the cast metal. This surrounding 
body of metal as it cools subjects the insulated conductor to .-strong pres- 
sure, insuring perfect mechanical contact throughout. The surrounding 
metal also hermetically seals the resistance from any possible contact 
with the air and from all chemical action. While the insulation surround- 
ing the conductor is of comparativeU- poor quality as a conductor of 
heat, the wall of this insulation is so thin that it affords the least pos- 
sible resistance to the flux of heat from the heated resistance of the sur- 
rounding metal body, consequently the temperature of the heated resist- 
ance and the temperature at the surface of use will be as nearly the same 
as possible, and the resistance is therefore not subjected to a temperature 
appreciably higher than that of the surface of use. 

It is possible to operate tools heated by the Leonard system at a bright 
red head without any destructive effect whatever, and this possibility 
opens up a wide field for the application of electricity to various tools 
used in the various arts and industries which have heretofore necessarily 
been heated by gas, charcoal stoves, etc. The Carpenter Enamel Rheo- 
stat Company, of which Mr. Leonard is president, will manufacture 
apparatus under this patent. 

Among the various kinds of apparatus which will soon be on the market 
due to this invention are the following; All kinds of soldering irons and 
embossing irons, all kinds of flat irons and tailors' gooses, all kinds of 
cooking utensils, such as chafing dishes, broilers, griddle cake bakers, 
coffee pots, electric stoves, electric ovens, egg boilers, etc ; also many 
applications to small appliances such as curling irons, sealing wax 
heaters, etc. Also all kinds of atmospheric heaters such as street car 
heaters, and heaters for dwellings where the cost of electric current is 
sufficiently low to make it possible for electric heating to compete with 
fuel directly. In this regard Mr. Leonard estimates that where power 
can be had, which does not cost more per horse-power per annum than 
the cost of two tons of good coal, electric heating can compete on the 
score of economy alone with heat from fuel direct, and the many advan- 
tages of electric heaters are so pronounced that they will frequently be 
applied for atmospheric heating even though the actual direct cost be 
much greater than that due to heating by fuel. 



effect in the remotest corner. This motor is particularly applicable for 
use in cooling the cabins of steamships and j-achts, and also for ventilat- 
ing the holds of vessels. It weighs about fifteen pounds, is self-lub- 



Portable Alternating Current Meter. 



A portable instrument, by means of which accurate measurements maj* 
be made of alternating currents, is now being placed upon the market by 




Al.TERN.\TING ClKKKNT METER. 

the General Electric Company. It is small and handy, and combines 
strength, permanency and reliability with compactness of form and 
excellence of workmanship. The scale is unusually long and reads to 
fine divisions. The instrument, although designed for alternating cur- 
rent measurements, may also be used for measuring direct currents, but 
for this work it requires special calibration. It is made in 25, 50, 100 and 
200 ampere sizes. 

Small Motors. 



It is but a few years since small motors have been made with any 
efficiency worth speaking of, and among the first who considered the 
question of economy worthy of study was the Porter Standard Motor 
Company, now at 35 Broadway, New York. We illustrate herewith 
some of the latest types of motors manufactured by this firm, including 
a double rotating overhead ceiling fan motor recently placed on the 
market. 

In order to obtain the best results, a fan motor should be so constructed 
as to run continuously without attention, and circulate the air in such a 
manner as to produce the needed relief without discomfort. This is 
accomplished in the double fan rotating motor, which, if suspended from 
the ceiling in the centre of a room 40 feet square, will, it is claimed, 
keep the air in motion in all parts of the room without creating uncom- 
fortable drafts, even in close proximity to the motor, and yet have an 





Sm.\i.l Motors. 

ricating, and will run continuously for a whole season without any care. 
It has 12-inch aluminiimi fans, and runs at 2,000 revolutions per minute 
on a llO-volt circtiit, requiring, it is stated, less than one-half ampere of 
current to operate it. 



Wenstrom Direct Connected Outfit. 



The demand for direct coupled apparatus, especiallj- for isolated plants, 
is constantly increasing. The greatest hindrance to its introduction in 
the past has been the high speed at which it has been necessary to drive 




Direct Connected Outfit. 

the generator. The Wenstrom Electric Company has devoted special 
attention to the solution of this problem, and its new outfit, an illustra- 
tion of which is shown herewith, practically eliminates this difficulty. 
The Wenstrom dynamo has been familiar to the public for some time and 
its excellence of construction and high efficiency are well known. .1 glance 
at the accompanying illustration will show how admirably it is adapted 
for direct connection. The dynamo is of multipolar construction and 
will run successfully at a low rate of speed, for which the Wenstrom 
Company makes a special claim. The company has recently subjected 
a 15 kw. outfit to l^a test which proved very successful aad showed good 
results. Mr. Henry B. Oakman, 136 Liberty street, New York, is the gen- 
eral Eastern agent for the Wenstrom Company. 



(,(y 



XHE KIvKCXRICAL WORLD. 



Vol. XXIV. No. i. 



financial 3ntcUigcnce, 

The Electrical Stock iyiARKET. 

NfW York, July 14, 1894. 

THE p;i,ECTKICAI. STOCK MARKET has shared with the other speculative 
markets in the stagnation of business that has resulted from the paralysis con- 
sequent upon the hig Western labor troubles. While having no direct bearing 
upon the electrical industry, the strike has completely killed all demand, either 
lor maTiufacturcd articles or for securities, and, while large bank funds now on 
hand after the large July dividend and interest disbursements have sought some 
temporary investment in securities, the demand is nothing like that which 
ticcurs at this period in normal years. 

r.ENER.\I, ELECTRIC has been the strongest of the low-priced stock.s, and, in 
.1 market where transactions have been generally absolutely lacking in signifi- 
cance, has been freely taken the last few days by a new pool that has of late 
been absorbing the floating supply of stock. With the beginning of operations 
of this pool have naturally appeared a lot of reports tending to increase confi- 
dence in the company and to inspire further belief in its renewed march of pros- 
jierity. Thus, at the beginning of the week, it was bruited that negotiations 
were pending between Ihe Manhattan Elevated Railroad Company and the 
C.eneral Electric Company for a plant to take the place of steam motors on the 
New York system, and though it was afterwards announced that the Manhattan 
Company had decided not to adopt electricity as a motive power, because of the 
expense of %S,000,000 involved in making the change, the story had sufficient 
circulation to strengthen General Electric's quotation. Then it was announced 
that the General Electric has of late managed to create a demand of large 
dimensions for power motors from shoe manufacturers in the East, owing to 
the prevailing disposition among them to save on labor and other details wherever 
practical, and the opening of this new field of profit has led to calculations as to 
how General Electric apparatus will be used to great advantage in many indus- 
tries, thereby assiiring a large business to the company. .\s a result of all these 
encouraging reports, quite a tone of strength is lent to the stock. But the mar- 
ket is very narrow, and there is no telling how far or how little quotations 
reflect anything but the manipulation of interested members of some pool or 
another. 

THE EDISON ELECTRIC ILLUMINATING COMPANY OF NEW YORK 
furnishes The Electrical World, through Treasurer Joseph Williams.some figures 
of comparative earnings for June, and for the si.x moulhs ended June 30, 18*>4. 
Gross earnings for June were $101,351, an increase of iIS,740; net earnings wera 
S52.S04, an increase of St8,30j. For the six months gross earnings were $687,754, 
an increase of $77,899, and net earnings were $375 644, an increase of $93,341. 
With these evidences of prosperity the stock holds very firm. 

THE BROOKLYN EDISON ELECTRIC ILLUMINATING COMPANY reports 
comparative earnings for June as follows: Gross earnings, $24,004, an increase 
of $3,598; expenses, $17,822, an increase of $4,S2b; net earnings, $0,182, a decrease 
of $928; other income, $5,604, an increase of $4,417; amount applicable to divi- 
dends, after deducting $2,100 for interest due on bonds. $9,686, an increase of 
$3,489. The expense account of June. 1894, carries the operating expenses of five 
weeks, and in addition about $800— incurred in preparing for and lighting on the 
city contract, from which no revenue appears until July. Net earnings of six 
months have been: 1894, $%.470; 1893, 572,595; 1892. $43,641; 1891, $22,615. 

THE STREET RAILWAY AND ILLUMINATING PROPERTIES' trustees 
have, as intimated in these columns last week, purchased, according to agree- 
ment, 608 more shares of preferred stock at 97,'s. making the total purchased to 
date, 12,551 shares. The value of the securitiesobtained from the General Elec- 
tric Company and held in the trust is every day being more fully established. 

WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC issues, with the exception of a good demand 
for the preferred noted in Boston in the last day or two, have been very quiet, 
but quotations are very well held on the reports of continued good business. 

AMERICAN HELL TELEPHONE stock holds very firm. The Board of Direc- 
tors of the company held a meeting this week, but it was announced that noth- 
ing but routine matters were considered. This, together with the fact that Mr. 
Hudson, president of the company, is going to Europe, gives rise to the impres- 
sion that nothing will be done just at present in the matter of issuing the 
$30,000,000 new capital stock authorized by the Massachusetts Legislature to be 
sold at auction. But nothing official relative to the matter is made public. 
ELECTRICAL STOCKS. 

Par. Bid. Asked. 

Brush 111., New York .SO 10 30 

Cleveland General Electric Co 100 80 90 

Detroit Electrical Works 10 3 4 

Ea.st River Electric Light Co. 100 — SO 

*Edi.sou Electric 111., New York 100 Irtl 100}^ 

* '■ " " Brooklyn 100 loti 102 

" " " Boston 100 116 lis 

Chicago 100 135 145 

* " '• " Philadelphia 100 128 130 

Edison Electric Light of Europe 100 1 3 

Edison Ore Milling 100 10 IS 

Electric Construction & Supply Co., com IS IS 17J^ 

' pref )5 IS 17H 

Fort Wayne Electric 100 1 2 

General Electric IIX) yifit 37K. 

Interior Conduit & Ins. Co UX1 45 55 " 

Mount Morris Electric KXI 25 SO 

Westiiighouse Consolidated, com SO 35 36 

pref 50 SOH SIH 

BONDS. 

Edison Electric 111., New York l.tXlO lOfiK- 10" 

Edison Electric Light of Europe VH 75 " 8S 

General Electric Co., deb. S's 1,000 .SoJ-j 86}<; 

TELEGR.\PH AND TKLEPHONE. 

American Bell Telephone 100 195 i% 

American District Telegraph 100 — 45 

American Telegraph & Cable 100 89'. *J0 

Central & South .American Telegraph 100 105 lU) 

Commercial Cables 100 125 ~ 

Gobi & Stock Telegraph IIK) 100 102 

* Mexican Telegraph 100 190 2iX) 

* Western Union Telegraph UX> 849y H4% 

* Ex. div. 



ERIE TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH stock has enjoyed some bit of life 
on the announcement that the telephone service in all its divisions is to be 
greatly extended. 

FORT WAYNE ELECTRIC stock has been higher this week on the belief that 
the company will yield more in liquidation to stockholders than has been ex- 
jiected. The receivers are making an effort to present at an early date some 
statement of its affairs. 

WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH has been very firm all week and shorts have 
been rendered very ner\'Ons on finding that the amount of offerings has been 
largely reduced by the withdrawal from the street of certificates bought by actual 
investors. The $550,000 additional stock listed on the New York Stock Exchange 
this week was issued for the purpose of the American Rapid Telegraph Com- 
pany, which had previously been operated by the Western Union on a lease, but 
which was purchased under foreclosure on March 11. 1891. by a committee of 
bondholders, and then resold to the Western Union. With the $500,000 received 
from the Western Union and with $300,000 in the receivers hands, the bond- 
holders of the Rapid Telegraph Company will receive a dividend of about 27 per 
cent, on their $3,000,000 bonds. The $3,000,000 common stock is frozen out. The 
Rapid Telegraph has 20,370 miles of wire extending from New York city to Bos- 
ton, Buffalo, Cleveland, Pittsburg, Chicago. Washington and intermediate points, 
and before being sold to the Western Union was leased to it by the receiver at a 
rental of $60,000 per year. Dividends of S per cent, on $500,000 call for but $25,000 
per year, so that the purchase saves the Western Union $35,000 a year. 



New Incorporations. 



THE JOSEPH TELEPHONE CO.MPANY, Joseph, Ore., capital stock $500, has 
been incorporated. 

THE MURPHY POWER COMPANY, Chicago. III., capital stock $3,000, has 
been incorporated by S. M. Murphy and others. 

THE SPENCER MOTOR COMPANY', Glastonbury, Conn., capital stock $2,000. 
has been incorporated by S. P. Turner and others. 

THE ECONOMIC LIGHT. HEAT AND POWER COMPANY, Snohomish, 
Wash., capital stock $25,000. has been incorporated. 

THE LITTLE CYCLONE FAN COMPANY, Kansas City, Mo., capital stock 
$10,000, has been incorporated by W. P. Waite and others. 

THE ELECTRIC BRUSH PORTRAIT COMP.^NY', San Francisco, Cal., capi- 
tal stock $10,000, has been formed to make portraits, frames, etc. 

THE BRODIE ELECTRIC COMPANY', Manchester, N. H.. capital stock 
$25,000. has been formed to manufacture electrical apparatus, etc. 

THE FREEPORT ELECTRIC COMPANY, Freeport. 111., capital stock 
$150,000, has been incorporated by R. S. Brown, J. B. Taylor and Gep. H. Currie. 

THE BLUFF CITY ELECTRIC STREET RAILWAY* COMPANY'. Waukegan. 
111., capital stock $200,000, has been incorporated. The promoters are DeWitt 
L- Jones, S. D. Talcott and Chas. Whitney. 

THE TR.\CTION CONSTRUCTION COMPANY, Denver, Col., capital stock 
$50,000, has been incorporated by Geo. E. B. Hart and others to construct aiuj 
operate electric and cable railways, street railways and tramways. 

THE LITTLE CY'CLONE FAN COMPANY. Kansas City, Mo., capital stock 
$10,000, has been formed to operate electric fans, etc. The organizers are W. 
T. White, F. E. Weidman and Win. W. McCall, Kansas City, Mo. 

THE NASH-EDDY' COMPANY', Cleveland, O., capital stock $12,000, has been 
formed to manufacture and deal in all kinds of mechanical and electrical appa- 
ratus, devices, etc, Nathan E. Nash. Geo. .\. Eddy, F. G. Botstord, H. W. 
Wolcott and L. H. Winch. 

THE FIRE AND POLICE TELEGR.^.PH COMPANY, Louisville, Ky.. capital 
stock $50.0tX). has been formed to deal in electrical machinerj-, apparatus and 
supplie.-i, and to do general electrical business. The promoters are C. A. Ray. 
W. S. Hogue and H. C. Stanclifle. 

THE PEOPLE'S GAS AND ELECTRIC LIGHT COMPANY' OF SARATOGA 
SPRINGS, Saratoga Springs, N. Y'.. capital stock $7.5,000, has been formed to 
manufacture and supply gas, electricity and other lights. Chas. H. Moore, H. 
Carpenter and Warren Dake, Saratoga Springs, are the incorporators. 

THE ELBRIDGE ELECTRIC M.\NI'F.\CTURING COMP.-VNY', Elbridge, N. 
Y'. , capital stock $10,000, has been formed to manufacture and sell electrical 
apparatus and engines, boilers, etc. Wm. C. Ranney. L. B. Domau. A. E. 
Doiiiau. Elbridge. N. \'.. and .-V. Blair Frazee, Kipple. Pa. .are interested. 

THE NORTH AND SOUTH ELECTRIC RAILWAY. Yonkers, N. Y., capital 
stock $.'^,(X)0, has been formed to operate a street railway in Yonkers, either by 
electricity or horse power, or both, the road to be five miles long. W. D. Baldwin 
S. T. Hubbard, Jr., J. C. Shotts. J. J. Devitt, T. H. Silkman. J. S. Fitch. L. M. 
Saunders, W. E. Hodgmau, Yonkers, and R, B. Kelly, New York, are 
interested. 



Special ^orrcsponbciuw 

Western Notes. 



Bkancii Offick of The Electrical World J 
936 Monadnack Buildinp. Chicago, July I4, 1894. \ 

JOHN R. MARKLK. whose name is faniiliar to our readers, lias been placed 
in clinrge of all the Western business of the Electric Storage Battery Company, 
of rhiladelpliia. Mr. Markle makes his headquarters at 1409 Manhattan Build- 
ing, where he can be found almost any time buried in work. 

THE WEST CHICAGO STREET RAILWAY COMPANY will soon let con- 
tracts for the erection of an immense electric power liouse at the intersection 
of California avenue and Roscoe Boulevard to furnish the motive power for the 
trolley lines of the company, to be operated in connection with the Milwaukee 
avenue cable system. The structure will be one stor>- and a half high, and will 
cover 100 x 125 feet of ground. 

THE AMERICAN ET-ECTRICAL WORKS, of Providence, is one of the 
large houses of the country which has come to the conclusion that Western busi- 
ness justifies a branch office in this city. They now have handsome quarters at 



July 'A, 1894. 



TTHE EIvEiCXRICAL WORLD. 



6i 



241 Madison street, where Mr. T. E. Donohoe is in charge. Mr. Donohoe is busy 
getting things in shape and is ready to receive friends of the company. 

THE JENNEY ELECTRIC MOTOR COMPANY, of Indianapolis, Ind.. has 
been reorganized on a very strong financial basis. It is now arranging for the 
erection of new works in the city of Indianapolis to cover many acres of ground, 
as its business has recently grown to huge proportions. Western Manager 
Goode reports business excellent considering the times, and the new fortunes of 
the company will be welcomed by its thousands of friends. 

THE ABENDROTH & ROOT MANUFACTURING COMPANY has opened an 
office at 1422 Monadnock Building, and placed it in charge of Mr. George K. 
Hooper. This firm is well-known in the West by reason of its famous water tube 
boiler; but it appreciates that to have a manager on the ground will materially 
assist in closing many of the large orders that will soon be placed in this vicinity. 
Mr. Hooper will find many words of praise for his boiler throughout the West. 

THE WESTERN TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION COMPANY, whose offices 
on the fifth floor of the Monadnock are the busiest in the building, seem to be 
overwhelmed with business in the shape of new exchanges and orders for pri- 
.'ate line telephones. Manager Stitch and President Keelyu are always at their 
desks, while Treasurer Kennedy is busy with the books. Its factory on the 
West Side is overcrowded with work, and it seems to be on the increase. One 
of its latest successes was the securing of a large order from the Metropolitan " ■ L' ' 
road, which has ordered an equipment for everj' station on its line. 



Hetps of tf?e IDeck 



Telegraph and Telephone. 



Canadian Notes. 

Ottaw.a., July 14. 

TORONTO.— The street railway revenue shows an increase in spite of the 
hard times. The total earnings for June were $88,335, of which the city's share 
was S7.066. In June, 1892. the city's share was $6,729, and in June, 1893. $6,039. 

WINNIPEG.— The Judicial Committee of the Imperial Privy Council have 
given judgment in the case of the Winnipeg Street Railway Company vs. the 
Winnipeg Electric Street Railway Company and the city of Winnipeg, affirming 
the judgments appealed against. 

MONTREAL.— The Railway Committee has passed the contested bill respect- 
ing the Montreal Park & Island Railway Company, and made the capital stock 
$1,000,000. against the protest of Mr. Williams, the promoter of the bonus for the 
road, who has $125,000 of stock given him for his services. 

OTTAWA. ONT.— At a meeting of the newly appointed directors of the Elec- 
tric Street Railway, J. W. McRae was elected president, and Mr. G. P. Brophy 
vice-president. After the Governor-General assents to the bill for the amalga- 
mation of the two roads, the shareholders of each will be called to elect a new 
board of directors and reorganize. 

MONTREAL. — Electrical railway construction is making wonderfully rapid 
headway on the island of Montreal. Last fall the Montreal and Island Park 
Co. built a road to the Back River, a distance of six miles, and now the same 
system is being extended round the mountain to Cote des Neiges. the intention 
being to further extend the railway to Notre Dame de Grace, and connect with 
the Montreal Street Railway at Cote St. Antoiue. 

OTTAWA, ONT.— The agreement between the corporation and the amalga- 
mated lighting companies for the lighting of the city for ten years after the 
expiration of the present contract has been signed by Messrs. G. P. Brophy, 
president: D. R. Street, secretary, and W. Y. Soper, director, of the Chaudiere 
Electric Lighting Company; Messrs. E. H. Bronson, president, and G. B. Pattee, 
director, of the Standard Electric Lighting Company, and City Clerk Henderson. 



English Notes. 

(From our own Correspondent.) 

London, July 4, 1S04. 

ELECTRIC LIGHTING AND THE FACTORY ACTS. -At the Westminster 
Police Court recently there was a batch of prosecutions against the owners 
of several small workshops for permitting women to work on their premises 
after the authorized time, and not providing sufficient cubic space. One of the 
defendants made a somewhat ingenious pleading, which was to the effect that 
as he had adooted the electric light, which did not vitiate the atmosphere, he 
considered that overtime on his premises could not be injurious to the workers 
from the respiratory point of view. This ingenious pleading was not, however, 
of any avail. 

HORSE TRACTION AS AN AID TO ELECTRIC TRACTION.— At a recent 
meeting of the Association of Municipal Engineers a paper was read by Mr. R. 
Hammond on the subject of electric traction, and it must be confessed that 
although for the most part it contained nothing but generalties, there was at 
least one startling idea. Mr. Hammond advocated the combination of the elec- 
tric lighting with the electric traction business. He pointed out that for a few- 
hours every day the heavy traction load and the heavy lighting load would coin- 
cide. He made several suggestions as to how this difficulty might be overcome, 
and ended up by pointing that the best way out of the difficulty was to tem- 
porarily horse the cars. 

INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION AND TRADE-UNIONISM.— The Technical Ed- 
ucation Doard recently appointed by the London County Council has instituted 
a series of conferences between the members of the board and representatives 
of the industries of the Metropolis, with the laudable object of discovering 
exactly what it is the British workman requires in the way of technical oi in- 
dustrial training. There was a general consensus of opinion amongst the dele- 
gates of the engineering and allied trades that the law should oblige employers 
to afford their apprentices time during the day to attend classes for systematic 
instruction in the principles of their craft; that these classes should be 
in touch with the trade; that the in.structors should be practical work- 
men; that no one but those actually engaged in the trade should be allowed 
to attend these classes The demand that the technical clas.ses should be in 
touch with the trade generally took the form that they should be controlled by 
the trades-unions, and the demand that no one but those actually engaged in 
the trade should be allowed to attend the classes went so far as to exclude ex- 
perienced gas fitters and house carpenters from adding to their earning powers 
by obtaining that modicum of electrical knowledge necessary to make them effi- 
cient wiremen. Up to the present the average electrical wireman may. for 
aught we know, be a very efficient electrician, but he certainly is uncommonly 
clumsy in getting about the house, and in that respect an electrically compe- 
tent gas fitter or carpenter would probably make a much better workman than 
the so-called electric light ■ 



NEWBERNE, N. C— Address P. H. Pelletier regarding : 
change to be established. 



telepho 



SALISBURY, N.C.— A franchise for constructing a telephone system has been 
granted to J. Allen Brown and others. 

DANBURY, CONN.— Hoyt & Russell, manufacturers of telephones, are re- 
ported to have dissolved partnership. 

AMERICUS. GA.— The Bell Telephone Company will construct a line to 
Albany, Ga. Jeff. D, Peacock is manager of the exchange. 

SHELBY'VILLE, IND. -Franchises have been granted to the Mutual Telephone 
Company, in which George C. Piatt and D. C. Vowell are interested. 

CHESTERTOWN, N. Y.— The Chestertown Telephone Company has built a 
line to the Palisades, a new hotel on the shores of Brant Lake, kept by Smith 
Barton. This company is about to extend its line to Warreniiburgh. All the 
hotels at Fieand's Lake are connected with Chestertown. 

PHILADELPHI.I, PA. -A number of business men visited the Bullitt Building 
and inspected the workings of the automatic switchboard of the Mu- 
tual Automatic Telephone Company, which by ordinance of Councils has 
been given authority to cover the entire city by the new system. 

Electric Light and Power. 

WILLIAMSVILLE, ILL.— The citizens are agitating the question of an electric 
lighting plant. 

DALLAS, TE-X.— Judge T. F. Nash may be written to in regard to an electric 
wiring contract. 

LOS ANGELES. CAL.— Franchises have been granted to Chas. Walton to put 
in an electric plant. 

ELBERTON. GA.— Address D. A. Matthews regarding the establishment of 
an electric power plant. 

NORWOOD, PA.— Address G. C. Skelton regarding electric lighting contract 
to be given out August 1. 

FRONT ROYAL, VA.— The Council is considering the matter of establishing a 
municipal lighting plant. 

LAFAYETTE, COL.— A franchise has been granted to J. S. Spencer to furnish 
light, heat and power to the town. 

CAPE GIRARDEAU, MO.— Franchises have been granted to R. W. and T. W. 
Gannon to put in an electric light plant. 

ESTHERVILLE, lA.-N. B. Egbert, city clerk, can be addressed regarding 
construction of an electric light plant. 

PAWNEE CITY, NEB.-A movement is on foot to establish an electric light 
plant ill connection with the water works. 

MARSHALL, MINN.— The vote to bond Marshall for $^,000 for electric light 
and water bonds was carried by 73 majority. 

KALAMAZOO. MICH.— Address Chauncey Strong, city clerk, regarding the 
construction of an electric light plant for the city. 

CLARKSBURG, W. VA.— Address D. P. Morgan, president Traders' Company, 
concerning the installation of an electric light plant. 

GONZALES, TE.X.—F. R. Starr. Jr.. may be addressed regarding a iOO-light 
dynamo to be put in by the Goliac Water Power Company. 

WELLS. MINN.— The village has called a special election for July 24 to vote 
on the question of issuing S20.000 electric light and water bonds. 

BALTIMORE. MD.— The Viaduct Manufacturing Company is about to erect a 
new electrical plant to replace the one recently burned at Relay, Md. 

SHAWANO, WIS.— An ordinance is before the Council for establishing an 
electric plant. Final action will be taken July 30. A. C. Weber is city clerk. 

YATES CITY, ILL.— A franchise has been granted to the Elmwood Electric 
Light Company to establish an electric plant. T. J. Knightlinger is city clerk. 

KEY WEST, FLA.— The Key West Gas and Electric Light Company has in- 
creased its capital stock from $75,000 to $250,000 for the purpose of enlarging its 
plant. 

CARROLL, ILL.— An ordinance has been passed granting ten years franchise 
to C. P. Woodworth to operate an electric light plant. Aaron Smith is city 
clerk. 

BALTIMORE, MD.— During the Summer a new 12 h. p. electric motor will be 
put in the Baltimore Colored Manual Training School, on Fremont avenue, 
near Lombard street. 

WASHINGTON, D. C— Horace S. Cumniings. acting for a syndicate, is re- 
ported as having purchased a $14,000^tract of land on which a large electric 
plant will be erected. 

CROWLEY, LA.— The Council has secured O. H. Landreth to prepare plans 
and specifications for an electric light and water plant. The contract will be 
let as soon as the specifications are ready. 

NEW YORK CITY. N. Y — The United Electric Light and Power Company, 
108 Fulton street, will erect a one-story brick electric light station at No, 407 to 
419 East Twenty-eight street, to cost $80,000 

ALBERT LEA. MINX— The electric light and power house. C. G. Edwards 
manager and principal owner, has been burned. The dynamos were entirely 
destroyed. The loss is $8.(XX). with no insurance. 

SHELBYVILLE, KY — The Shelbyville Water and Light Company is in the 
market for engines, dynamos, apparatus, lamps, poles, wiring, etc., of the elec- 
tric light plant to be constructed by that company. 

W.\KEFIELD. MASS.— .\ meeting will be held July 16 for the purpose of pro- 
viding for an issue of bonds to the amount of $144,680. to be used for the pur- 
chase of the Citizens' Gas and Electric Company's plant. 

HENDERSON. MINN —Sealed proposals for an electric light plant for the 
city of Henderson. Sibley County, will be received until August 1, 1894. Plans 
and specifications on file with the city clerk J. J. Mohre. 

NAPOLEON, O,— Sealed proposals will be received until July 34 for electrical 



68 



THE ELKCXRICAL WORLD. 



Vol. XXIV. No. 3. 



apparatus, one 60-light dynamo, and one 1,500 incandescent light dyna 
including a first-class electric light plant, J, Koller is city clerk. 



Miscellaneous Notes. 



The Electric Railway. 



SAN KRANCISCO, CAL.— Address J. A. Russell, city clerk, regarding street 
railway franchises. 

SKOWIIKOAN, MR.— The town has voted $10,000 in aid of an electric road from 
Norridgewock to this place. 

DKI-AWARR. O.— A franchise has been granted to the Delaware Electric Rail- 
way Company to extend its lines. 

ROMR. N. Y.— The Rome City Street Railway Company is about to change 
its system to electric motive power. 

MONTGOMRRY. ALA.— The Montgomery Street Railway Company has been 
granted a franchise to extend its lines. 

RUTHERFORD, N. J, —It is proposed to construct a trolley line from this 
place to connect with the main line to Jersey City. 

PROVIDENCE. R. I.— The Union Railroad Company proposes to extend its 
line from Exchange to Smith's Hill, by way of Francis street. 

LEWISTON, ME.— The Lewiston & Auburn Horse Railroad Company has de- 
cided to adopt electricity as a motor power on its lines at once. 

COLUMBUS, GA.— The North Highlands Railroad Company, operating an 
electric railway, has been granted a franchise to extend its lines. 

PHILADELPHIA. PA.— Charles McCaul is receiving bids f<5r the new power 
house of the Electric Traction Company, which is to be a large structure. 

LEWISTON. N. Y.— The Lewiston & Youngstown Electric Railroad will be 
reorganized and will build an electric railroad from Lewiston to Youngstown. 

DRACUT. MASS.— The Lowell, Lawrence & Haverhill Street Railroad Com- 
pany has received a permit to construct an electric road within the city limits. 

CUMBERLAND HILL, R. L— The Woodsocket Electric Power and Machine 
Company has asked for permission to construct an electric road from Manville 
to Cumberland. 

WASHINGTON. D. C— The Alexandria & Mount Vernon Electric Railway 
has permission to construct an electric road through Arlington reservation to 
this place. 

WASHINGTON. D. C— The Eckington & Soldiers' Home Railroad has been 
granted permission to put down an underground electric system, invented by 
Malone Wheless. 

BALTIMORE, MD.— The Baltimore, Conton & Point Breeze Railway Com- 
pany contemplates constructing an electric road from Battle Monument to the 
eastern city limits. 

GUTHRIE, OKLA.— Address Charles Fitzgerald in regard to a street railway, 
for which he has been granted a franchise, but for which the equipment has 
not yet been purchased. 

RUTHERFORDTON, N. J.— Jonah White writes: "It is now an assured fact 
that an electric railway will be built from Rutherfordton to Chimney Rock, a 
distance of seventeen miles. 

HARTFORD. CONN.— An electric railway between this city and Rockville 
before the end of the year is assured, and Manchester will be connected with 
Hartford by an electric line by October 1. 

ST. AUGUSTINF^, FLA.— Address Charles Sperry. superintendent St. Augus- 
tine Railroad and Steamboat Company, 12 West Thirty-6rst street. New York, 
concerning an electric railway to be constructed. 

SAND LAKE. N. Y.— It is now an assured fact that an electric road is to be 
built between Sand Lake and Troy. J. K. Averill has been appointed a com- 
mittee to interview the stockholders in regard to the stock, etc. 

KNOX VILLE, TENN.— It is reported that Messrs. Eperandieu and Cramer, 
representing the Niagara Power and Development Company, are endeavoring 
to form a company to build a five-mile electric road to Spring Place. 

BLOOMFIELD, N. J.— A petition from the North Jersey Street Railroad Com- 
pany for a franchise for an electric line from the Newark passenger line to the 
Monticello line was referred to the Committee on Law and Franchises. 

RUTLAND, VT.— A meeting of the stockholders of the new street railway 
company, to be known as the City Electric Company, was held, and following 
directors elected : E. A. Morse, E. M. Woodruff, J. E. Creed and others. 

LANCASTER, PA.— The Pennsylvania Traction Company, operating the entire 
electric railway system of Lancaster County, has decided to extend its lines 
through the county. The contract for the work will be awarded next week. 

KP:y west, FLA.— John J. Philbrick, of Key West, is completing arrange- 
ments in New York City for the transfer of the street railway property to the 
Key West Electric Street Railway Company. Horse power will be superseded 
by electricity. 

CRISFIELD, MD.— The Somerset Electric Light and Railway Com- 
pany was chartered by the last Legislature with Thomas S. Hodson, of 6 East 
Lexington Street, Baltimore, as president. About two and one-half miles of 
road will be built. 

NORTHAMPTON. MASS.— Business has .so rapidly increased on the electric 
railroad that the company is now to petition the aldermen for the privilege of 
double tracking the road on Main street. The line will be built this year if 
request is granted. 

BRISTOL. CONN. -The directors of the Bristol & Plainfield Tramway Com- 
pany and the borough committee have reached an agreement in regard to the 
construction of the proposed line. The incorporators are N. E. Pierce, Tread- 
way St Muzzy, of Bristol, and others. 

BALTIMORE, MD.— The Mai-yland Central Railroad Company is reported to 
be seriously considering the operation of its line by electricity. In this connec- 
tion it is stated that the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad trains will be run through the 
belt tunnels by powerful electric motors. 

BRADFORD, PA.— 'The city councils passed the ordinance granting the Brad- 
ford Electric Street Railway Company exclusive right and privilege to construct 
and operate a street car line from the American House, in East Bradford, 
through the Third and Fourth Wards, etc. 



PROFESSOR HELMHOLTZ. as we go to press, is reported by cable to be 
dying. 

THE STREET RAILWAY ASSOCIATION OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK 
has issued the report of its eleventh annual meeting, he'd at Rochester. Sep- 
tember 19, 18'>3. Only one paper was read at his meeting. "The Return Circuit of 
Electric Railways." by T. J. McTighe, but this with its discussion is a valuable 
contribution to the subject. 

MR. JOHN B. M'CORMICK, the well-known Holyoke. Mass., manufacturer of 
turbines, has written a pamphlet entitled "Reasoning from Cause to Effect." 
and containing his opinions on the economic and indu.strial situation. Mr. 
McConnick is a firm believer in free trade, and this pamphlet is a remarkable 
contribution to the subject. 

KILLED BY LIGHTNING. —Two men were recently killed at the Norfolk 
Na\'>- Yard by lightning under peculiar circumstances. A number of men had 
sought shelter beneath the steel cruisei Raleigh, which lay in dry-dock there, 
when suddenly two of the men fell dead and others were knocked senseless 'dj- 
an electric shock, which was not felt by the officers on the deck. All the com- 
passes were affected, and the vessel was magnetized. 

FULL OF ELECTRICITY. -A young man employed at the Edison Lamp 
Works, Harrison, N. J., recently received a severe shock from an electric cur- 
rent, rendering him unconscious, in which state he remained, notwithstanding 
the efforts of physicians to restore him. It was finally decided by the doctors 
and an aunt of the young man that his body was full of electricity, which if re- 
nioved would permit him to recover. An insulated wire was therefore grounded 
to a water pipe and a wet sponge at the other end applied to the body of the 
young man, when, to the delight of the aunt and the medical attendants, he re- 
gained consciousness, and a new principle in electro-therapeutics was estab- 
lished. What the effect of sponging alone would have been we are unfortunately 
left in the dark. 



Cmbc anb 3nbnstv\al Hotcs. 

THE BERLIN IRON BRIDGE COMPANY, East Berlin. Conn., has received 
an order from the United Electric Light. Heat and Power Co., of New York City, 
for an iron roof, with anti-condensation corrugated iron roof covering, for a 
switch board building. 

THE UNITED STATES HEADLIGHT COMPANY. Utica, N. Y., has made 
arrangements with I. A. Williams & Co., Utica, N. Y., and Chicago, 111., to 
act as one of its agents for the sale of its locomotive, electric, cable and motor 
car and other headlights. 

THE JONES MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 1820 and 1822 Mechanic street. 
Norwalk. Conn., manufacturer of typewriter supplies of every description, 
claims that its factory is one of the most complete in the United States, and that 
every month shows a large increase in business, notwithstanding the hard times. 

ARMATURE WINDING.— We have received a communication from the 
Chelsey Manufacturing Company, of Hoboken, N. J., claiming that the system 
of Spiral winding, or angular advance of section, described in these columns as 
devised by S. W. Rushraore, was invented and patented by Mr. George Hoare. of 
Brooklyn; that it has also been used by the Excelsior Electric Company, and 
that it is only applicable to armatures wound with a single turn of wire. 

THE GENERAL INCANDESCENT ARC LIGHT COMPANY. 572-578 First 
Avenue, New York City, has received a verj- flattering letter from Hilton. 
Hughes & Co., expressing the greatest satisfaction with the 500 incandescent arc 
lamps installed in their large establishment. Hilton, Hughes & Co. state that 
the lamps are not only sightly in appearance, but the light is absolutely steady 
and agreeable, and particularly well adapted to show off goods like theirs; in 
fact, that the lighting is beyond criticism. 

"MODERN TURRET LATHE PRACTICE*' is the title of a pamphlet issued 
by the Gisholt Machine Company, Madison. Wis. The pamphlet gives illustra- 
tions taken from actual practice of some of the uses to which the company's 
turret lathes are put. and it is the intention to issue it monthly in the belief that 
the range of application of the turret lathe is so large, and that many of the most 
successful operations are so different from accepted practice, that the publication 
will be welcomed by superinteudents.foremen and proprietors of manufacturing 
machine shops. 

THE PERU ELECTRIC MANUFACTURING COMPANY, Pern. Indiana, has 
issued a 38- page general catalogue of its various electrical porcelain manufactures 
and the Laclede and Hercules carbon batteries. Unlike other porcelain and 
carbon manufacturers, this finn gives undivided attention to the making of 
electrica,! goods, and therefore naturally pays particular attention to the elec- 
trical properties of the material. The porcelain, we learn from the catalogue. 
is burnt with natural gas, the temperature being 4,000 degrees Fahr.. thus 
producing an excellent insulating glaze, and the carbon used in the batteries is 
also made from natural gas. 

THE ELECTRIC APPLIANCE COMPANY, Chicago, appreciating the fact tha 
users of colored and frosted incandescent lamps have undoubtedly frequently 
suffered considerable inconvenience from inability to get their orders for fancy 
goods filled promptly froih stock, has perfected plans for frosting and coloring 
lamps of all kinds in Chicago and established a coloring room for doing this 
work, and can now furnish colored and frosted lamps promptly on receipt of 
orders. By the use of improved coloring compounds and methods of treating 
results have been secured in colored and frosted lamps, fully equalling those 
obtained from genuine colored and fr'jsted glass. Customers will undoubtedly 
show their appreciation of prompt deliven,' on these goods. 

THE ALTOONA MANUFACTURING COMPANY. Altoona. Pa.. reporU the 
following orders received during June: One 280-h. p. engire, for the Akron 
Street Railway Company, of .\kron. O.. to be direct-coupled to a 250-h. p. gen- 
erator built by the Walker Manufacturing Company, of Cleveland O. ; one 150-h. 
p.. inctosetl type self-oiling engine for the Watson Mining and Manufacturing | 
Company, of Monongnhela City. Pa., for an electric mining and haulage plant; 
one 65-h. p. inclosed type, self-oiling engine for the Lyceum Theatre, Philadel- 
phia; one 175-h. p. standard centre-crank engine for the Freeport Electric Com- 



July 21, 1894. 



THE KI^KCTKICA^L WORI^IJ. 



69 



pany., Freeport, 111.; one 6S-h. p. inclosed type, self-oiling engine for Knight 
Bros., Fayette, la. There is considerably more inquiry and with a settlement 
of the railroad strike it is believed that a substantial improvement in business 
will result. , 

THE WENSTROM APPARATUS, for which Henry B. Oakmau, 136 Liberty 
Street, New York, is the general eastern agent, is meeting with exceptional 
success, and the following sales for the past mouth are reported: Two 30 k.w. 
generators lor the St. James Hotel. N. Y. ; one 35 h.p. motor to the American 
Grocery Company, X. Y. ; one 50 and one 30 kw. to the Empire Hotel, N. Y. ; 
one 30 kw. to the Stevens .apartment House. N. Y. ; one 10 kw. to the Adams 
House, N. Y. ; one 30 kw. to the Lake View Brewing Company, Buffalo, N. Y. ; 
two 50 kw. to the Gould Coupler Compauy. Depew, N. Y. ; one 25 kw. to Earle's 
Hotel, Richfield Springs. N. Y., and one 15 kw. to the Co-operative Brewing 
Company, Buffalo, making a total of over 7.000 lights capacity. 

THE "ACME" PORTABLE VOLTMETER.— Queen & Co., of Philadelphia, 
have for mouths past held back from the market a new type of portable volt- 
meter tor both alternating and direct current circuits, in order to give it a thor- 
ough time test. They are now satisfied that the instrument is thoroughly 
adapted to laboratory as also station measurements, and are preparing to manu- 
facture it in sufficient quantities to meet the large demand which seems assured 
so soon as the merits of the voltmeter become known. It operates on the "hot- 
wire" principle and is absolutely' free from hysteresis error, thus being correct 
for alternating circuits of any frequency. It is dead beat without a mechanical 
brake— a most important feature— and is the most compact reliable instrument 
of its class made. Twenty different ranges cover potentials from two volts to 
three thousand, and by means of a special interchangeable adapter which fits 
the Edison, Thomson-Houston or Westinghouse systems, measurements can be 
made very rapidly. The "Acme" Voltmeter received the highest World's Fair 
award because "It possesses high sensibility over the entire scale, and its zero 
is not affected by changes of temperature. The in.strument is unusually compact 
and portable." The instrument was fully described in The Electrical World of 
March 3, 1894. 

P. AND B. BUILDING AND INSULATING PAPER. -The validity of United 
States Patent No. 378.520, under which this paper is manufactured, has been 
established in case of the Standard Paint Company vs. Henn,* J. Bird and James 
L. Reynolds, where after an exhaustive litigation extending over four and a 
quarter years, and after consideration of a printed record of upward of 1,000 
pages, the Circuit Court of the United States for the District of New Jersey, on 



July 5, 1894, made and entered a decree adjudging that the patent was valid and 
had been infringed by the defendants and directing an injunction against the 
defendants and an accounting. The opinion of the court, written by George M. 
Dallas, Circuit Judge, holds that the patent covers any paper coated with a 
solid residuum obtained from the distillation of petroleum, and that the manu- 
facture and sale of any substantially similar paper is an infringement of the 
patent. The coating mentioned, and which, as established by the evidence in the 
case and by decree of the court, was first used by this company, and protected 
by the United States patent referred to, makes an odorless, water, acid and 
alkali proof and thoroughly insulating paper, as is well known. The court holds 
that papers possessing these essential characteristics, which were new up to the 
time of their introduction under the name of P. &B., made by others, area viola- 
tion and infringement of the complainant's.rights. 

EDWARD F. AUSTIN, contracting engineer and manufacturers' agent, 95 
Fifth Avenue. Pittsburgh. Pa., has just completed the installation of a 50 h. p. 
M. A. Green improved automatic engine to operate a 500-Iight Westinghouse 
dynamo in the Christ M. E. Church of that city. The plant possesses more than 
usual interest on account of its being one of the first to be installed in a church 
for lighting purposes. The following sales of M. A. Green engines in that 
vicinity are also reported: One SO h. p. to the New Castle Car Manufacturing 
Company, of New Castle, Pa. ; one 50 to 180 h. p. to Jones & Lockwood, Pitts- 
burgh, for the operation of electric crane.s, with which their mills have been 
equipped; two 60 h. p. for the Mclutosh-Veruer Building, Pittsburgh; one 150 
h. p. to the Watson Mining and Manufacturing Company, of Monongahela 
City, Pa., and one 12x14 to the Lorch-Eble Machine Company, of Pittsburgh. 

Business Hoticcs. 



BATTERY CUT-OUT CHEAP.— Sensitive, reliable, never requires attention. 
Gas lighting much improved by its use. Electric Supply Company, of 105 South 
Warren street, Syracuse, N. Y. 

OPEN AND CLOSED CIRCUIT CELLS.— The Hayden carbon porous cup No, 1; 
the Hayden carbon porous cup No. 2 cell; a Leclanche clay porous cup cell; a 
standard Fuller cell; a No. 2 Fuller cell; a single cylinder carbon cell; a double 
cylinder carbon cell. All reliable and efficient, and at prices lower than ever. 
THE HAYDEN-BOOKER MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 2140 DeKalb 
street, St. Louis, Mo. 



3Uustratcb Kccorb of (f Icctrical Patents. 



UNITED STATES PATENTS ISSUED JULY 10, 1894. 
(In charge of Wm. A. Rosenbaura, 177 Times Building. Newr York.) 

REISSUE 11,428. ELECTRIC SIGNALLING APPARATUS; J. P. Coleman, 
Swissvale, Pa. Application filed Decembers, 1893. In an apparatus for con- 
necting a signal with its primary actuating mechanism, the combination, 
with the signal and its conaecting rod, of a pivoted lever which forms one of 
the mechanical connections between the signal and the actuating mechan- 
ism, the lever being movable on its pivot into and out of connection with the 
signal connecting rod, and an electromagnet which acts on the lever to hold 
it in connection with the signal connecting rod. 

522,580. DYNAMO ELECTRIC MACHINE; L. Bell, Lynn. Mass. Application 
filed September 19. 1892. An alternating current motor having the adjacent 
faces of its armature and field magnet poles provided with coil chambers, 




. No. 522,580— Dynamo Electric Machine. 

teeth and channels of such shape and so arranged that the reluctance of the 
magnetic path through them is uniform at all positions of the moving parts. 
(See illustration.) 

522,581. controller FOR; ELECTRIC MOTORS; J. B. Flood, Lynn, Mass. 
Application filed December 18, 1393. A switch adapted to start the motors 
in one direction and regulate their movement from rest to highest speeds, 
and in the reverse direction to start and cause them to operate at lowest 
speed. 
,522.597, ELECTRIC SWITCH; J. Hutchinson, New York, N. Y. Application 
filed June 14, 1893. This comprises a tube, an insulating saddle, stationary 
contacts carried thereby, a spindle passing through the saddle, and a movable 
contact-bearing part carried by the spindle. 

522,621. COirBINED HANGER AND AUTOM.-VTIC SWITCH FOR TROLLEY 
WIRES; R. Schefbauer, Paterson, N. J. Application filed July IS, 1893. 
This comprises a body of insulating material, two levers attached thereto, a 
hanger from which the insulating body is suspended, and two sets of contact 
jaws on the hanger. 

522.632. CIRCCITCLOSING DEVICE; P. J. Walsh, Jr.. Philadelphia, Pa. Appli- 
cation filed May 3, 1894. This comprises a supporting case plate, a tongue 
pivoted thereto, a spring acting on the block, and terminals, the point of 
contact of the terminals being so disposed that in making contact they will 
simply abut without sliding friction. 

522,655,. CONDUIT RAILWAY TROLLEY; J. L. Creveling, Auburn, N. Y. 
Application filed April 5, 1894, This consists of a depending plate in com- 
bination with trolleys supported on eithei side thereof by a pair of pivoted 

522,664. ELECTRIC DISTRIBUTION BOX; O. D. & 
waukee. Wis. Application filed April 5, 1894, Tl 

insulating base therein, and a series of pairs o'f contact sections h „ 

extended through the insulating base to be electrically connected with 
strands of cables, 



ileinsteuber, Mil- 
prises a box. an 



2,670. D.\NGER SIGNAL FOR RAILWAY CROSSINGS; M, W. Parrish, 
Detroit, Mich. Application filed October 30. 1893. This comprises a signal, 
electrical actuating mechanism therefor, and contact devices operated by a 
passing train to set the signal in operation. 

2,674. ELECTRIC METER ; G. A. ScheefTer. Peoria, 111. Application filed 
April 12, 1894. The combination of a stationary multipolar magnet, provided 
with three polar or magnetic surfaces and a metallic cylindrical rotating 
armature magnetized thereby. 

!,680. ELECTRIC ARC LAMP; M. S. Okun, New York, N. Y'. Application filed 
September 1, 1892. The combination of a carbon carrying rod, a lever, a 
sliding rod carried by the lever to support the first rod, and a counterbalance 
to equalize the weight of the lever. 

2,690. ELECTRIC LAMP HOLDER; M. P. Meyer, Rochester, N. Y. Appli- 
cation filed February 27, 1894. The combination of an insulated holder, a 
lamp guard constructed of wire, and a shade on the holder. 

!,707. TELEPHONY; P. R. Colvin, New York, N. Y. .Application filed May 22, 
1894. This comprises a telephone in permanently closed relation to the line 
terminals, and a call receiving instrument in shunt relation to the telephone 
the shunt including contacts electrically bridged by a contact piece carried 
by the telephone and removable therewith to open the shunt when the tele- 
phone is removed. 

!,709. CONTACT SHOE FOR ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES; J. J. Green, Boon- 
ton, N. J. Application filed July 5, 1893. This consists of separate end pieces, 
side strips of flexible material secured thereto, and a flexible or yielding 
central bar to which the insulated end piece are loosely attached. (See illus- 
tration.) 

!,710, CONTACT BAR FOR ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES; J, J. Green, Boon- 
ton, N. J. Application filed October 9, 1893. This consists of flexible side 




No. 522,709- CoNT.\cT Shoe for Electric Locomotives. 

strips connected together at or near their ends bj' loose or sliding connec- 
tions and rigidly connected at or near the middle. 

2.711. SUPPLY' SY,STEM FOR ELECTRIC RAILW.AYS: J. J. Green. Boonton, 
N. J. Application filed October 9, 1893. A shoe for electric railways having 
plates or strips with side contact faces arranged in or about the same vertical 
plane, one above the other. 

1,718. ELECTRIC HE.\TER; H. W. Leonard, New York. N. Y. Application 
filed March 22. 1.893. .-V heater having a thinly insulated conductor imbedded 
in and completely surrounded by a closely applied mass of metal. 

!,724. ELECTRIC SYNCHRONIZER FOR CLOCKS; L. Von Orth, Berlin, Ger- 
many. Application filed May 6, 1892. The combination of a pendulum, a 



70 



XHB BIvECTRICAI^ WORI^O. 



Vol. XXIV. No. 3. 



verge rod provided with a pivoted lever iix separable comicction with the 
pendulum, an armature lever, ati electromagnet, and a cam adapted to con- 
trol the motion of the lever. 

2.727. KLJiCTRIC LAMP LIGHTp:R: J. C. Chambers, Detroit, Mich. Appli- 
cation filed February 10, 1894. This comprises a rigid support, a framework 
pivoted thereto, a swinging lamp, a contact device carried by the frame- 
work, and a contact device carried by the lamp. 

2,733. ELECTRIC DOOR OPENKR: H. F. Keil, New York, N. Y. Application 
filed January 30. 1804. The combination of magnets, an insulating plate, an 
armature, a locking dog shaft having one end conically bored and the other 
tapered and held in place, and a lock latch having a spring. 

2,735. ELECTRIC ARC LAMP: P. Kirkegaard, Brooklyn, N. Y. Application 
filed September 2H, IM93. A carbon holder consisting of a U-shaped yoke 
pivotally connected with the end of the carbon rod, in combination with two 
jaws pivoted respectively to the arms of the yoke. (See illustration.) 

2,745. INSULATING COMPOSITION; J. L. Truslow. Summit, N.J. Appli- 
cation filed July 27. 1893. A composite mass for insulating purposes, consist- 
ing of ground cork and infusorial earth, and a binder of rosin. 

2,757. I)I-;VICK FOR PREVENTING RAILROAD COLLISIONS ; C. Holtmann 
and N. Schmidt. Pittsburg. Pa. Application filed November 14, 1893. This 
comprises a track battery for each "'block'* and an instrument in connection 
with the air brake v.-hich will set the brakes when any two trains enter 
the same block at the same time. 

2,7'X). ELECTRIC ARC LAMP; E. F. Gwynn. Delaware, Ohio. Application 
filed April 2S. 1893. This comprises a carbon rod. gearing for feeding the 
same mounted on a movable lever controlled by a magnet in the main circuit. 
and a friction clutch arranged in the gearing, and a stationary device adapted 
by the movement of the lever to operate the friction clutch and thus disen- 
gage the carbon rod from the gearing to permit the carbon rod to feed inde- 
pendent of the gearing. 

2,820. MEANS FOR REGULATING ALTERNATING CURRENT MOTORS: 
E. M. IJentley, Boston. Mass. Application filed Apil 17. 1893. The method 
ol changing the relative phase periods of primary and secondary alternating 
currents which consists of passing such primary current through the pri- 
mary of a transformer and shifting the points of connection of the secondary 
and the line relatively to the polarity of the primary. (See illustration.) 

2.834. ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE; E. Hopkinson, Manchester, England. 
Application filed July 21. 1891. The combination with the driving axle of 
the motor having its armature built upon an axle, and its magnets and polar 
pieces suspended beneath the axle from journals thereon. 

2.835. ELECTRIC CRANE; E. Hopkinson, Manchester, England. Application 
filed July 21, 1888. The combination with the motor shaft serving as an axle, 
traveling wheels and lifting barrel, of clutches by which the axle can be 
connected to or disconnected from the traveling wheels and be connected 
to or disconnected from the lifting barrel. 

2,83f). GALVANIC BATTERY; L. F.Johnson, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. Appli- 
cation filed April 7, 1894. An electrolyte composed of sulphuric acid, water 




No. 522,735— Klectric Arc Lamp. 



having chromate of calcium dissolved therein, and nitric acid, the said com- 
ponents being unmixed and arranged in the cell in the order named. 

522,837. CURRENT SEPARATOR; L. F. Johnson. Poughkeepsie, N. Y. Appli- 
cation filed April 7, 1894. This comprises connections for the main circuit, 
a common connection for one side of the local circuit to one side of the main 
circuit, independent connections for the other side of the local circuits, and 
means for interposing resistance between the connections for the main cir- 
cuit and at the same time connecting in one or more of the local circuits, 
whereby the local current receives the shunt from said resistance. 

522,841. ELECTRIC BELT: W. E. J. Lawlor, Portland, Ore. Application filed 
September 14, 1893. Thi-* comprises a copper plate bent into a link and pro- 
vided with a slot and tongue, a slide fitted to the plate, a perforated zinc 
plate and a porous septum. 

522.844. TOLLEV EAR; C. A. Lieb, New York, N. Y. Application filed .\pril 
12, IS'M. A trolley ear having a sheet metal portion with an upwardly 
extending fin or fold and a cast metal bolt portion secured to the fin or fold. 

522.845. TROLLh:Y WHEEL: C. A. Lieb. New York, N. Y. .Application filed 
April 12. 1894. A trolley wheel having a central core of copper or bronze and 
provided with steel flanges having stiffened edges. 



2,851. MOTOR SAFETY DEVICE; A. W. K. Peirce, Plymouth, Mass. Appli- 
cation filed October 29, 1892. The combination of a dynamo with a shunt 
atound its field circuit comprising a non-inductive resistance, a switch con- 
trolling the main circuit of the machine, and an auxiliary switch in the 
shunt circuit controlled by the main switch. 

2,859. INSULATED ARMATURE COIL; J. H. Shugg. Boston, Mass. Appli- 
cation filed April 21. 1894. An electric coil the conductors of which are bound 
together and insulated by two layers o! tape between which is interposed an 
oiled fabric. 

2.865. CURRENT INTERRUPTER FOR HIGH POTENTIAL CIRCUITS; E. 
Thomson, Swampscott, Mass. Application filed February 6. 1893. The com- 
bination with two separable terminals of a spring actuated drum connected 
with one of said terminals and an electromagnet adapted to disconnect said 
terminals. 

2.892. TELAUTOGRAPH: E. Gray, Highland Park. III. Application filed 
March 8. 1893. The method of transmitting and recording a character by 
the movements of a transmitting pen and a receiving pen by transmuting 
the movements of a transmitting pen into electric pulsations, sending to line 




No. 522,820— Means for Regulating Alternating Current 
Motors. 

in the reversing circuit a current of changed strength upon reversal of the 
transmitting pen in one or two crosswise directions of motion, and a cur- 
rent of changed polarity upon reversal in the other of the two crosswise 
directions of motion of the transmitting pen, thereby reversing the move- 
ment of the receiving pen in said two directions respectively. 

522.893. TELAUTOGRAPH; E. Gray. Highland Park. 111. Application filed 
February 27, 1894. The combination in a telautograph of a power mechan- 
ism, a torsional spring, and means for maintaining constant the tension of 
the spring, a reversing mechanism and a receiving pen. 

522.894. CLOSED CONDUIT FOR ELECTRIC RAILWAYS; C. I. Greer. Wash- 
ington. D. C. Application filed .\pril 16, 1894. This comprises a slot cover, 
composed of a series of plates of rigid material having central-depending 
webs, which are pivotally linked together. 

522,8%. HANGER FOR ELECTRIC LAMPS; H. C. Henley, St. Louis. Mo. 
Application filed July 27, 1893. This comprises an externalh-Jthreaded pipe. 
an internally threaded shell having a chamber into which the pipe dis- 
charges moisture, and an ann\ilar insulator fitting upon the pipe and within 
the shell out of reach of the moisture discharged from the pipe. 

522.915. TROLLEY POLE; A. S. McBean, Montreal, Canada. Application filed 
April 10. 1894. A trolley wheel support composed of a metal section rigidly 
secured to the trolley pole, an adjusting platform and a frame piece, the 
latter carrying the trolley wheel or runner, with a swiveling connection be- 
tween the adjusting platform and the frame piece. 

522,919. ELECTRIC CKiAR LIGHTER: C. F. ReifF and H. Munk. Fremont, O. 
Application filed January 25. 1894. This comprises a wick tube, a contact 
point carried thereby, an over-balance tube hinged to the wick tube, a 
plug in the »ipper end thereof, an arm secured thereto and carrying a spring 
contact, and electric conductors connected with the tube and arm. 

522,925. OPERATOR'S TELEPHONE CIRCUIT; T. C. Wales. Jr. Application 
filed December 2, 1893. This comprises a transmitting telephone in the local 
circuit, an induction coi! having a single primaiy winding, included in the 
local circuit, and two secondary windings in circuit serially with the main 
line conductors, together with a branch extending from a point between 
them to earth, and a receiving telephone in a branch of the local circuit, 
shunting the primary windings. 

522.934. ELECTRIC CIGAR LIGHTER; J. J. Eberhard and C. G. Schimkatt. 
Fremont. O. Application filed Sept. 25, 1893. This comprises a cross bar, 
depending hangers, a lamp pivoted to the lower end thereof, carrj-iug a con- 
tact device adapted in the swinging of the lamp to engage with a contact 
device on the supporting framework of the lighter. 

522.948. ELF:CTRICAL MEASURING INSTRUMENT; K. Wcstou, Newark, 
N. J. Application filed October 3, 1892. This comprises a vibrating lever, 
a coil supported on one arm thereof, a fixed coil in inductive proximity to 
the movable coil, a means of equilibrating the movable coil and a spring 
opposing the vibration of the lever. 

522.949. WATT METER; E. Weston. Newark, N. J. Application filed April 
26. 1893. The combination of a fixed coil, a movable coil in the field of the 
fixed coil, a spiral spring opposing the movement of the movable coil. 
fixed resistance, a pole hanger and circuit connections. 

522.950. ELECTRICAL MEASURING INSTRUMENT: E. Weston, Newark, N. 
J. Application filed February 21, IS'M. The combination with a wall or 
support, of an electrical measuring instrument movable about a pivot on 
the support, and means for adjusting the instrviment so that its face may be 
disposed at various angles to the support. 



The Electrical World. 



Vol. XXIV. 



NEW YORK, JULY 28, 1894. 



No. 4. 



PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY BY 

The W. J. JOHNSTON COHPANY, Limited, 

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Eslabli.shed 20 vears ag^o, THE ELECTRICAL WORLD is the Pioi 
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Larirest Circulation of any electrical periodical in the world, and is the 
.Advertising Medium. 

In the growth of the paper in circulation, size and general improvem 
the value of its columns for reaching those engaged in electrical pur 
not failed to be appreciated by adv 
steady onward march in this departn 

18.S0 contained 35 different adv'ts 



The 



1S81 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1885 



45 



following table 
3f business. The first issue of 
1887 contained 154 different adv' 



1889 
1890 
1891 



175 
234 



1893 " 317 

The first issue of 1894 contained 320 different Advertisements. 
No announcements of the Publisher are included in this list. 

"WANT" AND "FOR SALE" ADVERTISEMENTS 

e a special feature of THE ELECTRICAL WORLD. Position Wanted 
nail advertisements cost but $1 an insertion; Help Wanted and For Sale 
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nber 



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Address and make drafts, orders, etc., payable to 

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Vol. XXIV. 



NEW YORK, JULY 28, 1894. 



CONTBNTS. 



.uflel. 



Wieii 



Editorial 

The Measurement of Polyphased Currents, by A. 

Hlectricity on the Sound Steamer Priscilla 

Polyphase Transformations, by G. M. Warner . . . 

Invention by the Telegraph 

.\mateur Motor Building— II., by G. E. Dunton . . 
Practical Notes on Djnanio Calculation — XL, by 

Deato of Kdmond Julien 

Digest of Current Technical Electrical Literature, Compiled by Call 

Hering 

The Scenograph 

Some Interesting Patents 

The Lewis Train Electric Lighting .System 

Single Post Elevated Railway 

Direct Connected Multipolar Generators 

Improved .\rc Lamp 

.\ New Cotiimutator Lubricating Compound 

New Telephone Switchboard 

Motor-Driven Radial Drill 

The Buffalo Grip 

A New Dry Battery 

DEPARTMENTS: 

Financial Intelligence 

Special Correspondence . . . 

News of the Week 

Trade and Industrial Notes 

Business Notes 

Illustrated Record of Electrical Patents 



NE-W ELECTRICAL INVENTIONS. 

Whether by a mere coincidence or as indicating a revival of the 
inventive faculty in the higher ranks of electricians, our patent 
record this week contains an unusual number of patents coupled 
with well-known names, most of which recall the first years 
of electrical development. Among these names we find Thomson, 
HoiLston, Jenney, .Scribner, R. M. Hunter, E. H. Johnson, J. F. 
Kelley, Cuttriss, Silvey, Haskins, Kester, A. Langstaff Johnston, 
Doane and several others well known in electrical circles. We give an 
extended account in our columns of several of the inventions, and 
others of interest that might have been added are omitted from lack 
of space. One of the most interesting of the various devices is the 
thermostat of Mr. Chas. Cuttri.ss, which seems to be the first time 
the rcniarkal)ly simple principle upon which it is based has been 
applied to this purpose. 



DEATH BY ELECTRICITY. 

In this issue the Digest gives an account of some experiments 
on the effect of alternating electric currents on animal organisms, 
described in a paper read before a recent medical congress at Rome, 
Italy, and which corroborate the views of D' Arson val, referred to 
recently in these columns. The current used was an alternating 
one, and it was found that animals subjected to from 1,500 to 2,000 
volts were not eas'ily killed, and that death resulted mostly from 
asphy.xia cau.sed by the sudden stoppage of respiration. Frequently 
breathing started again spontaneously and the animal recovered 
completely. In no case was there any physiological change noted, 
though in a few there were mechanical lesions, in themselves 
cause for death. This further confirmation of D'.^rsonval's 
formula, " .\ man shocked by electricity should be treated as if 
dro%vned, " renders it still more important that the electrician 
should make himself acquainted with the proper means of resuscita- 
tion from the effects of electric shock. 



STORAGE BATTERIES FOR ELECTRIC POWER STATIONS. 

We recently commented upon the use of storage batteries in the 
power station of a street railway at Zurich, Switzerland, and the 
Digest this week gives some further particulars in regard to the 
same plant. The saving in this case, if we can accept the figures 
given as strictly correct, is very marked, being no less than 2.2 lbs. 
of coal per h. p. hour, which amounts to more than a ton a day, or 
sufficient to pay for the storage battery plant in four years. As the 
adoption of the battery system, however, actually reduced the first 
ccst of the plant on account'of replacing more expensive machinery, 
the saving is a direct one, and in a comparison should be credited 
with the interest charges on the reduction in first cost and with 
the maintenance charges of the machinery displaced. It will be 
noted that the voltage of the discharge side is kept constant by 
automatically cutting in and out regulating cells, which are ap- 
parently charged from a separate dynamo. This does not seem to 
be actually necessary, though the economy of operation in keeping 
the line voltage constant is somewhat increased thereby. The 
results achieved with this plant are very encouraging, and strongly 
confirm the conclusions stated in the excellent paper on storage bat- 
teries for power stations read at last year's annual convention of the 
American .Street Railway .Association by Mr. C. O. Mailloux. \\'e 
trust that it will, not take so long for the matter to be taken up on 
this side of the Atlantic as did the use of storage batteries in central 
station work. 

ELECTRICAL DUPES. 

Barnuru's saying that "Americans love to be humbugged" cer- 
tainly seems to apply in electrical matters, though in this respect 
the distinction made in regard to nationality is questionable, for 



72 



THE ELECXRICAI^ WORLD. 



Vol. XXIV. No. 4. 



Europeans appear to bite as eagerly at an electrical hail as Ameri- 
cans. We must confess to having little sympathy with most of these 
victims, for as a rule they seem to have become the prey of their 
own vanity — thinking that their crude habits of thought are suf- 
ficient to form a judgment of greater weight than that of .scientific 
authorities. One of the most barefaced electrical swindles in exist- 
ence has been reaping a harvest from this class for seven or eight 
years, and although it has been so repeatedly exposed that few or 
any of those who invest in its promises can be ignorant of the man- 
ner in which it is regarded by all electricians, yet the returns seem 
to be as flourishing to-day as at the beginning. The sy.stem to 
which we refer claims among other things that by means of its 
apparatus 20 horse power can be put into a boat and "100 hor.se 
power — yes, 209 horse power" delivered to the propeller shaft. It 
is interesting to note the arguments used, which have been remark- 
ably successful in their results. There seem to be onl}' two of 
these, one to dispose of critics and the other to cover up the im- 
probability of the claims. The former one is that the system would so 
entirely annihilate all of the established electrical companies that 
these have entered into a conspiracy among themselves and with 
the electrical press to depreciate the invention and persecute the 
inventor, which accounts for the ridicule of the former and the 
defamation of the latter. In an.swer to critici-sms as to the improba- 
bility of the invention, it is pointed out that all great inventions 
have been similarly regarded; that the incandescent lamp, the tele- 
phone and everything that was new to the theoretical fellows were 
called impossibilities, but nevertheless netted great fortunes to the 
shrewd investors who were not imposed upon by book twaddle. It 
is a curious commentary upon the weakness of human nature that 
these arguments, in the face of the fact that the apparatus has been 
before the public for years without demonstrating its claims, should 
have the potency thej' have, and apparently always will have. The 
dupes who are imposed upon by such specious means are to be 
classed in the same category with of the hayseed customer of 
the "green goods" man, and, from electrical people at least, are 
likely to receive as little synipath)-. 



CONSULTING VS. CONTRACTING ENGINEERS. 

Our esteemed London contemporary, TItc Electrical Rcideiv, has 
again returned to the subject of contracting engineers acting as 
professional consultants, against which practice it is emphatically 
opposed, and good reasons are offered for the ground which it 
takes. The contractor, it is stated, must, by the very nature of his 
business, be necessarily biased in his judgment, and with a human 
tendency to recommend what will best further his firm's present or 
future interest. For the purchaser to get the most perfect plant and 
that most suitable to the conditions under which it will have to 
work, the employment always of a competent professional mechani- 
cal and electrical engineer — one with unbiased, independent and 
wide views and in no way connected with any manufacturer or con- 
tractor — is urged, thereby enabling full advantage to be taken of 
the wide field of electrical science and its continuous development. 
That this should be the course of the purchaser seems obvious, but 
in this country it is nevertheless seldom the one adopted. Until 
quite recently the engineers of electrical selling companies were al.so 
the engineers of the purchaser, and one result has been tliat, owing 
to competition and therefore the necessity of cutting down a bid to 
the last penny, the plants tlnus designed have as a rule been far 
from what they would have been if laid out by disinterested engi- 
neers inclined to take other matters into consideration than the 
lowest possit)le first cost. It is very much to the credit of the vari- 
ous manufacturing companies that the result of tlii.s system has not 
been much worse than it has proved, for the tendency would seem 
to be almost irresistible to sacrifice ever\ thing to bring the figures 
of a bid to the lowest po.ssible notch. It has often been remarked 
that in the United .States electrical plants are far inferior to Euro- 
pean ones in engineering design and efficiency, and it is natural 
that this should follow from the system above referred to. Although, 
of course, the cost of such jjlants has been much less relatively than 
in Europe, yet the lack of other important elements in most caSfes 



has overbalanced this, for in laying out and installing machinery, 
low first cost is usually a bad criterion to follow exclusively. 
Another disadvantage is that such a system discourages develop- 
ment, for it leads to the adoption of so-called standards in order to 
cheapen manufacture, with the consequence that frequently new 
principles cannot be adopted at once without an expense that would 
often not offer an equivalent advantage in the judgment of a pur- 
chaser lacking disinterested professional advice. This is probably 
the reason why in central .station machinery we were some years 
behind European practice, and why the adoption of improvements 
like direct-connected machinery and others has been by jumps 
rather than by a gradual process of amelioration. While, therefore, 
it seems to be the part of wisdom for a purchaser to employ an 
engineer as a professional adviser, it does not follow that the latter 
.should be deaf to suggestions from the engineers of contractors, 
who, in this country at least, are often the most competent men in 
the profession, and with exceptional opportunities to keep thor- 
oughly posted in all details. The role of the former should rather be 
confined to that of referee, and though it might sometimes be advis- 
able for him to draw up a skeleton plan, most of the details could 
with advantage be left open until the suggestions of contractors had 
been carefully weighed. This, we believe, is the course usually^ 
followed in preparing the specifications for electrical machinery, but 
the opposite rule appears to obtain in contracting for the wiring of 
large office buildings, though this is the case where most advantage 
might be gained from meeting the contractor half way. To draw 
up satisfactory wiring specifications for a large building from archi- 
tects' plans is not a simple matter to one not actually engagc<l in 
installing such work, and in almost every case better results would 
probably be obtained by asking for bids on contractors' own plans, 
based on general requirements as to drop, materials and workman- 
ship. Owing to compe.ition, it would be to the interest of the latter 
to be guided by economical considerations throughout, and the 
saving in this respect would perhaps justify the offer of prizes, as in 
architects' competitions, to defra}' the cost of preparation of the 
specifications not accepted but nevertheless found to be meritorious. 



The Measurement of Polyphased Currents. 

To the Editor of The Electrical H 'orld : 
Sir: — ^In a recent article, published in your journal in the issue 

of June 23, on "The Measurement of Polyphased Currents," by 
A. D. Lunt, I see my name cited (p. 832) in relation to a certain 
formula. From the way in which Mr. Lunt pre-sents the matter, it 
might be supposed by the readers that he is the author of the more 
general formula, 

P= 1 -=, /' / (:■ - v„ ) dt, (p. 805) 

■' ■ o 
applicable to all known sj'stems of polpyhased currents, for he fol- 
lows it with this remark (p. 832): "Hitherto the above results have 
been reached, either in a less natural way, or on an assumption 
based upon the form of the circuit in which the energy is utilized. " 
Mr. Lunt also seems to present as his own the method of multiple 
wattmeters (mechanical combination of wattmeters). 

In reality, this method, the above general formula, and all the 
deductions have, on the contrary, been brought out in my paper in 
/.a Lniiiii'rc Eleclriqiic, January 21, 1893, page 139 (Sur la Mesure 
des Courants l'olyphasi5s), from which Mr. Lunt claims to have 
borrowed only one formula of small interest. My article even ends 
with words which are almo.st identical with tho.se of Mr. Lunt: 
"The foregoing denumstration is more general than those given 
heretofore; it does not make any assumption on the form of the 
circuit of utilization. " I beg you to kindly call the attention of 
the readers of your esteemed journal to this fact, in order to avoid 
a misundcr-standing. 

This entire question is, besides, so extraordinarily simple that it 
is difficult to understand the protracted search that has been made 
for com|)licateil formulas and demonstrations. I would not have 
thought of writing this letter, referring to a matter of so little 
importance, if Mr. J. D. E. Duncan, after a complicated and less 
general deuiou.stration, had not recently formulated this -suqjrising 
opinion: ".\n analytical proof for a perfect general ca.se is too com- 
plicateil to be followed easily" ( E. W., June 9, 1894, p. 763); but it 
seemed to me that this statement should not remain unanswered. 

.\. BI.OXDEL. 

Ecole Nationale des I'onts et Chau'^sfes, Paris, I'rance. 



July 28, 1894. 



THE ELECTRICAL W^ORLD. 



73 



Electricity on the Sound Steamer Priscilla. 



Of all the imposing sights which the traveler over the great 
liriilge suspended in midair between New York and Brooklyn can 
behold, none is more singularly striking than the procession of 
steamers which passes beneath that airy arch a few minutes after 
half-past five each evening, carrying hundreds of busy people from 
New York and her sister cities to different points on the eastern 
coast, thence to be disseminated into the bustling New England 
States. The deep boom of a steam whistle sounds upon the air 
from a source hidden b)' the massive buildings of the southern end 
of the city, and in a few short seconds the huge nose of a huger 
steamer is pushed into the field of vision as it rounds the point of 



apertures of the smoke stacks, and much fluttering bunting, which 
passes rapidly, and strikes out into relief as tier upon tier of her 
galleried and decorated stern, set in a foaming, eddying mass of 
seething water, rise and move forward from beneath the suspended 
roadway. The smaller craft on each side of her rock madly in the 
waves which the huge mass propelled through the water creates, 
but she recks little of them as she passes grandly on, a marine 
object of singular beauty, more stately than any other floating 
thing on sea or ocean, until she disappears from sight behind the 
extreme easterly point of the island. 

Such is the Priscilla as she moves at the head of the evening 
procession. She is the grandest and largest of her class, and her 
appearance is the signal for a cessation of pedestrian travel on the 






I J ' i I 




1 t 







^I'^'Pnnn.ni 




'I l\lti' 



Grand Staircase from Main Saloon. 



the Battery, and a broadside view is momentarily had of an immense 
leviathan, whose storied sides glisten white in the western sunlight 
against the sombre green of Governor's Island and the purple 
uplands of Staten Island as a background, as it moves across and 
slowly turns in a wide sweep into the East River. Another whistle, 
and the coughing tugs and lumbering ferry craft of antique and 
uncouth pattern take to flight. 

The tall structure advances, throwing from her sharp bow two 
curling narrow white ribbons of water which pass down either side 
and are swallowed up in the heavy foam, churned up by the feath- 
ering paddles of the side wheels and passing in converging lines 
into the distance. 

Her advance is now swift, although she is traveling at modulated 
speed, and the spectator on the bridge soon distinguishes the indi- 
viduals in the crowded mass of living freight upon her decks, out- 
side, like himself, to witness and enjoy the pas.sing show. Still 
nearer, and as he looks down, he sees beneath him through the 
bewildering network of the bridge structure a long, gray ellipse, 
whose even surface is broken only by the two black cavernous 



bridge. Man, woman and child stop to watch her progress between 
the great gateway of gray masonry and iron which spans the open- 
ing to the Sound. 

The Priscilla is the latest addition to the Fall River Line fleet, 
and embodies within herself all the latest improvements, archi- 
tectural, mechanical and electrical, and exemplifies the high pitch 
to which the ship building art has been brought in this country. 
Following the lines of structure of purely .American design, she 
differs radically in appearance from any steam or sailing craft to be 
found in foreign waters, and while she affords a pleasing spectacle 
to American eyes, she is something more than a surprise to those 
from other lands who have just come hither. Seen from the deck 
of a ferry boat, she looms up like a many-storied hotel, and her huge 
yet graceful proportions dwarf mto insignificance everything near 
her afloat: 

Her dimensions are as follows: Length over all, 440 feet 6 inches; 
length on water line, 423 feet 6 inches; breadth over gu;irds, 93 
feet; breadth of hull, 52 feet 6 inches; depth of hull, 20 feet 6 
inches; tonnage, 5,398. 



74 



THE ELECTRIC A I. WORLD. 



Vol. XXIV. Ifo. 4. 



She is made just narrow enough to admit her to the widest dry 
dock in New York. Mild steel enters into the construction of this 
boat in every part. Her double liuU is of steel, and in framework 
and structure it plays the leading role. In the saloons and cabins, 
hidden by the architectural and artistic effects, steel trusses spring 
from the decks at the bases of the walls on either side, and develop 
into arches upon which the different superstructures rest. Braces 
and knees of steel are placed everywhere where they can add to the 
strength and resistance, and all this metallic skeleton work renders 
the Priscilla one of the staunchest of marine edifices. 

As the passenger crosses the gang plank laid from the wharf, 




A Panel in thk Dining Room Ceiling. 

which is no exception to all the wharves which disgrace the mag- 
nificent water front of the metropolis, he steps upon the quarter- 
deck, which i.s the entrance hall to this most sumptuous of peri- 
patetic hotels. This is of generous proportions and .stretches aft of 
the engine room from side to side of the vessel. The floor is laul 
with a purple gray Venetian conglomerate with an elaborate border. 
The walls are of a delicate cream color, the salient cur\-es and foli- 
ates being emphasized by judicious gilding. As this is the first 
room entered, it may as well be noted that the entire interior 
decoration of the saloons, with one exception, which will be noted 
hereafter, is in delicate half-tones, creams and pearl grays deepen- 
ing into light browns. 

Kight stanchions or round pillars of steel .spring from the quarter- 



Between the windows are large mirrors, framed in ornamental 
woodwork. The scheme of decoration is sombreness and richness. 
The carpets are dark, the highly decorative woodwork is of mahog- 
any, and the chair and window seat coverings are of dark olive- 
green leather. The scheme of lighting is bold and successful. Over 
each window is a box with stained glass sides, upon which is 
workeil a beautiful design, each of which contains ten 16 c. p. 
lamps. .Similar glass receptacles are placed over the doors and mir- 
rors at each end of the room. The ceiling is finished in beams and 
straps of mahogany, and panelled. Each panel has a medallion in 
the centre, and each alternate panel an electric "pendant. " This 
pendant is an elliptical bowl of opalescent glass, held in a rope net 
of bra.ss and containing two 16-c. p. lamps. There are six rows of 
these from side to side of the cabin. On each .side of the sideboard 
at the after end are two niches, in front of each of which hangs a 
basket pendant of opalescent glass containing an incandescent 
lamp. 

Still further aft, and on each side, are two private dining-rooms, 
each lighted by five elliptical bowls forming quincunx, a large one 
in the centre, and four others, one at each corner in the panel im- 
mediately over the table. Aft of these are the ladies' cabins. 

The lights in the dining-room are controlled from two panel 
switchboards set under one sideboard on each side. These panel 
boards will be described when we speak of the electrical equipment. 
Altogether there are 305 lights in this room. 

Returning and pas,sing through the dining-room and quarter- 
deck, the passenger ascends the staircase, with wrought iron and 
mahogany balustrade, into the main saloon, which runs the entire 
length of the vessel. The stairway is lighted b)- three bull's eyes 
in the arch. This saloon is the drawing-room of the vessel. It is 
decorated and furnished in most pleasing style, and yet all the 
ceiling and mural decorations are of nothing more than moulded 
papier-mache, which has been found more durable than wood and 
better capable of lending itself to artistic effect. It is all colored in 
half-tones of creams and light browns, picked out with gilt. The 
carpets and upholstery are of a warm tint, admirably contrasting 
with the delicate colors on the walls. A wide elliptical opening aft 
of the engine room causes the ceiling of the dome to be in part 
that of the saloon. The lighting of the saloon other than from the 
dome is effected bj' three eight-light electroliers set between the 
stanchions, and a series of two-light brackets set all around between 
the state-room doors. The mast passes up through the saloon and 




lli^;ii^ii;[(i-|j 



ClKCUIT.S OK G.\LLEKV DECK. 



deck and support part of the .saluou deck above. Kach stanchion, 
colored deep mahogany red, has a capital of light, which is made 
up of a polished ornamented bra.ss tub]), the petals of which are of 
opalescent glass, in the interior of which, like the stamens of the 
flower, are twelve incandescent lamps. Around the hall is a dado 
and above this is a succession of twelve panels, of which two are 
curved, all especially designed lor the Priscilla. They are suppose<l 
to be emblematic of the differents arts and .sciences which contri- 
buted to the construction and purposes of the boat. Commerce, 
Machinerv, Architecture, Electricity, Music, Dancing, etc., etc., 
and, as befits the case, one is devoted to rH.scilla herself turning 
her spinning wheel in her cottage of Coloni.al days. The frieze is 
highly ornate and runs entirely ;ironnd the hall. On each side of 
the hall is a room, one the ]nirscr's ofTice and the other the bar- 
ber's shop, lighted by a four-light cliamliiier .nid four two-light 
clu.sters. 

Between the quarter-deck ami the dining rtoui, which is al.so on 
the main deck, is a vestibule, to which entrance is gained through 
swinging glass doors. From this the passenger passes into the din- 
ini;-room. This is a spacious and lofty room running aft, provided 
with Inoad windows opening out upon the water u])on each side. 



carries a highly ornaniental fixture at the height of the gallery 
deck. In this fixture, from a central band, branches bend down 
and out and carry at tluir terminals frosted inci.ndescent lamps set 
in opalescent globes. In the forward saloon the mast has no fix- 
ture. 

.\t the forward end of the main .saloon is the grand staircase 
leading to the gallery deck. The bulkhead at the head of this is 
the chief ornamental feature of the whole boat. It is an imita'ion 
1)1 Siaxdc of an old-time liicmhiir, with tw^isted columns on either 
.side of a large central mirror, a floral device lying within the con- 
volutes. Over the mirror is a gilded clock, .set in a semicircular 
mosaic, in which the only example of bad t.aste on the whole boat 
is to be found. This mosaic is a mixture of blues, reds and greens 
in glaring tonality, which jars on the nerves and (juarrels with all 
the other delicate half-tones which prevail. A four-light bracket 
with upright lights is set on each .side of this mirror. The pas.sages 
are lighled by means of pretty sprays, each carrying three lights, 
and the toilet rooms are indicated by red globes with the usual 
legend. .Staterooms lighted by one-light brackets <ipen out on either 
side of the s;iloon and gallery. 

The scheme of lighting of the dome is both beautiful, intricate 



I 



JfLV 28, 1894. 



THB ELECTRICAL WORLO. 



75 



ami effective. The principal feature is the central fixture, which 
takes the fonn of an inverted dome of brass work of complex 
pattern, in which are framed panels of opalescent glass. This is 
dependant from the ceiling half-way between the bulkhead of the 
gallery staircase and the mast. Within this inverted dome are 48 
lights. It is set in the ceiling in a quadrangular medallion, at each 



The lighting of the gallery saloon is carried out on a similar plan 
to that of the main saloon. It of course benefits from the lighting 
of the fixtures just mentioned. In addition it has one twelve-light 
electrolier in the forward saloon, and a row of twelve incandescent 
lamps around the mast. Forward of the gallery saloon are the 
cabins of the president, captain and the principal officers, lighted 




i>YNA/mo ANp> ENQi'NC 



'/ ' O 6 ^<: 6 o / '. 



Direct Connected D^'namo.s, M.\in anh Panel Switcuboakd.s. 



corner of which is a much smaller inverted op<ilescent dome. 
Further aft is another large inverted dome of somewhat smaller 
proportions, attended by two lesser .satellites, one forward and one 
aft of it, and still further aft another single inverted dome. Start- 
ing at the bulkhead is an inverted ridge of frosted lights in the 
ceiling, the sockets being set in metal tulips. This breaks into a 
quadrangular bower around the large central fixture, a circle around 
the mast, a narrow quadrangle around the second dome fixture, and 
a circle around the third. In the forward saloon two eight-light 
electroliers are the main features. 



by electroliers and brackets. Upon the dome <leck are constructed 
the cabins of the lesser dignitaries and the pilot house. 

The lighting of the decks and all the other p.irts of the vessel in 
which the public is not supposed to penetrate, such as the crew 
and waiters' quarters, kitchens, boiler rooms, etc. — in other words, 
the working quarters — is effected !)}■ means of lanterns, some hung 
as pendants, others arranged horizontally again.st the ceilings, 
all protected by cages and wherever moisture can reach them with 
watertight globes and sockets. Those on the decks which could be 
confused with the ship's signal lights are obscured in front by 



7f> 



THE EI^ECXRICAU WOHIvn. 



Vol. XXIV. No. 4. 



curved pieces of sheet iron, which effectually prevent the light from 
streaming forward. In a<ldition to the lights just nientioned. there 
are the side lijil'ts, masthead, bow and .stern lights. 

The distribution of the lighting is as follows; Dome deck, 9 cir- 
cuits, 55 lights; gallery deck, 68 circuits, 5% lights; saloon deck, 
44 circuits, 360 lights; main deck, 78 circuits, 748 lights; lower 
deck, 12 circuits, 92 lights; hold, 18 circuits, 136 lights; total, 229 
circuits, 1,987 lights. 

I'roui these figures some idea may be gained of the intricate con- 
struction work which liad to be effected. 

Turning now to the mechanical equipment of the Priscilla, the 
engine room is its most important feature. This is a spacious room, 
rising clear into the dome, and from its floor the engineer looks 
down upon the two pairs of long .steel piston rods, and two pairs of 
similar rods running from the knuckle joints to the huge cranks. 
The engine is double inclined compound, with two Sl-inch high- 
pressure cylinders forward, and two 95-inch low-pressure cylinders 
aft of the crank shaft. The piston stroke is 11 feet. These were 
built by the W. and A. Fletcher Co., of Iloboken, the contractors for 
the vessel complete. This room is lighted by four five-light elec- 
troliers and numerous bulkhead fixtures, 129 lights in all. 

Iron stairways lead down to the level of the cylinders, and in this 
part of the engine room the temperature becomes torrid, and the 
serviceable little Lundell fan motor is called into requisition. The 
condensers occupy each side of the room, as do two circulating 
pumps; the bilge pump is placed on the port side. 

The ten boilers in the hold are Scotch return tubular, each having 
three corrugated furnaces, giving a total grate surface of 850 square 
feet. The boilers are 14 'i feet long and 14 feet in diameter, are 
constructed for a working pressure of 150 pounds per square inch, 
and have an indicated horse power of 8,500. They are arranged for 
natural or forced draught. 

The electrical equipment of the Priscilla is a masterpiece of elec- 
trical engineering skill. It forms the most extensive isolated marine 
electric light plant ever in.stalled, and consists primarily of three 
direct driven units located forward of the boiler room in a space in 
which it would be difficult to swing the traditional feline. Stand- 
ing with his back to the switchboard, the spectator sees three 
engines arranged radially with the cylinders almost touching him, 
one directly in front and one on either side. These are 11x12 Har- 
risburg Ideal engines, with outboard bearings, from the Harrisburg 
Machine Works, a type which has become very widely known in 
connection with direct connected work. The automatic self-oiling 
arrangement is entirely enclosed, and the motion of the piston is so 
smooth as hardly to occasion a tremor. The engines are both con- 
den.sing and non-conden.sing, and are bolted to yellow pine frames 
fastened to the inner hull. 

Upon the bed plate of each engine is arranged a SO kw. six pole 
275 revolution General Electric multipolar generator having a 
capacity of 400 amperes at 125 volts. These are of a type also 
widely known as highly efficient machines. They have ironclad 
armatures, that is, the copper bar armature windings are embedded 
in the armature body, and the movement of the brushes is simul- 
taneousl}' effected by means of a hand wheel. Rising from each 
dynamo are spiralled cables, which pass along the ceiling to the 
switchboard. This is of marble, framed in mahogany. At the base 
of the board are the three hand wheels which operate the contact 
arms passing over the clips of the field regulators standing on the 
floor behind it. Above these are the three dynamo switches, flanked 
by the two voltmeter switches, and over these are the five main 
switches. A Weston illuminated dial voltmeter stands on each .side 
of the board, and three 450-ampere ammeters are arranged in a line 
along the upper portion. The vessel is wired throughout on the 
two- wire sy.stem. 

On each side and back of tlie switchboard is a 10 h. p. Sturtevant 
blower, each directly driven by its own vertical engine. The 
dynamo room is lighted by four three-light electroliers and .several 
lamps fixed in the ceiling. 

From the switchboard run five feeders to the main deck. At four 
points of the vessel risers mount to the upper decks. These are 
connected to the circulating mains, one of which is on each deck, 
by means of four centre of distribution safety fuse holders to each 
circulating main. At six points in each circulating main, whence the 
smaller wires branch off to the state-rooms, saloons and dining-rooms, 
are set marble panel cutout boards. These panel boards 
are of special design, and each has its own peculiar form to fit into 
the position where it could most conveniently be placed. They are 
fitted with knife bhule switches, which bring the current to two 
pair of strips of flat copper, between which are .set fuse carriers of 
porcelain. Connection is made behind the board with a snapswitch 
for almost every circuit. These Hutchinson-Herrick panel boards are 



handsome and ingenious devices, doing away with a cumbersome 
system of cutouts. The fuse carrier is a porcelain box, from each 
.side of which jjrojects a small flat coi)])er bar, tlie inside ends of 
which have set .screws for holding the fuse. The lid is held in 
place by a pin, and when the carrier is charged it is simply pressed 
into the clips fastened to the upright strips which run the length of 
the board. There are 25 of these panel boards. Those on the 
saloon and gallery decks are set in the transoms of the doors of the 
pa.ssages, those in the dining-room under two of the sideboards, 
that in the engine room facing the engines, and the others in places 
where it is most convenient. The two largest are that in the engine 
room with 24 circuits, and that on the gallery deck controlling the 
lighting of the dome, which has also 24 circuits. 

All the wiring appliances u.sed are those which have been devised 
by the General Electric Company to meet Government requirements. 
All the junction boxes, switches, cutout bo.xes used in the deck and 
exposed wiring are absolutely watertight, and are all finished like 
the lanterns, in black. In all parts of the vessel where the wiring 
might be exposed to moisture, the wire is lead covered, and all the 




PL.\N' of I''EE1)ER.S .\nd M.\ins. 

wire larger than No. 6 B. & S. is stranded. Forty-five miles of 
wire in all is used in the vessel, and in accordance with .American 
marine practice wires are used for the return. The wire used is a 
special white core luarine wire manutactured by the General Electric 
Company and conlomiing to Government specifications. The lights 
are so divided that ten in each circuit is the limit. A series of chaits 
showing the location of each circuit, each light and each appliance, 
is hung in the engine room, so that the electrician's liability to 
error may be almost entirely prevented. 

The entire electricil equipment was furnished and in.stalled l)y 
the General Electric Company, while every one of the lighting 
fixtures, from the most artistic to the mo.st simple, was designed 
and made by the General Fixture Company, of New York. 

lixception should be nuide of the 364 electric call bells, 610 auto- 
matic fire alanns, and the watchmen's clocks, which were put in bv 
the American Fire Alarm Company, of Hoston. 

The Priscilla cost a million and a half, is licensed to carry 1,500 
passengers and 35 car loads of freight. She makes the trip between 
New York and Fall River in ten hours, and burns 50 tons of coal 
a night. She has a crew of 206 men, and to effect a complete 
circuit of the vessel one and one-eighth miles would have to be 
covered. She is commanded by Capt. Abram G. Simmons. 



July 28, 1804. 



THE EIvECTRICAIv WORI^O. 



77 



Polyphase Transformations. 



BY G. M. W.\RNER. 

There have been lately several methods of transfonuing tiiulti- 
phase currents into single phase currents advanced, purporting to 
tax equally the several phases of the system, and, perhaps, a few 
figures on the subject may not be amiss. 

Let us investigate a quarter phase system: Assuming our 
E. M. Fs. and currents to vary according to a curve of sines, we 
may represent them by a sin .i' and /> sin ;i' in one phase and 
a sin ( .1- -(- 90 ) and d sin ( .i' + 90 ) in the other, when working on 
non-inductive loads. 

The power of these circuits would be ( a sin r ) ( b sin v ) = a b 
sin- r and (a sin \ x -{-90 \) (b sin | x -|- 90 \ ) = a 6 cos '-'.r, adding 
gives a b ( sin -.f + cos -.i" ) =: a /5 = a constant ; that is, the total 
flow of energy in the sj'stera is a constant. 

If the currents in each phase lag behind their respective E. M. Fs. 
45°, we would have 

b 
( a sin -I" ) ( b sin | .i' + -*S [■ ) ^ ( a sin .r ) — ( sin ,r + cos x 

n/2 
a b a b 

and = sin ''.r -| sin x cos-i* 

x/2 s/2 

( a sin ■; X + 90 ; ) X ( 6 sin [1 .r + 90 ; + 45 ] ) 

= ( « cos X ) ( sin ( .1- 4- 90) + cos ( x + 90) 

v/2 
a b a b 

= ( cos -x sin X cos x, 

v/2 v/2 

a b ah 

adding, we get ( sin -x -\- cos -.i' ) = and still a constant. 

n/2 v/2 

This is true of any nmltiphase system of circuits equal in every 
respect. 

Now we will look at the single phase system with E.M.F. c sin 
^ and current, in same phase, d sin x; the power would be (c 
sin .r ) ( i/ sin .r ) = <:(/ sin -.r,or no longer a constant, but rather 
varies from zero to twice its average twice in one cycle. 

The same is true if the current lags behind its E. M. F. 

From this, it would seem that it would be impossible to transform 
from one system to the other by static transformers, for in the pri- 
mary we would have a constant flow of energy, and in the second- 
ary a variable flow, hence the transformer would have to store up 
energ}' at times. 

."^ny storage of energy b)' magnetic means has as yet been very 
inefficient, and the only recourse has been to a heavy rotating pari. 

Taking up the method of winding the primary with two circuits, 
one in each phase, aud taking off only one secondary, obtaining 
thus a single phase current. 

While I grant that if we are feeding a non-inductive load both 
of the phases will be equally loaded, I do not agree that the effect 
on the generator will be the same. 

In a winding, as above, I believe the currents in the two phases 
are in the same phase — that is, in one circuit the current lags 45° 
behind the E. M. F. , while in the other the current is in advance of 
its E. M. F. by 45°, and in proof we have 



[ a sin i .V + 45 ) ] {b sin x ] 



= I sin 

W2 



1 b sin.r 



and 

[ a sin ( .r — 45 ) 
adding we have 



[ b sin A' ] = 



a b sin '.r 
^2 

a b sin- 
v/2 



A, cos .1' 

v/2 / 

ab 

-\ sin X cos X 

V'2 



— sin .1 cos.r. 



v/ 



a constant times sin -.r or the 



\/ 1 a b sin ' 
same as a single phase circuit. 

It will be noticed that the E. M. Fs. a sin (.r-j- 45), and a sin 
(^—45) are 90° apart in phase, giving the quarter phase distribu- 
tion, and the current b sin x lags 45° behind one, and precedes the 
other by 45°. 

This angular difference being the same in both circuits, the 
power will also be the same; but this should be noticed, one has a 
powerfully "inductive" load, while the other is feeding an equal 
"capacity" load, tending to unbalance the armature reaction in the 
dynamo 

Supposing in addition each phase is loaded with an equal load 
which is inductive, causing a lag of 45°, then in circuit No. 1 we have 



two equal currents, each differing from the E. M. F. by 45° lag, 
while in the other we have two currents, one lagging 45", while the 
other is in advance 45". 

The effect of this would be that in one circuit we would have a 
current equal to 2, while in the other a current equal to v/2, which, 
though equally loading the two phases, would not necessarily equally 
effect the regulation of the dynamo. 

Invention of the Telegraph. 

In a communication under this head, which appeared in The 
Electrical World of July 7, an unfortunate typographical error 
occurred which changed the author's meaning. In the second para- 
graph of the second column, instead of reading "Alfred Vail sought 
in court to obtain the justice which he knew was due him," it 
should have read "Alfred Vail sought no court to obtain the justice 
which he knew was due him." In the first line of the following 
paragraph the word "evening" should be substituted by "morning. " 

Amateur Motor Building II. 



BY G. E. DUNTON. 

The armature and fields of the motor whose mechanical construc- 
tion was described in the previous issue will be wound for a com- 
pound high-speed machine of 55 volts, to be used on an incandes- 
cent circuit, and without a rheostat. This machine may be used for 
either a higher or a lower potential or to run on a battery current 
by merely changing the gauge and number of turns of wire on both 
field and armature. As the potential grows higher more turns of 
finer wire are needed, there being, of course, certain limitations 
which enter as to speed and regulation, .^s the potential decreases 
the volume of current may be safely increased, fewer turns of 
coarser wire being used and the field wound in series with the 
armature, using a wire four times larger than the armature wire. 
The field core must be carefully taped between the sections of lag- 
ging, winding the tape, on up through the inside and around down 
the outside the length of the core. The edge of each layer should 










Fig. 21 Fig. 20 (f^ J- 

Fig. 22 
DETAIL.S OF Arm.\ture Winding. 

overlap the one before it about half its width; this will give really 
two thicknesses of tape, which w'ill be sufficient. Thin Kerite or 
Okonite tape is the best. In winding the field coils, a wooden 
shuttle one foot long, shaped so that it will pass through between 
the pole pieces easily, will be needed. Make this of three strips cut 
from a cigar box, rounding off the ends and sides and making the 
capacity for holding wire as great as possible. (See Fig. 19. ) 

The theory and practice of electrical construction requires so 
much exercise of judgment that it makes it impossible for the 
beginner to attain the result he desires by theoretical methods. In 
designing a motor to run on a circuit in multiple arc without a 
rheostat, it will be found almost impossible for the amateur to figure 
out the exact gauge and amount of wire to use and attain the result 
desired and expected. Taking the model as a guide to follow and 
using the amounts and gauges the same results should be attained. 
The compound wound, so-called "self regulating" motor lias two 
distinct and separate coils wound "upon its fields; one, called the 
series coil, has few turns of coarse or low resistance wire carrying 
the whole current and is in series with the armature; the other, 
called the shunt, consists of many turns of fine wire of high resist- 
ance, and is connected across the circuit in parallel, or in multiple, 
with the armature, carrying a small portion of the whole current. 

Contrary to usual custom, the field will first be wound and 
the .series coils put inside next to the core. About one-half pound 
of No. 22 B. & S. double cotton covered, and one pound of No. 
28 copper wire will be needed; this will allow something 
extra in case of accident. If a compound known to electricians .is 
insulac can be procured, purchase one pint ; if not, get some good 
clear orange shellac and a small, flat, soft brush. Carefully wind 
the No. 22 wire on the shuttle read)- for use. Paint the end of the 
wire for about one inch with asphaltum varnish or some quick black 
drier. Begin from the front or commutator end of the top side of the 



7S 



IHK i:i.KCTR''CAT. WOKIvI). 



Vol.. XXIV. No. 4. 



core to wiiiil, lL:iviiij( about tinlit iiiclii-s of wire which twist U)osi.-ly 
around the loiij; lieariiiji stud on the left side t)f the core; ]):iss the 
sliuttlc ilown through between the jiole jiieces from tlie front to the 
hack, around tlic end and up on the outside, hiving tlie wire down 
close to the top .side of the wide wooden lagging on the left hand 
side of the core. Pas-s the shuttle down between the pole-pieces 
again, laying the second strand snug beside the first one, and con- 
tinue around and around, winding slowly and laying the .strands 
snug and even until the narrow or top lagging is reached; the last 
strand should lay right in sung to this, go around on the inside of 




ThK .^K.MATl K1.. 

the core, and the next time the wire couits around on the outside 
it .should be on the other side of this lag. Continue the winding 
until the wide lag is reached on the other side of the core. Then 
the layer, inside and out, should be given a good coat of the insu- 
lac, and another layer may then be wound on over it, back to the 
starting point and insulaced. The end of the wire may now be cut, 
leaving about eight inches spare and twisted around the stud on 
the pulley end. Do not paint this end, as the first was painted 
simply to make a distinction between the two. In winding on the 
other series coil proceed in just the same waj-, .starting on the 
opposite side of the core, not next to the other side of the same 
wide lag the coil just wound was started beside, but the other lag 
on the opposite side of the core. It should be wound precisely 
like the one just put on, having the same numbers of la\'ers and 
turns of wire. In winding on both the series and shunt coils, the 
shuttle should pass between the pole pieces always from the front 
side. Now wind a layer of tape around and completely cover both 
these coils, proceeding in just the same way as in taping the bare 
core. The remaining wire on the shuttle should be taken off and 
carefully coiled, or better reeled, and put away. 

About four ounces of the No. 28 wire should now be wound on 
the shuttle and the winding of the shunt coils begun in the same 
places and proceeded with in exactly the same manner as with the 
series coils, laying on eight layers carefully and smoothly. It will 
be found rather trying to lay this fine wire on smooth and even 
with a shuttle at first starting, but it will go all right after a little 
has been wound; each layer should be painted with insulac. If 
.shellac has been used the whole coil should be placed in some 
gentle heat and thoroughly dried out before any current is put 
through the wires. 

There will be now four ends of wire on each side of the coil, two 
coming from each end of the core. Untwist all the ends from the 
studs and l>riiig them up into the middle of the coil, so that the 
front and back ends will meet. On the coil finst wound, the ends 
will be found to be on the upper side of the lagging, whereas thev 
should to connect come up on the underside. Take the wood off and 
cut a groove across the inside large enough to allow the four wires 
to lay in; a piece of asbestos paper and tape should then be laid 
over the iron core where these wires will cross it, it being best to 
cut the paper the size of the lag. The wires should never be allowed 
to touch the iron at any spot, and should be taped where they cress 
under the wood, so as not to touch each other. Care is necessary 
in hanijling these ends not to break them off. Bring the four ends 
across under the groove and screw the lag back in ])lace, being 
careful not to jam any of the coil wires or break the insulation in 
any place; the coils can now be placed aside to dry out. 

To get the armature ready to wind, cut two washers from thick 
a.sbestos paper, or, better, a piece of the .so-called "leather board" 
used by printers; make the washers one inch in diameter with a 
five-.sixteeuths of an inch hole and slip one on over each end of 
the shaft, bringing it up close to the end of the armature core. Cut 
off a piece of tape about one foot long and split it up and down 
through the midiUe, making two pieces. Wrap a piece around. the 
shaft, beginning snug up against the collar ( leather board ), and 
extend out on the shaft about three-fourths of an inch on each end, 
letting the edges overlap. Cut from the .same board twelve strips 
nine-sixteenths of an inch w-ide and three and one-()uarter inches 
long; divide the width of each one into thirds and crease up and 
down its length on the marks with a knife point but do not cut in 
much, if any. This is done to let the sides bend up nicely and 



evenly. The sides are then bent u]) on all the strips, making 
twelve little troughs, which should be slipped down into the grooves 
in the armature core. The ends will protrude a trifle beyoi.d the 
ends of the armature core, but shoulil not be cut off but the bot- 
tom bent down so that it ju.st laps over the end washer, and the 
sides will cover the corners of the projecting tooth of the core. 

The armature, with a dog on the pulley end of the shaft, should be 
placed in the lathe with the commutator end toward the tail stock. 
Take the belt off and turn by hand, taking hold of the face plate; it 
will only have to be moved through half a revolution and back. 
There are many sj'Stems of winding, but in this case the Hefner- 
."Mteneck .system offers advantages to the beginner for annatures 
with even coils, so it will be adojited. There are twelve grooves in 
the core, but as one coil of wire will wind through two grooves, 
this only gives six complete coils or loops of wire, and as the end- 
ing wire of one coil connects up with the beginning wire of the 
next coil, this would give only six connecting wires to go to the 
commutator and there are twelve bars; besides, these wires are all 
on one side of the coil. This is balanced, however, by wh.U is 
called splitting the coils. Only half of the total number of layers is 
wound at this fiist winding, the second half or second .set being 
wound on over the first ones, starting them on the other side of 
the armature, which gives twelve connections, extending completely 
around the armature. With the remainder of the No. 28wirewoun<l 
on a reel suspended over the lathe and turning freely, the beginner 
stands in front of the lathe, taking the wire in his right hand and 
grasping the face plate with the left, and connnences to wind. Many 
winders stand on the back side, but the writer thinks it easier to 
work from the front; the re.sult, however, is the same. The end of 
the wire should be painted black, and about three inches of the eiiil 
left sticking out, which may be bent round into the next groove 
temporarily. Commencing on the top side and in, at the commu- 
tator end, call "the groove number one; wind the wire down through 
groove number one, over the pulley end of the core; turn the face 
plate from you, from left to right, and bring the wire back 
through the oppposite groove, or nundier seven ; pull the face 
plate toward you and bring the wire up over the front end of the 
core, down through the first groove again, laying the second wire 
close lieside the first .strand, over the back end, through groove 
number seven, and so on until eight strands have been wound in. 




Thk CoMPi.KTKii Motor. 

which will just cover the bottom of the groove. The layer and the 
ends of the wire must be shellaced. In crossing the heads it will be 
better to let the first four strands cross each head on one side of 
the shaft, and the remaining four on the other side; this will make 
the hea<ls more even. Now the second layer may be wound on over 
the first and shellaced, the third over the second, and the fourth 
over this, shellacing each one. I-ig. 20 shows the first layer of this 
coil wound in place. The end of the wire should be cut off, leav- 
ing four inches to spare, which .should be brought across the end 
and twisted up temporarily with the beginning end, but not painted. 
The second coil should be begun in groove number two, and wound 
through that and groove number eight; shellac each layer and cut 
and twist up the ends precisely as with the fir.st coil. Wind in four 
more coils in exactly the same way; when these are wound in it 
will be seen that the twelve grooves are half filled with wire, and 
the ends come out of grooves number one, two, three, four, five 



I 



Jui.v 28, 1894. 



THE EI^ECTRICAL WORLD. 



79 



and six. Now six more coils of four layers each will be wound 
directly over and on top of the first ones. The first coil in this 
second layer, or set, of coils will commence in groove number 
seven, and the other side of it will lay in groove number one, 
in which the first coil was started. It will now be .seen at a glance 
how nicely the windings will come out. The next coil starts in 
number eight and winds around into number two, the next in num- 
ber nine, and so on until all are wound in. Figs. 21 and 22 show 
the armature head with the first six coils and the whole number 
wound in. The ends that were twisted up mereh' as a convenience, 
and to prevent them from being broken, should now be untwisted 
and straightened out nicely. Take the plain, unpainted end of the 
tirst or number one coil and twist it up with the painted end of coil 
number two; the unpainted end of coil number two and twist it up 
with the painted end of coil number three; the unpainted end of 
coil number three and twist with the painted end of the fourth coil, 
and so around the whole armature. This connects the ending of 
one coil to the beginning of the ne.xt, forming the wire into one 
great loop over three hundred feet long. The ends are twisted 
permanently this time, and moderately tight up to the coils, where 
they come out of the armature. 

We must now determine which way our motor armature is going 
to run, which, like the model, we will suppose to be from right to 
left, or in the opposite direction from that of the hands of a clock. 
The commutator should have a so-called "lead" of one bar in the 
direction which it shall run, in this case to the left. 

In connecting the armature wires to the bars, bring the end out, 
and instead of connecting it to the bar directly in front of the coil, 
carry the wire over to the next bar to the left; cut the ends off, 
leaving a little more than is actually needed to solder into the bar- 
lug. Scrape the insulation carefully off the ends, and bring the 
two wires down into the little slot sawed in the lug, and solder 
firmly. Each end of the two wires should be brought to its respec- 
tive bar and soldered into the slot in the lug, A neat little hood 
of thin linen should be made to draw on over these connections. It 
should be turned wrong side out, and the smaller end put on over 
the commutator lugs and bound down into the groove cut around 
them with thread; then it may be drawn on over itself, turned 
right side out and pulled up over the armature, being held in place 
under the end armature binder. The superfluous ends of the connect- 
ing wires protruding from the side of the lugs should be trimmed 
off nicely. Put a strip of thin asbestos paper around in each of the 
grooves turned around the armature, and over this wind on eight 
turns of No. 26 brass spring wire and solder it in at least six places. 
Trim the extra solder off smooth, and do not allow the binders to 
set out beyond the armature core. Cut away any tape left on the 
shaft on the pulley end, and put on a brass collar to prevent the 
wire from hitting on the end of the bearing. Set the collar with a 
small screw. 

The armature is now complete, and should be placed in some 
gentle heat, to thoroughly dry out al! the moisture before any cur- 
rent is put through the wires. If shellac is used this drying process 
.should be continued for at least twenty -four hours. The field coils 
may now be connected up, and the finishing touches put on. Two 
.small binding posts, and four 6-32 brass machine screws, three- 
quarters of an inch long, with four little brass set nuts, two on each, 
will be needed, and can be purchased at any electrical supply store. 
The screws go in the two middle holes, and the binding posts go in 
the end holes in the piece of fibre set into the base. 

As the armature is to run from right to left, a north pole must be 
created in the left hand pole piece, and a south pole in the right 
hand. The builder should learn Ampere's law for the creation of 
magnetic poles, which is very simple, and is given in most of the 
electrical books for beginners; he will then understand why he 
makes the following connections. Untwist the ends of the field coil 
wires and bring them all down well under the lower coil, almost to 
the middle, or within a quarter of an inch of the narrow bottom 
lagging. A piece of tape should be put in between them and the 
coil wires they cross over. Take the shunt or fine wires first, and 
bring the painted or starting end wires of each coil together across 
the narrow bottom lagging, cutting a little groove across it for the 
wire to lay in; scrape the insulation off the wires where they cross, 
twi.st them up tight, solder and snip off the ends. A piece of tape 
should be put in under this wire. Now the coils should be taped 
over by winding on two layers, equalling four thicknesses, in the 
same manner as in taping the core, covering over the narrow top 
and bottom lags, but not the side lags. The wire ends should come 
through the tape near the centre of the bottom side. The top part 
of the base casting should be chipped out to fit up to the curve of 
the under side of the field, .so that it rests firmly, and held in place 
by the four brass straps, two of which are shown in the picture of 



the finished motor. Put in a couple of thicknesses of asbestos paper 
between the iron and the field coil. 

To complete connecting up, take the unpainted ends of the series 
coil wires (the larger ones), scrape the insulation off nearly to 
the core, say to within one inch of it, and solder the ends to the 
binding post .screw.s. Do not draw the wires tight, but leave quite 
a sag, and slip on a piece of soft rubber tube over each before 
soldering. The left wire goes to the left hand binding post screw, 
the right to the right hand binding post screw. The painted or 
beginning ends of the series coils, and the unpainted or ending ends 
of the shunt coils, should be joined to each other and to the 
brushes. Take those on the left hand side first; scrape off the in- 
sulation of the series and .shunt wires, twist together tight and 
solder; slip on over a piece of soft rubber tube and again solder to 
the end of the screw holding the cable going to the lower brush. 
The two corresponding wires on the right hand side should be 
treated in the same way, and the ends soldered to the end of the 
screw holding the cable going to the top brush. 

The motor is now practically completed, and may be tested on 
any direct current of from fifty to fifty-five volts, and will work all 
right if these instructions have been carefully followed. The paint- 
ing maybe done to suit the builder; the model illustrated was given 
four coats of blue black enamel and then baked. The supply of 
current may be taki n from any lamp socket by using a plug, screw- 
ing in to the socket in place of a lamp, with cord attached. It makes 
no difference at which binding post the current enters, the result 
being the same. The motor just described is no toy, but a power- 
ful and practical machine, developing on a fifty-five volt current a 
power of over an eighth of a horse-power, though considerably less 
than half the size of any of the one-eighth horse-power motors now 
on the market In belting from the motor, connect to as large a 
pulley as possible and practical, and use a heavy duck tape, one 
inch wide, such as printers use on their large presses. 

This motor is of the style known as the two-pole, double-magnet 
type, and the model weighs nine and three-quarters pounds. 
The builder may enlarge this motor, keeping the proportions in a 
relative ratio and make a much heavier field core, having it cast from 
steel, thus making a nuich more powerful machine. The pole 
pieces can then be cast in one piece with the field core. In building 
an)' larger motors, the writer advises, if they are to be run in mul- 
tiple, that a rheostat, or a starting box be used, placed in series 
with the armature, even if the motor is self-regulating. 

Practical Notes on Dynamo Calculation. — XI. 

}3V .\LFRKD E. WIKNKK. 

^S- Types of Artnaturc Winding. 

a. Closed Coil Winding and Open Coil Winding. 

If, in a continuous current dynamo, the reversal of the current 
would take place in all the conductors at once, considerable fluctua- 
tion of the E. M. F. would be the result. In order to obtain a 




Fu;s. 32 .\ND 33. 



steady current, the armature conductors are, therefore, to be .so 
arranged, relative to the poles, that a portion of them is in the 
strongest part of the field, while others are exposed to a weaker 
field, and some even are in the neutral position. 

.\fter having thus arranged the conductors, their connecting can 
be effected by one of the following two methods; 

I. All conductors are connected among each other so as to form 
an endless winding, closed in itself, and consisting of two or more 

*Err.\ta. — In section 24, page FiH, of the last issue, the simplified 

,fc.-'. 

16 - ' 



form of the attraction formula in ('.. C. .S. units sliciuld read = 6" X 

in formula (60), same pagf, the term ( 1?^' ] should be replaced by 

( r ) : Figs 22 and 24, same page, should be exchanged; Fig. 22 is 

intended for a horizontal machine and should be in a horizontal position, 
in place of Fig. 24, and vice versa. 



80 



XHB ICLKCXRICAL WORLO. 



Vol.. XXIV. No. 4. 



|);irallcl braiiclit'S, in each of which all tlic single K. M. F's. 
iiidiiccil liavc the same direction, and in which the reversal of the 
current occurs in such conductors only that at the time are in the 




neutral position. ,\n armature with such connections is called a 
"closed coil armature. " 

II. The conductors are joined into groups, each group containing 
all such conductors in series wliich, relative to the fiehl, have 
exactly the same position; and the current is taken off from such 
groups only which at the time have the maximum, or nearly the 
maximum, K. !\I. F. , all other groups being at that time cut out 
altogether. .An armature wound in this manner is styled an "open 
coil armature. ' ' 

/>. Spiral IVhidini;, /.ap tl'inditig; aiid Wave Winding. 

According to the manner in which the connecting of the con- 




ductors by the above two methods is performed, the following tj'pes 
of armature windings can be di.stinguished: (1) Spiral winding, or 
ring winding. Figs. 32 and 33; (2) lap winding, or loop winding. 
Figs. 34 and 35; (3) wave winding, or zigzag winding. Figs. 36 
and 37. 

In the spiral winding. Figs. 32 and 33, which can be applied in 
the case of ring armatures only, the connecting conductors are 




Fig. 36. 

carried through the interior of the ring core, and the winding thus 
constitutes either one continuous spiral. Fig. 32, from which, at 
equal intervals, branch connections are led to the commutator — or 
a set of independent spirals, Fig. 33, wliich are separately connected 
to the conunutator. 

The lap winding, as well as the wave winding, is executed 
entirely exterior to the core, and can be applied to both drum and 
ring arm.'iturcs. 



In the lap winding, Figs. 34 and 3.^, the end of each coil, con- 
sisting of two or more conductors .situated in fields of opposite 
polarity, is connected through a commutator segment to the begin- 
ning of a coil lying within the arc embraced by the former. With 
reference to the direction of connecting, therefore, the beginning 
of every following coil lies back of the end of the foregoing, and 



^"^9:^^^$^^$:^. 




the winding, consequently, forms a .series of loops, which overlap 
each other. Fig. 34 represents such a lap winding for a four-pole 
drum armature, the development of which, Fig. 35, more clearly 
shows the forming of the loops and the manner of their overlapping. 

In the wave winding. Figs. 36 and 37, the connecting continually 
advances in one direction, the end of each coil being connected to 
the beginning of the one having a corresponding position under the 
next magnet pole; and the winding, in consequence, represents 
itself in a zigzag, or wave shape. The wave winding is illustrated 
in Fig. 36, and for better comparison the same four-pole drum 
armature is chosen that in Fig. 34, is shown with a lap winding. 
The development given in Fig. 37 distinctly shows the zigzag form 
of the wave winding. 

In multipolar machines, the wave winding can be used for series 
as well as for parallel connection; the lap winding, however, for 
parallel grouping only. 

While the lap winding necessitates as many sets of brushes as 



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there are magnet poles, the wave winding for any number of ])oles 
invariably needs but two .sets of brushes. 

For series-parallel connection, either wave winding may be used 
or lap and wave windings may be combined. Fig. 38 represents the 
development of such a "mixed winding, " the coils partly being con- 
nected in the lap and partly in the wave fashion. This winding, 
like the wave winding, has the peculiarity of requiring but two sets 
of brushes, independently of the number of magnet poles. 
(To be continued. ) 



Death of Edmond Julien. 

ICdniond Julien, the distinguished engineer and founder of what 
is known in this country and Fhirope as the Julien system, ex])ired 
at his home in Hrussels on the 5lli <lay of this month. Mr. Julien 
was born at Ardenne, on the 31st day of .August, 1838. He was bv 
profession a civil engineer, -and in that capacity built a number of 
railroads in Russia and Spain. He had the reputation of being of 
the first rank as a railroad engineer. He ainas.se<I considerable 
wealth in railroad building, and embarked almost all of it in the 
storage battery business, in connection with Faure and I*hilli])art. 
He built what was probably the first .storage battery factorv in 
luirojie, at Hrussels, and in 1,SS5 his .storage battery car took the 
first prize in mechanical traction at the .Antwerp I%xposition. Mr. 
Julien was highly esteemed by his fellow citizens at Brussels, and 
King Leopold knighted him in 1889. He was a man of most im- 
po.sing appearance, being nearly 6 feet 4 inches in height, and of 
splendid proportions. 



July 28, 1894. 



THE EIvECXRICAL WORLD. 



81 




The ELii^iCAi^^DLDS 








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EI,ECTRO-PHYSICS. 

I'kosfhoi-cscence at Loic Ti'iiififralurc. — According to the I, end. 
"Elec." and "Elec. Eng. ," July 6, Prof. IJewar, in his experiments with 
temperatures of 180 degrees C below zero, found that although chemical 
action almost ceases, photogiaphic action does not, but is diminished by 
«0 per cent. ; gelatine, celluloid and other substances were very lumin- 
ous when exposed for a second to the beam of a strong electric light ; 
from his experiments he is led to the generaliyation that the more coiu- 
plex a body is in structure the more likely it is to phosphoresce; pure 
water is weakly phosphorescent, but if very sightly impure it becomes 
strongly so; phosphorescence is due to some kind of molecular change 
i'l the oxygen, which is demonstrated by the fact that ozone is formed 
during the process. 

Xatiii e of Electric Conductivity. — In a paper by Mr. Vasehy from 
"Coraptes Rendus," vol. 118, p. 1,324, abstracted in "La Lum. Elec," 
June 30, he points out that electric conductivity appears to be a tendency 
of the electric field established in a body to dissipate in a greater or less 
time; magnetic conductivity does not exist, as a field once created is 
permanent, thus forming a characteristic difference between the proper- 
ties of electric and magnetic forms of energy. 

.( iialy~ing Periodic Fii net ions. — A number of instruments for perform - 
iiig such analysis are described and illustrated by Mr. Hess in "La Lum. 
Elec," June 23. 

Influence of Pressure on titc Dielectric Constant. — A paper by Mr. . 
Roentgen from "Wied. Ann.," vol. 52, p. 5V2, is abstracted in "La Lum. 
Elec," June 23. 

Afterglow in Gcissler Tubes. — The article abstracted in the Digest, 
June 23, is abstracted at greater length in the "Elek. Zeit.," June 28. 

Tlie U'ori- of Hert:. — The Lond. "Elec," July 6, publishes some cor- 
rections and explanations by Dr. Oliver Lodge, in connection with his 
recent lecture, which was referred to recently in these columns. 

I'ortex Theory of Electro-dynamics. — The article by Mr. Blondin is 
continued in "La Lum. Elec," June 23 and 30. 

M.\GNETISM. 

.Magnetic Lag. — In a paper by Prof. Dechant, abstracted in the "Zeit. 
futr Elek.," April 15 (just received), he discusses the lag in the propa- 
gation of magnetism generated by currents of different phases encircling 
a common core ; the propagation of the magnetic waves is calculated 
from the distance between the magnetizing coils divided by the phase 
flifference in seconds; it was found to be 12 metres (per second) with an 
alternating current of 40 periods, a phase difference of one-third period, 
and a distance of 10 cm. between the coils; the most sensitive means of 
showing the existence of these waves was a thin round disc of iron, 0.1 
mm. thick : he showed that the rotation of this disc can be explained 
only by hysteresis; also that the disc also rotated externally to the coils, 
which is possible only when the diminution in the magnetization along 
the rod does not follow a geometric progression : with a closed magnetic 
circuit he showed that this diminution is an important factor in the pro- 
duction of the magnetic lag. 

Magnetization of Alloys. — A Royal Society paper on "The Effect of 
Mechanical Stress and of Magnetization on the Physical Properties of 
.".Hoys of Iron and Nickel and Manganese Steel," by Mr. Tomlinson, is 
published in abstiact in the Lond. "Elec," July 6. 

Tlie Effect of MagnetizalioH on the Dimensions of Wires and Rings. — 
.\ Royal Society paper by Mr. Bidwcll is abstracted in "L^ L«m. Elec," 
June 30. 

Magnctisaiion by Rapid Electric (Oscillations.— f\.-pa-per by Mr. Klem- 
encic, on the magnetization of iron and nickel wires, is abstracted in 
"La Lum. Elec," June 23. 

Magnetization by Hertzian Currents and a .^fai:netic Dielectric. — 
The article by Mr. Birkeland from "Comptes Rendns. " vol. 118, p. 1,320, 
is abstracted in "La Lum. Elec," June 23. 

UNITS, MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMliNTS. 

.Measuring the Efficiency n/ a Large Motor.— \\\ a paper by Mr. Rey ill 



the "Bui. Soc. Int." for June, abstracted in "La Lum. Elec. " June Id, 
he describes in detail the testing of a 720 h. p. motor, made for the sub- 
marine boat "Gustave-Zede, " by the Hopkinson method ; the motor had 
six poles and two identical armatures, coupled in parallel and keyed to 
the shaft; these armatures were connected in series and in opposition as 
in the Hopkinson method. The theory is discussed at some length and 
the results of the tests given; he deduces two approximate formulas as 
also the complete formula. 

Measuring the Magnetic Qualities of Lron. — A translation of the 
article by Dr. Koepsel, mentioned in the Digest May 12, is given in 
abstract in the Lond. "Elec. " July 6, together with the illustrations. 
In an editorial discussiort attention is called to the fact that a small error 
in B may produce a large variation in the area of the curve, a point which 
is important in connection with transformers ; it is suggested that it 
might simplify matters to make it a torsional, zero reading instiunieiit. 
thus doing away with the compensation. 

Measuring the Resistance of Electrolytes. — .A translation of Prof. Kolil- 
rausch's article, from "Wied. Ann." vol. 51, page 34", is given in "La 
Lum. PUec. ," June 16; .several forms of electrodes are described and 
illustrated for facilitating the determination of the resistance of elec- 
trolytes. 

Platinized Glass Resistances. — .\ccording to the Lond. "Elec," July 6, 
Mr. Mergier before the Erench Physical Society recommends the use of 
platinized glass for high resistances; a sheet 3 by 4';- inches will give a 
resistance varying from 25 to 100,000 ohms; they are mouiiled in a closed 
bottle containing petroleum and a layer of mercury at the bottom, 
enabling the resistance to be varied. 

Photometric .Standard. — In the recent Physical Society paper by Cap- 
tain .\bney, abstracted briefly in the Lond. "Elec," July 6, he states that 
from photographs he finds that when used with a slit as a photometric 
standard the Argand burner is unsuitable, for portions of different lumi- 
nosity come into view when the slit is approached or receded fiom; the 
ordinary fishtail burner was better in this respect. 

Pupillometry and Photometiy. — Mr. Henry's article is continued in 
"La Lum. Elec," June 16, the present portion being devoted to the eye 
and the pupil. The article appears to be concluded in the issue of June 
30. 

Resistance of Pure Water. — The article by Profs. Kohlrausch and Heyd- 
weiller, abstracted in the Digest June 16, i abstracted in Uie "Elek. 
Zeit.," June 28. 

Conductivity of Salts in Aelliyl and Methyl Alcohol.— kn article by 
Mr. Voelmer is abstracted briefly in the "Elek. Zeit.," June 28. 

Physical Quantities. — A paper by Mr. Rovida, summarizing the laws of 
the actions and the systems of the dimensions of physical quantities, is 
published in "La Lum. Elec," June 30. 

Electrolytic Meters. — "Ind. and Iron, ' June 22, publishes an article on 
this subject, containing, however, nothing new. 

DYNAMOS AND MOTORS. 

Classification of Dynamos and Ti ansfor»iers. — \\\ a short aiticle by 
Prof. Blondel, in " La Lum. Elec," June 16, he points out the inipoit- 
ance of more specific and more rational terms in connection with gener- 
ators and transformers, and suggests the following classification, lie 
divides generators, including alternaling as well as continuous, into two 
classes, those with a discontinuous winding and those with a continuous 
winning, each class being divided into types with ring, drum or disc 
armatures and into those with exterior and interior armatures; when 
machines generate at the same time continuous and alternaling currents 
he recommends the term "polymorphic." suggested by Mr. Hospitaller; 
the terms "di-alternator and tri -alternator" or "duplex" and "triplex" 
alternators are suggested when the machines deliver two or threc-ph.asc 
currents. Transforming apparatus he divides into "redrcsseis" (also 
known as rectifiers); "transformers" which transform by induction a 
primary into a secondary current of the same nntiire, divided again into 
continuiius cuirent, simple alternating current and polyphase current 



82 



THB i:ui:crwicAi. world. 



Vol. XXIV. No. 4. 



transformers; "converters" for converting by induction a primary into 
a secondary current of a different nature, divided into rotating converters 
with continuous current windings and converters with stationary flux ("a 
liux fixe") such as those of Scott and of Hutin it I.eblanc. 

S/nc Curve AlletnaUtrs. — \'\\e Lond. "ICkc," July 6, ridicules the 
practice of some American companies in building true sine curve alter- 
nators : "probably an alternator with a true sine curve, even though it 
may disdain to run in parallel with a machine having a more bactriau 
characteristic, is little or no better intrinsically in a commercial point of 
view than a less highly bred article." 

New Synchrnuous Miilor.—"1& Lum. Elcc," June 23, contains a short 
description and discussion of the new motor suggested by Prof. Ferraris, 
mentioned in the Digest, June 16. 

Starling Single Phase Molars. See abstract under "Transforming 
Single-phase into Three-phase Currents." 

TRANSFORMKKS. 
Trans/orming Singlepliase inlu Three-phase Ctirrenls.—ln lhe"Elek. 
Zeit.," June 28, Mr. Deri describes the following method. He states 
that in order to produce a rotating field of the greatest possible effect, 
the differences in phases must be symmetrical and the maximum values of 
the currents, and therefore also of the fields, must follow at equal inter- 
vals. In the method described by Prof. Ferraris, in which a difference 
of phase is obtained by a .self-induction, he shows that the shifting must 
always be less than 90 degrees, the closer it is to this value the more will 
the resistance of the self-induction weaken the current and therefore the 
field; it is therefore impossible to obtain symmetrj' by this means in a 
two-pha.se sy,stem, and the use of condensers with the other current is 
excluded as they are impracticable and costly ; such an arrangement 
would not produce a continuous rotating field, but a pulsating one. 
Mr. Deri instead of producing a two-phase current with which to start 
motors, uses a three-phase cuirent, which he obtains from a single-phase 
current as follows : In the adjoining figure curve 1 represents the 




i7«. BorU 
Tr.\NSFORMINC, SiNGLK-Ph.\SKD into ThRHK-PHA.SKD Cl'RRENT.S. 

ongnuil current, curve 3 is a shunt from this in which the phase has 
been shifted 60 degrees by means of a self-induction; the effect of the 
intermediate phase, curve 2, is obtained by two equal windings, through 
one of which current 1 is passed in the reverse direction, and through the 
other of which current 3 is passed in the reversed direction, as shown by 
the dotted lines ; the combination of the two currents shown in dotted 
lines is equivalent to the curve 2, shown in full lines; he assumes that 
the currents follow the sine law ; strictly speaking the current 3 is shifted 
through 60 degrees and the connections reversed, so as to reverse the cur- 
reut, thus producing a shifting of 240 degrees. A simple theoretical 
deduction is given. In order to meet the condition that the niaxinium 
intensities of the fields and the currents 1 and 3 are equal, he either 
inserts a resistance in one of them, or uses different voltages in the two 
branches. (Precisely the same invention was described and illustrated 
under "Alternating Current Motor" in the Digest, Nov. 11, 18')3.) 

Currenl- Rushes in Transformers. — Mr, Hay's article, abstracted in 
the Digest last week, is continued in the Lond. "Elec," July 6; curves 
and results are given showing a general agreement between the theoret- 
ical and experimental results; for con.stant permeability, he sums up the 
knowledge regarding such rushes as follows: (1) "The phenomenon of a 
"Current-rush' (accompanied by a corresponding 'rush' of magnetic 
induction) consists in the appearance, at the instant of closing the cir- 
cuit, of certain abnormal waves, which gradually become modified so as 
to assume the normal form. 12) The distortion of the initial waves con- 
sists in an enlargement of one set of half-waves, accompanied by a 
reduction of the other set. As time goes on, the abnormal half-waves 
diminish in size, and the abnormally small ones increase, until a state 
of equality is reached, which is the normal state. (3) The current-rush 
is a function of the resistance and inductance of the circuit; it increases 
with the latter and diminishes with the former. In no case, however, 
can it attain the value 2. (4) The change from the abnormal to the nor- 
mal stale takes place comparatively rapidly at first, then more and moic 
slowly. In all eases where there is a considerable rush, an interval of 
time corresponding to several periods must elapse before an even approx- 
imately normal state can be reached. (S) The dauiping of the abnormal 
waves is due entirely to the resistance of the circuit." If the circuit 
could be deprived entirely of resistance, he shows tiiat the waves would 
preserve their initial type without undergoing any modification, and that 
they would lie entirely above the time axis, or in other words, a simple 
harmonic \\. M. 1'. would pr'Hluce, not an alternating, but a uui-direc- 
tioiial fluctuating current, and that the magnetic induction would always 
be of the same sign ; by increasing the time constant, eurrent-ru.shes can 
be obtained which do not fall far short of two, and the waves of which 
will preserve their type for a considerable number of periods. 

In the same issue Prof. I'Uining calls atteiilion to the fact that he was 



the first to point out the effect of current-rushes in a paper read in 1892; 
he believes that Mr. Hay will find that the experimental evidence is not 
quite in accord with the simple theory which he advances, and that he, 
Fleming, had abandoned that theory long ago, as it did not explain well 
asceitained facts. 

Transformer Syslems. — The Lond. "Flee. Rev.," July 0. contains a 
communication from Mr. Whitcher, advocating a sj-steni in which a third 
main is used, making two circuits, one of which can be completely cut 
off fluriug tile hours of light load. 

AKC AND INCANDFSCHNT LICHTS. 

Ineandescenl Lamp. — A long paper by Mr. Larnaude on the present state 
of its manufacture is published in the "Bui. Soc. Int." for June, a long 
abstract being reprinted in "L'lud. Klcc," June 25. The article is 
interesting reading, but contains little that is new ; he points out the 
advantages in forcing the lamps, staling that at the present low price of 
the lamps it is more economical to force them and replace them more 
frequently; curves are given showing the variation in the candie powei 
for a range of 20 volts on each side of the normal ; also the efficiencies in 
watts per candle. From some experiments of which he gives the results, 
he shows that the loss in the light of a lamp after it has been run for 
some time is due about equally to the consumption of the filaiuer'.t and 
to the blackening of the bulb; in these experiments the bulbs were 
cleaned by admitting the air to the blackened bulb, the bulb being then 
healed to a nearly red heat, which causes the carbon deposit to disappear, 
after which the lamp was again sealed, the air exhausted, and the test 
made. He speaks of the advantages and disadvantages of using metallic 
oxides in place of the carbon for the filament, suggesting that some such 
material as silicide of carbon might be used, stating that the recent 
experiments of Mr. Moissan have show-n that this material could prob- 
ably be manufactured without the same difficuUy as heretofore. He 
gives the temperature of volatilization nf carbon as 1,700 degrees C, stat- 
ing that incandescent lamps must be run below this temperature. He 
speaks favorably of a process of making the filament, which he describes, 
in which a plastic carbon mixture is pressed out in the form of wires 
through dies. In comparing the cost of the light from an arc and an 
incandescent light, each of 500 candles, he concludes that the cost of the 
latter is twice as great. 

Electric Liglit in Waifare. — According to the Lond. "Klec. F^ng.," 
July 6, an ingenious device is used in the German army to prevent the 
enemy from locating the position of the plant used for an electric search 
light; the light from the projector is thrown on a mirror about 600 feet 
distant, from which it is reflected to the required point; the mirror is 
operated by an electric motor, which is controlled from a distance. (The 
moisture so often found in the atmosphere of Germany, or a small 
amount of smoke would, however, soon reveal the position of Ihe 
reflector itself.) 

J'rojecloiyi. — A number of systems are described and well illustrated by 
Mr, Richard in "La Lura. Elec," June 23. 

TRANSMISSION OF POWER, 

A Continuous Alternating Current Transmission System. — Prompted 
by some comments made in the Digest last year regarding the laboratory 
nature of the inventions of Messrs, Hutin and Leblanc, Mr. Guilbert pub- 
lishes in " La Lum. Elec, " June 16, a profusely illustrated description 
of a novel plant which has been in regular operation for several months in 
transmitting power from La Chapelle to FJpinay, In .\mcric,an journals, 
he states, there is a tendency to publish artistic illustrations of the outside 
of a machine, which give no idea of its principle or of its operation, 
while in France it is preferred to give detailed descriptions in an intel- 
ligent manner, showing the principle and operation ; (these remarks 
intended presumably as a reply to the comments above referred to, do 
not, however, meet the case, which referred to practical apparatus as dis- 
tinguished from mere suggestions). In this plant a low tension, contin- 
uous current is converted into a high tension three-phase alternating cur- 
rent bj- the machine called a "panchahuteur" ; these are transmitted over 
the line and in a similar machine are again transformed down to a con- 
tinuous low tension current and used for charging accumulators for light- 
ing a railway station ; the original continuous current voltage is between 
110 and 170. the alternating current voltage is between 4,000 and 5,000, 
the line currents about 1 ampere, the distance almost 5 miles and the 
final voltage about the same as the original ; the original current is from 
60 to 70 amperes, and the final current from 40 to 50; the efficiency of the 
transmission without considering the line loss is between 75 and 78 per 
cent, for about 12.5 kilowatts delivered at the farther end; including the 
line losses, the total efficiency of the plant appears to be about 60 to 68 
per cent, : it is believed that by making changes and improvements in 
the apparatus, the efficiency can be increased to 40 per cent, ; the import- 
ant loss of energy is that in the motors, which can be greatly reduced if 
desired. The general principle of the transforming machines, which are 
similar to each other, is that the continuous current is transformed into 
a tri-phase alternating current by means of a cominutator driven by a 
motor, these currents being then transformed into high tension currents. 
The article contains 20 illustrations showing the connections in the appar- 
atus, several external views and a number of curves of etBcicncie": under 
various conditions. The receiving appaiatus is driven by a synchronous 
motor, absolute .syiichronisni being obtained by a special device; the 
moving of the brushes for different loads is accomplished automatically 
and there is said to be no sparking; the motor does not start by itself, 
but it is said that a few turns by hand are sufficient; even this difficulty 
however can be overcome; it is believed that the apparatus can be sim- 



July 28, 1894. 



THE EIvECTRICAI^ WORLD. 



83 



plified very greatly, this being the first installation ; he believes this sys- 
tem can be used with success for considerably increasing the carrying 
capacity of feeders. Several tables giving quite complete experimental 
data under various conditions, are included. Regarding Mr. Scott's sys- 
tem for transforming di-phase into tri-phase currents, he believes that 
too much stress has been put on this invention, staling that the principle 
is so simple that it is quite probable that it has been indicated before ; 
he explains briefly a solution of the problem by Messrs. Hutin and 
I.eblanc. A short abstract of this article is published in the Loud. "Elec. 
Hug.," July 6. 

Coiiliinioiis Curretit Transmission —The installation at Sigmaringen 
IS illustrated and described in the "Elek. Zeit.." June 28. A very brief 
abstract is given in the Lond. "Elec. Eng," June 6. Two series dyna- 
mos of 90 h. p. are driven by turbines generating a continuous current of 
1.100 volts and fal amperes; they are connected in series but as a precau- 
tion a third wire is used, making it a true three-wire system ; the arrange- 
ments of the switchboard connections are given ; the distance is 3 miles, 
the wires being overhead ; at the secondary station the current is trans- 
formed by continuous current transformers; the starting is done entirely 
at the primary station, a shunt to the magnet winding being adjusted 
after the turbines are started so as to generate a gradually increasing cur- 
rent, the motors beginning to start with a current of 20 amperes and 200 
volts: to stop them this operation is reversed. Safety apparatus is pro- 
vided, there being an automatic current interrupter to provide against 
open circuits and a field short-circuiting apparatus to provide against short 
circuits. 

ELECTRIC RAILWAYS. 

Accumnlalors in Power Houses.— The interesting railway from Zurich 
to Hirslanden is described and illustrated in the "Elek. Zeit.," June 
28; it is said to be the first railway plant in which accumulators are used 
at the power houses to equalize the load, and the installation is said to 
be very successful. The article includes a diagram of the complete con- 
nections at the station ; the dynamo delivers a current of constant 
intensity, accumulators being charged or discharged as the load on the 
line is less or gieater than that of the dynamo; by means of automatic 
arrangements, shown in the diagram, the number of cells at the end of 
the accumulators is automatically cut into or out of the circuit to keep 
the voltage constant; the dynamo charges all but the cells at the extreme 
end, the latter being charged by a separate small dynamo with the aid of 
an automatic device. Results are given showing that there is a saving 
due to the use of accumulators of 2.2 lbs. of coal per h. p. hour, amount- 
ing to almost a ton of coal a day, representing a saving of about $2,500 
a year ; the cost of the accumulators with the accompanying apparatus 
was about $7,400; allowing for interest and repairs of accumulators, it is 
shown that their cost is saved in about 4 years by the saving of the coal ; 
this saving is due chiefly to the fact that it is not necessary to keep in 
reserve a second boiler and steam engine, and that by this arrangement 
the steam engine is running continually at its best efficiency; besides 
this, the total installation is cheaper than without accumulators, as the 
latter cost less than the machinery and increased plant which they 
replace. The present plant contains two main dynamos and engines of 
90 h. p. each, one set serving as a reserve. 

Accuniulaior Traction on Ordinary Roads. — "Ind. and Iron, " June 15, 
gives the opinions of several accumulator manufacturers on this subject. 
Mr. Epstein does not think there is any insuperable objection, stating 
that he is at present constructing several electric vehicles in the shape of 
the "Victoria" intended for 4 passengers; the vehicle weighs 1 cwt., 
accumulator 4, motor of 1.5 h. p., 3 cwt., and 4 passengers at 5.5. making 
a total of 13.5 cwt. ; on account of the dead weight he believes that only 
small vehicles are practicable. He believes that improvements in 
accumulators will be made, and states having obtained results which open 
up great prospects. Mr. Niblett believes that accumulators will have to 
be greatly improved before such travel becomes practicable ; he has very 
little hope for the efforts that are being made with such vehicles ; 
although only about 4 amperes (presumably ampere hours) per pound are 
obtained, he believes that 18 to 20 will be attainable; which he bases on 
his experiments with lithanode plates. He believes that the time is 
rapidly approaching when every vehicle in the street will be propelled 
by stored electricity, but states that first the defects in existing accumu- 
lators must be removed. Mr. Drake concludes that traction with accumu- 
lators on anything but a level is a practicable impossibility, either now 
or at any future period. The issue of June 22 contains a communication 
by Mr. Ward, who favors such traction, basing his opinion on ijractice ; 
he ran the first electrical omnibus in London for over 5 000 miles. The 
issue of June 29 contains another correspondence by Mr. Niblett. 

Electric Rail-ways. — The paper by Mr. Hammond, mentioned in the 
Digest last week, is published in abstract in the Loud. "Elec. Eng.," 
July 6. It appears to be made up largely, if not entirely, of information 
already published; it is discussed unfavorably in the leading editoiial of 
the Lond. "Elec. Rev.," together with several recently established .'•ys- 
tems of a complicated nature, among them being the I'atton system, 
which is being tried in Chicago. 

Heilmann Lnconwtive. — "La Lum. Elec," June lb, gives a diagram 
of the complete connections, and describes an improvement in which it 
is intended to proportion the power of the steam engine to the variable 
resistance of the train by exciting the magnets of the generator by a 
■special dynamo run by a separate engine. 

The Uchr High Speed System. — "\a Lum. Elec." June Id, publishes 
a number of good illustrations, together with a short description, of the 



high speed system which is being exploited by Mr. Behr in England ; it 
is a single rail system. 

Underground Railway at B)idapest.—Th\s underground road is to be 
laid immediately below the pavement, and is therefore not in the nature 
of a tunnel road; the contact rail will be fastened along the sides of the 
road and not between the rails. 

CENTRAL STATIONS. PLANTS. SYSTEMS AND APl'LIANCICS. 

Alternating- Arc Light Installation. — The installation at Hastings is 
described briefly in the Lond. "Elec. Rev.," July 6: the lamps are 
arranged in parallel across the 2.000 volt mains, a small transformer in 
each lamp performing the necessary conversion; "the lamps may be 
turned on or off from the central stations by using one return wire only. " 
a further description of which, however, is not given ; the difficulty lies 
in insulating the lamp as a whole. 

Ping Switch. — A switch devised by Dr. May. which is said to comply 
with all the requirements of the German insurance companies, is illus- 
trated and described in the "Elek. Zeit.." June 28. 

Gas t'S. Steam /or Central Stations.— An article in the Lond "Elec 
Eng.." July 6, gives the detailed e,stimates of the prime cost and the cost 
of operation of a large and a small plant, using in one ca.se sleam and 
in the other a Dowson gas plant, showing a balance in favor of steam in 
both first cost and cost of operating. 

Turbine. — The Seger steam turbine is briefly described and illustrated 
ill "La Lum. Elec," June 16. According to the issue of June 23. the 
Oerlikon Company has reSently constructed a 5 h p. Laval turbine 
dynamo, the speed of which is 30,000, that of the dynamo 3,000, and the 
steam consumption 36.5 lbs. per h. p. hour. 

Petrolenm Motors. — A recent set of competitive tests made in Paris 
with small petroleum motors is mentioned in "La Lum. Elec." June 
16; the highest prize was awarded to the Merlin motor. 

WIRES, WIRING AND CONDUITS. 

Ship Wiring. — A new system is described in the Lond. "Elec. Rev.," 
July 6, and termed an almost jointless one ; mains are run from a distrib- 
uting board, from which the whole lighting is manipulated ; from there 
mains are run to small subsidiary boards placed in accessible parts of the 
ship, each for groups of from 6 to 8 lamps, the switching on and off being 
usually done from these boards; from these, separate leads run to each 
lamp, so that the only joints are at the distribution boards. The 
increased co.st is said to be only 10 per cent, of the cost of the wire, 
which extra cost is said to be compensated for in other ways, among them 
being the saving in labor in making connections. 

Underground Cable Jor Low Tension Currents. — A new cable of 
Messrs. Felten and Guillaume, in which the conductor is made in the 
form of a composite tube, is described and illustrated in "La Lum. 
Elec," June 30. 

Deflection of Poles for Overhead Lines. — A mathematical article on 
this subject is published by Mr. Colard in "La Lum. Elec," June 23. 

TELEGRAPHY. TELEPHONY AND SIGNALS. 

Telegraph Between Egypt and the Cape. — "La Lum. Elec," June X, 
discusses Mr. Rhodes's proposal to connect Egypt with the Cape by a 
transcontinental line. 

Pacific Cable. — A note regarding the Ottawa Conference is contained in 
the Lond. "Elec. Eng., "July 6. Several letters from the Canadian Blue 
Book are published in the same issue. 

A'eiv Caledonian Cable. — A long illustrated paper by Mr. Reynier giv- 
ing the history, construction and laying of this cable, is published in 
the "Bui. Soc Int." for June. 

Automatic Block System. — The Seaton and the Tyer systems are 
described and illustrated in "La Lum. Elec," June 23. 

ELECTRO-CHEMISTRY. 

Primary Batteries for Lighting. — The Bariuet system is described 
and illustrated in "La Lum. Elec," June 23; it has been in use for 
several years; the cost per kilowatt is not given ; but is admitted to be 
greater than that obtained with dynamos, but not too great for instal- 
lations, in which the cost is not the principal consideration; a modified 
sulphate of copper battery with circulating liquids is used to charge 
accumulators successively, in groups of two or three, by an automatic 
apparatus. (In an article in "Ind. and Iron," June 29, the Fulgur battery, 
quite similar to the above, is briefly described.) The London "Elec. 
Rev. ."July 6, discusses the Fulgur and Barruet primary batteries, 
expressing its opinion that there is no great future of primary batteries 
for lighting purposes. 

Schvop Accumulator. — Devices for keeping the liquid in constant circu- 
lation are illustrated and briefly described in "La Lum. Elec." June .30. 

Minimum E. M. F. of Electrolysis. — .A paper hy Mr. Noursison is 
abstracted briefly in the "Elek. Zeit., "June 28; he demonstrates that the 
minimum E. M. F. for the electrolysis of alkaline salts in solution is con- 
stant for all the salts of the same acid ; the calculated and observed values 
are given, the former being: for acid compounds of chlorine. 2.02; 
bromine, 1.75; iodine, 1.16; sulphate, 2.15; nitrate,2.07, and chlorate, 2.07. 

Electric Tanning. — The Humy system is illustrated in "T.a- Lum. 
Elec," June 16; the leather passes between rolls, which act as the elec- 
trodes; the electrothermic action of the current facilitates the penetration 
and subsequent action of the tannin, as also the absorption of the mate- 
rials intended to increase Ihe weight. 



84 



THE ELBCXRICAI^ WORLO. 



Vol. XXIV. No. 4. 



Electric Pickling ^a/A.— Pickling baths become saturated, thus entail- 
ing an expense for renewal; to avoid this Mr. Hcathficld, according to 
"La Lum. IJlec," June 23. uses an electric current in such a bath, the 
piece to be pickled forming the anode ; the acidity of the bath is thus 
maintained indefinitely. 

Ilrcwcry Analysis. — An electrical process, which is said to have shown 
remarkable accurac}', is mentioned in the I.ond. "Ivlec. Rev.," July 6; 
the amount of invert sugar, which it is very important to determine, is 
measured by means of a copper solution, the quantitative determination 
being made by means of electrolysis. 

MISCKLI.ANEOUS. 

Death by Electricity.— tXvt "Hick. Zeit.." June 2H, abstracts a paper 
read at the recent Medical Congress at Rome. Experiments were made 
with animals, the current being an alternating one ; death resulted mostly 
by the sudden stopping of respiration, which stoppage caused death by 
asphyxia; the heart action continues for about two minutes, after which 
secondary cessation of heart action takes place, causing death ; frequently 
however, breathing .started again spontaneously and the animal recovered 
completely; with a current of 1,500 to 2,000 volts, the killing was not sure 
and easy; the danger increases in proportion to the higher development 
of the brain and therefore human beings are more easily affected than 
animals. Sometimes death takes place suddenly through the instan- 
taneous cessation of heart action ; a gradual paralysis of heart action, as 
noticed in human beings, could not be produced experimenlallj' ; in none 
of these eases was there anj* anatomical change to which death could be 
ascribed; in a few cases there was mechanical lesion in the form of a 
rupture of the blood vessels and internal hemorrhage, in which case the 
animals died of pressure on the brain after quite a number of hours. 

Ealal Accident. — The English journals of July 6 report a fatal accident 
which occurred at the 10,000 volt mains at the Deptfoid plant. 

Trealntent of Trigeminal Neuralgia. — A more or less successful 
electrical treatment is described in an ab.stract from the "Lancet" in the 
Lond. "Elec. Rev.," July 6. 

Discovering Flaws in Iron and Steel. — .'Vn apparatus is mentioned 
but not described in "Ind. andiron," June 29 ; it appears to consist oi small 
pneumatic tapper, worked by hand, which is made to tap over the piece 
lo be tested : it is in some way connected with a telephone in which a 
false sound, quite distinguishable from the normal sound, is heard when 
a Spot in the neighborhood of a flaw is reached. 

Electric Brake. — A band brake operated by an electromagnet for 
instantly stopping machinery is mentioned in " La Lum. Elec," June 
16; in case of an accident the workmen in a factory need only break the 
glass cover of an apparatus in order to stop ordinary machinery in about 
one second, and the most powerful machinery in from two to tliiee 
seconds. 

Electric Flying Machine. — According to the "Elec. Tech.," June 15, 
some recent experiments made at the high school at Bruenn, with a small 
model, proved successful and promising; a double wheel with sails, 
driven by an electric motor, raises itself and could be propelled horizon- 
tally. The same journal states that the 50 foot wheel for the Wellner 
ilying machine has been completed and will soon be used for making 
tests. 

Automatic Steering Compass.— T\k device mentioned in the Digest 
June 2 is described in the Lond. "Elec. Eng. ," July 6. 

Artificial Rain. — According to a quotiition from "Comptes Rendus, " 
vol. 117, p. 566, Mr. Baudouin has succeeded in producing rain by con- 
ducting the electricity from the clouds by means of a kite. 

Fire Damp. — According to "La Lum. Elec," June 30, Mr. Delaurier, 
in a note before the French Academy, suggests igniting the fire damp in 
mines, as quickly as it is produced, by means of electric sparks. 

Inde.v lo Literature. — .According to "La Lum. Elec," June 16, a pub- 
lication is to be started in Vienna in July, in the form of a universal 
index of scientific and technical literature ; each number is to contain a 
list of the periodic publications classified according to subjects and giv- 
ing the titles, table of contents, subscription price, place of publication, 
etc. 

Entropy. — A statement by Prof. Lodge advocating the conception of 
entropy to engineers is given in the Lond. "Elec," July 6. 

Hioirraphical. — .\ translation of the memorial address by Prof. Ebert 
on "Iloinrieh Hertz" is published in the Lond. "Elec," July 6. 



The Scenograph. 



The scenogr.aph is the Latest development of the cycloramie art. It is 
now on exhibition at the Madison Square Garden, where it is attracting 
considerable attention by the brilliancy of its effects and the fidelity of 
its representations. The scene depicted is the World's Kair, and the spec- 
tator gazes at the White City from the point of view of the ;cronaut 
whose balloon is some .100 feet off shore and 600 feet above the lake. 

The view is at night, of course, and every building on the grounds is 
sparkling with light. Every electrical effect is produced in miniature 
precisely as the larger real effects were produced at the I'air. Even the 
McMonnies Fountain is a practical fac-simile of the original. Tlie boat 
on the lake arc independent affairs who'e propellers are worked by their 
own little motors. There is a small search light on the Manufactures 
Building whose hundred-candle-power liglit sends its beams into the 
IK-rspective distance. In the background the Midway Plaisance with the 
big Ferris wheel is shown. Tlie wheel goes ar<mud and nearby 
Ihe captive b.iUoon rises up and dmvn al inUivals. due feature of the 



evhibitio'i is that the modeled and painted houses are geographically 
correct. It is said that every hotel near the grounds can be pointed oul 
and most of the houses in Chicago are represented, even to the one in 
which Carter Harrison was «hot. On the right, Mackaye's ill-fated Spec- 
tatorium is shown, while on the left the moving sidewalk is seen. 

The electrical effect is very beautiful. There are 600 16 c. p. lamps in 
operation besides the myriads of miniature specks of flame which light 
up the side«-alks. Mr. D. J. Buckley, the electrician, is authority for 
the statement that there are one thousand separate 122 volt circuits. The 
McMonnies fountain is done in five colors and even the lighthouse has 
its revolving lamp ju'-t as do its prototypes on a larger scale. The powt-r 
is supplied from the Madison .Square Garden plant. 

Everything is built on a scale of one to sixty, and so accurate is the 
representation that every night people bring with th<-m opera glasses and 
succeed in pointing out the house, or hotel, in which they .stopped while 
in Chicago. The creator of this exhibition, Mr. E. J. Auslon, has been 
identified for many years with nearly all the principal cycloranias in 
America, including "The Battle of Gettysburg," "The Chicago Eire," 
"The Crucifix," etc. 



Some Interesting Patents. 



The budget of electrical patent.s issued on July 17 contains an unusual 
number granted to well-known inventors. The activity in this direction 
is gratifying, and brings to mind the early days of electrical develop- 
ment. 

Prof. Elihu Thomson is represented by a patent for a commutator, in 
which ready means are provided for renewing the insulation between the 




P'lG. 1. — Rf.new.\ble Commut.\tor. 

segments or of correcting the defects in the face of the commutator by 
removing a few of its segments without turning down the whole commu- 
tator. To this end the commutator is divided into a set of sub-segments 
and a set of wearing or surface segments, upon which the brushes bear 
and which are insulated from one another. In Fig. 1, A and B show two 
forms of commutators, the segments in the second case being secured by 
a binding wire. The manner in which the insulation, which may be of 
mica or mica paper sheets, is applied is shown in C, the upper half 
representing all of the segments with insulating material, while in 
the lower half each alternate segment would be directly attached by screws 
to the sub-segineiit without insulation underneath. 

A system of electric distribution forms the subject of a patent issued to 
Prof. p;dwin J. Houston, the application for which was filed November 




I'lc. 2. — Continuous Current Tr.\nsformkr. 

17, 1HS7. The object of the invention is to enable electric currents of low 
IC. M. F. to be readily converted into currents of high E. M. F. , thus 
extending the application of those sources of electrical energy which are 
limited to the generation of low E. M. Fs. The current from a unipolar 
dynamo electric machine, therino electric pile, combustion carbon bat- 
tery, or other source capable of generating electric currents of great 
quantity but low E. M. F. , is passed through the primary of an induction 
coil of any of the well known forms. This current is caused to vary in 
intensity or direction by any of the well known methods, such as ate 
employed in connection with induction coils, so .as to develop secondary 
currents of higher E. M. V. in the secondary coils. .\t the same time 
the secondary coils of the induction apparatus are provided with a suit 
able eomnuitator acting in unison with the devices providing changes in 
the (iirectittn or intensity tif the primary current, so as to commute or 



July 28, 1894. 



THE KIvECTRICAL WORLD. 



85 



turn into one and Lhe same direction the high potential alternating currents 
developed in the induction apparatus. Referring to Fig. 2, A is an 
induction coil and B is an electric source of low E. M. F. ; C is a cora- 
uuitator of any construction suitable for varying, interrupting, changing 
or reversing the currents from the source B, the source B is placed in a 
circuit whose terminals are provided w'th brushes resting on the commu- 
tator, as shown, the primary of the induction coil being similarly pro- 
vided. In order to commute the alternating current thus formed there 
is in the secondary circuit of the induction coil a third set of brushes, 
while a fourth set transfers the current to the working circuit. Con- 
densers D and F may be used in the primary and secondary circuits so as 
to secure greater uniformity in the current. 

\ patent granted to John F. Kelly, of the Stanley Laboratory Company, 
relates to a method and apparatus for transforming alternating into con- 
tinuous currents, and is based upon the fact that if two alternating K. M. 
I-'s. in quadrature be made to vary respectively as the sine squares and 
the cosine scpiares of the angle traversed, their sum will always l)e con- 
.■^tant, and therefore produce a nndirectional constant current. 

If the conductor, D, Fig. 3, in the form of a coil, such as the secondary 
of a transformer, be divided up into a certain number of sections of 
proper lengths and a brush caused to travel at a uniform rate in contact 




Figs. 3 .\nd 4. 



-Apparatus for Transforming .\i,ternating 
INTO Continuous Currents. 



with the terminals of such sections, it is evident that the proportionate 
part of such conductor included between such brush and a stationary 
brush connected with one end ot the conductor will depend upon the 
relative lengths of the sections. These sections are proportioned in the 
following manner : Suppose that there are Jl/ sections in the conductor, 
and that the whole number of turns or length of the conductor, which we 
will represent by /,, be taken as corresponding to the sin i tt or ninety 
degrees, then the number of turns included in the first section begin- 



ning with the largest will be 



'.A/ 



L the number included in the 



first two sections, sin .^tt /., in the first three sin 



2 A/ 



2 71/ 



up to .1/ — 1 sections 



m ■ 



2M 



.\ series of insulated contact plates is provided which are designated by 
the letters a, b, c, d, e and a', b', c', d', e', and a continuous plate f so 
arranged that two brushes, h, k, making one complete revolution in the 
time occupied by a complete cycle of the current to be transformed, 
may be caused to sweep over them, the disposition of the plates being 
such that during one-half of the cycle of movement one brush, as h, will 
remain in contact with f, while brush k passes successively over plates 
a. b, c, d, e, and during the remaining time the brush k remains in con- 
tact with f while brush h passes successively over plates a', b', c', d'. e'. 

One terminal of the conductor D is connected with plate f and the 
terminals of the several sections are connected in order to plates a, b, 
and c. If, therefore, the brush k be caused to traverse in succession the 
contacts a, b, c in a quarter period, brush h meanwhile remaining on 
plate t, all of the conductor, D, will have been traversed in that time, the 
number of turns included in the circuit varying as above described so that 
the electromotive force between the brushes h and k will be equal, 
at any instant, to E sin- 2 ^ n t. If the brushes be then moved back the 
sections of conductor, D, will cut out in reverse order; but this is more 
readily accomplished by causing the bru.shes to continue their motion 
so that brush k passes oyer plates c, d, e, while brush h remains on plate 
f, said plates d and e being connected with the sections of D but in the 
opposite order to a and b, so that a forward motion of brush k from c to 
e is equivalent to a backward motion from c to a. The two brushes being 
carried around together, one in contact with the continuous plate f, pass 
from file point A, when they include no section to B, where tliey include 
all the sections of conductor D, and hence to .1', where they again in- 
clude no section. 

At .\' the continuous plate and the sections change places with refer- 
ence to the brushes, so that the brushes in traveling onward reverse the 
connections of the conductor with respect to the external circuit. 

The order of the plates a', b', c' is also reversed again in t'le third 
quadrant so that the last section of D cut out in the second quadrant is 
the first brought in in the third, and it will be understood that the plates 
in the third quadrant are connected in the same order as those in the first, 
while those in the fourth quadiant are connected in the same order as 
those in the second. 



As the pair of brushes are rotated synchronously with the impressed 
frequency, they will include between thetn a number of turns substantially 
proportioned to the sine of the angle of rotation, and as the electromo- 
tive force at the terminals of the conductor D is also varying as the sine 
of the same angle, the electromotive force between the brushes will be 
substantially proportional to the square of the tine. 

A similar conductor, D', Fig. 4, and a commutator such as described, 
but with the phase of the electromotive force shifted ninety 
degrees, will give an electromotive force substantially proportional to 
the square of the cosine, and if we connect the two sets of brushes so as 
to superimpose the two electromotive forces their sum will be constant. 
This is illustrated in Fig, 4, where V, W, indicate the leads from a source 
of two alternating currents in quadrature and R the common return. Y 
and P' are the primaries of transformers included in the two circuits 
respectively and D, D' the secondaries, connected with the commutators 
as above described. A small synchronous motor S for rotating the 
brushes is indicated. 

A thermostatic alarm is the subject of a patent granted to Charles Cut- 
tnss, whose principle of operation is dependent upon the expansion in 
a drum of a medium such as a cut, in which provision is made for a slow 
escape or influx of the medium. These conditions being secured, any ex- 
pansion of the confined air, which increases its volume more rapidly than 
the leakage can compensate for, will result in the operation of the device, 
without regard to the actual degree of temperature from wliich the rise 
took place. In Fig. 5 A represents an ordinary sheet metal drum or case 
with deep circumferential corrugations, closed at the top by a metal 
plate or head, B, in which is set in an insulating bushing an adjustable 
contact screw. Beneath the screw and .solder or fixed to the bottom of 
the device is a conducting pin or stud, E. A circuit is made from the 
metal case to the insulated screw, and includes a battery, F, and the mag- 
net, G, of a relay controlling the circuit of a battery, K, containing an alarm 
bell. In the head, B, is inserted a small body of porous material, H, such 
as a section of the unglazed earthenware used for batteiy jars, or in any 
other way pr<ivide a leak, or retarded passage for a slow escape and innu\ 




Fig. 5. — Thermo.static .-\i,arm. 

of the air or other medium within the device. In practice the leak or 
breathing hole, as it may be termed, is adjusted .so that a variation of 
temperature of 1° a minute will not produce a separation of the points 
of contact. Such a variation, while hardly possible fiom natural causes, 
might reasonably be expected to be exceeded by almost any fire that 
would be likely to occur in the neighborhood of a thermostat. .\ny 
source of artificial heat, therefore, that would cause a rise of temperature 
around such a thermostat, at a rate greater than 1° a minute, would pro- 
duce an expansion of air within the instrument and sound the alarm by 
producing an elongation of the case. 

.\n important series, three in number, of patents, to which we will 
refer in a following issue, relate to the Johnson-Lundell electric street 
railway system, a general description of w'hich appeared in The Electri- 
cal World of May 12. 

The Lewis Train Electric Ligliting System. 



In a paper read at the annual meeting of the Association of Railway 
Telegraph Superintendents, in Detroit, last month, Mr. M. B. Leonard, 
.Supt. Tel. C. & O. Railway, read an interesting paper on the electric 
lighting of railway trains, from which we abstract the following de- 
scription of the Lewis system, to which the greater part of the paper 
is devoted, and wliieh receives high praise from Mr. Leonard. 

This system, of which an account of its application to electric lighting 
from windmills appeared in our issue of February 3, 1894, is the inven- 
tion of Lieut. I. N. Lew-is, U. S. A., and consists of a dynamo fixed on 
the car truck itself and flexibly belted to the car axle, which charges a 
storage battery of 12 cells carried under the car and at the .same time, 
if necessary, supplies current for lamps in the car. The illustration 
shows the details of the connection between the dynamo and the car axle, 
and also the arrangement of the varioiis circuits. The Lewis dynamo 



86 



THE ELECXRICAI. WORLD. 



Vol. XXIV. No. 4. 



employed is one having a maximum output of 25 volts and 50 amperes. 
Rectangular carbon brushes are used, which are fixed in position. The 
machine is iron clad, being fitted with a close iron cover protecting the 
commutator, fields and the brushes. Graphite bearings are used for the 
armature shaft and do away with the use of oil. The frame is bolted to 
the bolster or truck beam, and connected by a rawhide licit three inches 
wide to a 20-inch pulley on the axle, the armature shaft carrying a TM 
inch pulley. The distance between pulley centres being small, the belt 
is kept tight on the armature pulley by a pair of spring idlers, consisting 
of two flanged pulleys 4\i inches in diameter, over which the belt runs, 
revolving in graphite bearings and held together by the spiral spring on 
each side with adjustable nuts. 

The distinguishing feature of this system is the way the dynamo is 
wound, through which it is made self-regulating for all speeds and gives 
a nearly constant potential at the b.ittcry terminals without employing 
any of the auxiliary regulating devices heretofore necessary in axle-driven 
dynamos to obtain this constant R. M. ]•". at varying speeds of the train. 
This regulation Lieut. Lewis accomplishes by a reverse winding of the 
scries coil, the current passing through this coil going in an opposite 
direction to that in the shunt ; the Latter is fed from the storage rjattery, 



position the lever would thus be forced to take, it would, by means of the 
brushes on 'ts end, reverse the relation between the armature and storage 
battery poles, thus sending the current through the battery in the same 
direction as before. 

The cut-out switch consists of a pivoted electromagnet connected to the 
storage battery circuit, facing another electromagnet through which the 
armature current flows. When the current in the latter attains a certain 
strength, the lever magnet is attracted against the face of a spring, thus 
making the charging current, which is broken when the current falls 
below the specified amount or is reversed. 

The accompanying diagram, which shows the wiring of the car on Mr. 
Leonard's road, illustrates the several features above described. The 
battery in this case will furnish about eight hours' lighting when the car 
is station.iry. 

The storage batteries which according to Mr. Leonard have been the 
most satisfactory are the chloride accumulators. The batteries are carried 
in a box under the car out of the way, which is pierced with holes to allow 
the gas evolved in charging to escape. With four or more cars they are 
fitted with a special form of switch which opens the charging circuit 
automatically whenever the battery is fully charged, thus preventing 




DETAILS OF THE SPRINQ IDLEH 



Tr.VIN Kl.liCTRIC LlOIlTINC. SVSTKM. 



and its circuit automatically opened by a switch on the end of the arma- 
ture shaft in order to prevent waste of the battery current when the car is 
.standing still. By this means the E. M. F. docs not vary more than a 
few volts, notwilhstandMig large variatiims in the speed of the train. 

Next to the dynamo the important features of the system are the pole 
changer and automatic cut-out. The former insures that the charging 
current is always of the same polarity, and the latter cuts out or cuts in 
the storage battery when the dynamo voltage falls below, or when it 
attains a specified amount, thus preventing the battery from discharging 
thiough the dynamo in the former case. Both of these are placed in a 
small box with a glass face which may be put up anywhere in the car, 
as no attention is required. 

The pole chRuger consists of an electromagnet in llie fciin of a ver- 
tically pivoted lever, with contact brushes on one end, and through 
whose coils the armature current passes. The lever is so arranged as to 
be controlled by two other electromagnets receiving their current from the 
storage battery. Should the direction of the car be reversed, the reversal 
of th-j armature current would follow, the polarity of the lever would be 
changed, and it would be repelled from the magnet which fonnerly 
attracted it and attracted by the one which before repelled it ; in the new 



unnecessary drafts on the locomotive for power. As the apparatus does 
not operate until the train has attained a speed of about 20 miles an 
hour, no extra work is imposed on the locomotive in starting the train. 
The entire apparatus is entirely automatic in its operation, requiring no 
expert attention, except a periodical inspection at the terminal points, 
and has given excellent satisfaction on the C. & O. Railway as well as on 
the car that has been running for some time on the Brooklyn Bridge in 
New Vork, where another one is about to be installed. In regard to the 
dynamo-axle system employed, the Telegraph Superintendent of the 
London, Brighton & South Coast road, where it has been used for 
four years, states that there have been but two failures in that time; that 
llie apparatus can be used for several weeks at a time without attention 
e.^cept lubrication, and at the end of this time only a readjustment of 
tile commutator brushes is necessary to put the machine in condition for 
a like period. Mr. Leonard believes that there is no reason why the 
Lewis dynamo-axle system will not show as good a record as this, if not 
better, as no oil is required for lubrication and no adjustment of the car- 
bon brushes is necessary. 

The following is a synopsis of the cost with the different systems of 
train lighting referred to in the paper, in which, however, the average 



Jui,Y 28, 1894. 



THK KLKCTRICAI. WOKT.n. 



87 



.cost given per car for the Pintsch does not include the proportional cost 
ofgeueratingr and compressing apparatus. 



System. 


Ayg. 

cost 

pr. car 

16 c. p. 


Ayg. 

lamp 
pr. car. 


Total 
illlim- 
inatioii 
pr. car, 
candles 


Cost 
pr. car 
day. 


Cost 
pr. car 
hour.in 
cents. 


Cost pr. 
cents. 


Com. dvnamo and storage bat- 
tery ...■•■-.. 

Silvev battery (C. & 0. road). . 
Storage battery (Pulhiian Co. . 
Direct current. (C.,M. & .St. P.) 
Lewis— operated from car axle. 


$968.00 
709.00 
650.00 
338.00 
SOO.OO 
400.07 
72.00 


"9^3 
27. 
18. 
12. 


360. 

148.8 

432. 

288. 

192. 

148 8 

148.8 


Sl,99 
0.944 
1.694 
0.977 
0.479 
0.943 
0.636 


19.90 
9.44 

16.94 
9.70 
4.79 
9.43 
6.36 


.88 
.82 
.70 
.54 
.39 


Oil 





Single Post Elevated Railway. 

The elevated railway system we illustrate, the invention of ]. P. 
Hanlon, Baston, is intended especially for electric traction, though any 
motive power can be used. The weight of the car or cars can be sus- 
tained equally by the upper and lower rails or three -fourths carried by 
one and one-fourth by the other, any of which dispositions will prevent 
lateral oscillation or any undue divergence of the cars from their proper 
path of travel ; hence by this system, it is claimed, a single post line for 
an elevated railway can be employed with the advantages of the least 
amount of friction, and safe, smooth and rapid transit. 

Kig. 1 represents a side elevation of the superstructure and car placed 
between the rails, the lower rail being supported by a series of columns 
or posts arranged along the curbing of the sidewalks, or centrally of the 
street, as may be preferred, or as circumstances dictate ; and the upper 



The length of the car, including platforms, is 50 feet; width of car, 6 
feet ; height, 8 feet. The seating capacity of each car is 7U passengers, 
and the carrying capacity 110 passengers. The weight, iucluding wheels, 
motors and 61) passengers is about 9 tons. 

The claims made for the system are as follows r 

A perfect natural poise and adjustment of the cars upon the rails, ren- 
dering it possible to combine such ease and smoothness with the greatest 
rapidity of motion that the impression received by a passenger or spec- 
tator is that of a swiftly gliding motion ; the peculiar construction of the 
superstructure, which offers the least possible obstruction to light and 
air; the mechanical impossibility of the cars leaving the rails, rendering 
an accident very improbable arid almost impossible ; the wheels being 
but few in number and natural in position, this system can be operated 
with one half the power required for any other system ; while all other 
systems require a large section of the superstructure to be moved on a turn- 
table to allow the cars to cross at right angles this system requires but a 
small portion of the upper rail only to be moved ; in switching, all other 
systems require that a large section of the superstructure be moved, while 
in the Hanlon system switching is done by moving a small portion of the 
upper superstructure only, as the lower rail moves without interfering 
with the lower part of the superstructure. 

This system of elevated railways has, we are inform-d, been critically 
examined by competent and impartial engineering and electrical e.\perts, 
who have pronounced it entirely free from all the dangerous and other 
objectionable features of the systems that have been or are now being 



/fr\) 





l-'lV.S. 1 AND 2.— The H.ANI.ON ElJCVATiai R.mi.wav. 



rail is supported by iron girders surrounding the car and resting on and 
supported by said columns or posts. Fig. 2 represents an end view of 
the superstructure and car between the rails with guard rails occupying 
a position on either side of the car hanger and about midway between 
the roof of the car and the upper rail. 

In rounding or traversing curves, and to prevent any tendencj' of the 
cars from leaving the rails, there are provided guard rails arranged con- 
centric with the upper rail line and supported by a series of oval iron 
girders. There are also two horizontally revolving anti-friction wheels, 
which are so located as to impinge against the guard rails when the car 
is traversing curves, and thus counteract any strain that may be brought 
on the upper and lower wheels and theii connecting parts. The .system 
is not confined to the particular disposition of the guard rails on curves 
alone, since they may be introduced continuously along the line, with 
equally good resu'.ts. In traversing curves, it w'U be understood that 
each wheel of the upper and lower sets is not only journalled separately, 
but also capable of motion within a pivoted truck, as is the case in 
ordinary railway car trucks ; hence it is obvious that each wheel will 
adjust itself to a curve of any radius, however small. 

Fig. 1 also illustrates the position of two safety hangers marked S S, 
which are attached to the car for the purpose of holding and sustaining 
the car on the upper rail in case any or all the wheels should be broken 
or displaced. 



considered in the Massachusetts legislature in connection with Boston 
rapid transit projects. It is the intention of the syndicate having charge 
of this system to make application to the Massachusetts legislature for 
a charter to construct, equip and operate said system through Bostou and 
its adjacent cities and towns. 



Direct Connected Multipolar Generators. 



The new type of direct conuected multipolar generators for lighting pur- 
poses which the General Electric Company has been manufacturing for 
some time past with signal success is herewith illustrated. It will be 
seen that a very large part of the material used is available for magnetic 
purposes. The magnetic circuits are shortened and a greater output with 
a higher efSciency can be obtained from a given weight and speed. 
Their shape in itself is an advantageous feature as it allows of a great 
saving in station space and consequent economy in real estate invest 
nient. 

The frames and pole pieces are cast from a special soft steel of very 
high magnetic permeability, and the construction of the armatures is 
such that a constant cuitent of air circulates through the core and wind- 
ings and provides the necessar>- ventilation. The armature windings 
consist of straight copper bars so connected as to render short circuits or 
similar troubles practically impossible. The insulation is built up of 



88 



XHK KIvKCTRlCAl^ WOKI^L). 



Vol.. XXIV. No. 4. 



alternate lainiiiatioiis of touKli paper and sheet mica, joining liiKli spark- 
re.sisting qualities with (treat mechanical strength and durability. The 
Miachines are designed for very small rise in temperature at full load, the 
limit on the st.-indard machines being only 40° C. above the surrounding 
air after a continuous run of ten hours, while in the dynamos constructed 
for the U. S. Government the limit is reduced to 2H° centigrade. 

The General IClcctric Company's multipolar generators are divided into 
two classes, the "smooth body" and the "iron clad, " the distinction 
lying in the construction of the armatures, the field frame remaining the 
same, with, of course, the number of poles differing with the capacity 
of the generator. The smooth body armature is used for the larger and 
the iron clad for the smaller sizes. In the smooth body armature the 
bars are separated from each other, and the constant circulation of air 
and the large surface area render the armature remarkably cool running. 
The bars connecting the inner and outer winding form the commutator, 
and as they are an integral part of the winding, the e.vtra resistance from 
connecting leads, contact surfaces, etc., an important consideration in 
large machines, is eliminated. Each of these armatures has practically two 
commutators, one on each side, so that when one has worn down the 
armature may be turned around and a new commutator be presented to 
the brushes which are all in view of the dynamo attendant from the floor 
of the engine room. These machines are spaikless. 

The iron clad armature derives its name from the manner in which the 
core is slotted. When the conductors are placed in the slots they becnme 



or quadruple 
engines of the 



Corliss type or vertical engines of the marine type, tripli 
compound. The smaller sizes may also be connected to 
high speed type. 

Improved Arc Lamp. 



This lamp, shown in the accompanying illustrations, manufactured by 
Samuel W. Kushinore, 89 Liberty street, New York, is designed to meet 
the requirements of a simple and durable lamp for street lighting on the 
constant current or arc dynamos. Its chief claims for improvement ovei 
other forms lie in its extreme simplicity and solid construction, together 
with a most perfect clulch feed mechanism, that works perfectly even 
after very long use. 

While the lamp contains a number of new features its most excellent 
ones are due to the careful design and the proper adaptation of 
devices that yearftof service have shown to be the best. The entire lamp 
frame is a .single and very simple casting. The feed clutch is very 
simple, and the electrical control of the feed is so powerful that it is not 
at all necessary to have the clutch in the best condition for an even feed. 

One of the greatest troubles with clutch lamps is the uneven wearing of 
the rod, and in this lamp the rod is made of phosphor bronze, insuring 





l)IKl'.l.T C<lNNi;CTI';i 



practically embedded in the body, and thus the iron of the armature 
being brought closer to the pole pieces, the reluctance of the magnetic 
circuit IS reduced and the capacity for a given weight increased. The 
copper when placed in these slots is not penetrated with magnetic lines, 
the total flux passing through the teeth. Large solid copper bars may be 
consequently used as conductors without loss from eddy currents, and the 
armature winding becomes an ideally simple mechanical structure. The 
ventilation, insulation and facility of repair are of similar excellence to 
those of the smooth body type. The commutators arc bolted directly to 
the body, and a flexible strip connects the sections of the windings with 
the commutator bars. On the larger sizes the clamping ring holding 
the commutator bars is made in sections. This allows of all the bars to 
be held in place with rigidity, and in case of a cross, or burn out of 
insulation between the bars, only a comparatively small section of the 
commutator need be disturbed to remedy the defect. The brush holders 
are all mounted on a spider or rocker arm, and may be all moved simul- 
taneously by means of hand wheels. The brushes arc of woven metal 
gauze, and upon which form of brush the General Electric Company 
holds the fundamental patents. 

These multipolar generators are made in sizes ranging from 25 kw. to 
800 kw. and for speeds ranging from 300 revolutions in the smallest to 
MO revolutions in the largest. They may be run at other speeds, giving 
of course a change from the normal voltage. At any speed the voltage 
of the generator maj- be raised 50 per cent, and loyvered 10 per cent, from 
the normal value which corresponds to this .speed without impairing the 
satisfactory operation of the machine. 

These machines may be connected directly to horizontal engines of the 



a much longer wear. The lamp has a positive cut-out that forms a part 
of the feeding mechanism and when the carbons are consumed the lamp 
is automatically short-circuited, in addition to the regular cut-out, .so 
there is no chance of an open circuit on the line. This lamp is made to 
burn fourteen hours on any constant current circuit. It has a hand switch 
is entirely waterproof, and is neat in appearance for interior lighting. 



New Commutator Lubricating Compound. 

The Knott Manufacturing Company. 7")(> Seventh avenue. New York, has 
placed upon the market a commutator lubricating compound that is meet- 
ing with much success. It is compounded on new principles and is 
claimed to avoid the objections urged against similar articles in the past. 
It is made up only of vegetable substances and contains no vaseline, 
parafliue, beeswax or glycerine. It is easily applicable to all descriptions 
of commutators and is claimed to be a great economizer of brushes and 
commutators. .\ feature to be considered in the use of such com- 
pound is that the brush upon being removed does not require immersion 
in benzine or other cleansing material, as the compound volatilizes upon 
application and leaves on the commutator a Jiighly polished and carbon- 
ized surface. 

A Hopeless View of the Case. 

"Improvements in primary batteries, while of considerable scientific 
interest, are of little or no commercial value." — London "Electrical 
Review." 



I 



July 28, 1894. 



THE ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



89 



New Telephone Switchboard. 



We illustrate herewith a new switchboard for telephone exchange work 
now being manufactured by the Western Telephone Construction Com- 
pany, of Chicago. The illustration shows a one-hundred subscriber 
exchange, 'which can be equipped either with metallic circuit or single 
wire. It is claimed for this board that it is the simplest switchboard yet 




circular movement of same all forward and backward speeds may be 
instantly obtained. This, together w'ith the back gears, at the rear of 
the swinging arm. gives not only a much wider range of speed than can 
be obtained by a cone pulley, but a much more finely graduated speed. 

The column swings around an internal stump and rests at its lower 
flange, A. on balls to insure easy movement. The thrust on the elevating 
screw at C and the drill spindle at B is also taken up on ball bearings. 
The drill head is moved on (he arm by a hand wheel, rack and spiral 
pinion, which is always within reach of the operator. The spindle is 
spring balanced, and fed by a rack and pinion in connection with the 
quick return, which can be instantly released, a valuable feature for tap- 
ping. The feed is obtained by pin gearing and can be changed while 
the drill is running. 



The Buffalo Grip. 



In the accompanying illustration is shown a simple but ingenious 
device for linemen, which has been found especially useful in telephone 




Telephone Switchboard. 



The Buffalo Grip. 



produced. Its compactness may be appreciated from the dimensions of 
the one-hundred subscriber boaid. which are 10 in. in width. 15 in. in 
length and 9 in. in depth, outside measurement, including cabinet. The 
operation is very simple. The electromagnetic armature is back of the 
jack, and the diop, or shutter, in front. The drop falls by gravity, and 
the same movement which inserts the plug into the jack restores the 
drop. It is also claimed for this exchange that it requires but one-third 
the service for the same number of subscribers as required by the most 
approved forms of board now in use. These switchboards are manufac- 
tured in all sizes up to one-thousand subscriber capacity. 



Motor Driven Radial Drill. 



The accompanying illustration is of a new half radial drill, built by the 
Lodge & Davis Machine Tool Company, of Cincinnati. O.. and designed 
to be driven by a direct connected motor. 

The motor is of the iron clad type, entirely covering the armature, pole 



line construction. It has been styled the "Buffalo grip." The cut gives 
a very clear idea of its construction and its method of operation can 
readily be seen. This tool is sold exclusively by the Western Electric 
Company, of Chicago and New York. 



A New Dry Battery. 



Since its introduction the popularity of the dry battery has been con- 
stantly on the increase on account of its adaptability to places and pur- 
poses for which a liquid cell would be impracticable. The dry cell will 
stand much hard usage and still be ready for service when called upon. 
In the accompanying cut is shown a cell of the Hiuimer dry battel y, 
manufactured by Vitalis Himmer, Sr., 182 Fulton street, New York. 

A recent improvement, invented by Vitalis Himmer, Jr., and embodied 
in this battery, has made it possible to furnish from a single cell a dis- 




THE 



DRY ' 

batjerv 

Vitalis HIMMER 

'82 FULTON ST. 
NEW YORK 



Improved Dry Battery. 



Motor Driven R.\dial Drill. 

pieces and field coils, with commutator and brushes extending outside of 
the motor housing. It is free from external magnetism, which is neces- 
sary in order to keep small particles of steel and iron from adhering to 
the drill. The armature is mounted on a bronze spider, which is attached 
to the cone pulley. 
The controlling lever is arranged on top of the motor, and by a semi- 



charge of from 12 to 20 amperes at 1.5 to 1.8 volts and maintain it for a 
considerable length of time. The depolarizing properties of the battery 
are exceedingly good, reco\-ering itself very quickly. This battery is 
particularly suited for cauterizing and other surgical purposes, as well 
as blasting and firing heavy guns, and should come into very general use 
for these purposes. In recent tests for the U. S. Navy, a battery of four 
cells gave 45 explosions per minute and reached 1.000 explosions before 
being exhausted. It is also being used for field telegraph and telephones, 
giving excellent service. 



thh: ki^kctkicai, \\'oui.i>. 



Vol.. XXIV. No. 4. 



financial 3ntclliaciK\\ 

The Electrical Stock Market. 



alple 



urface lines, the 
If the system is 



New York. July 21. 1894. 

THE ELECTRICAL STOCK MARKET has shown evidences of new life. The 
whole finnncial sitnation has been immensely eleared of recent days, and were 
it not for the uncertainty in regard to the ultimate fate of the tariff hill, all 
business quarters would be sure to feel a new impetus. As it is what trading; 
there is in the stock market is purely professional and the course of quotations 
reflects more the manipulation of the purely trading element than any specific 
development in business conditions. 

GENERAL ELECTRICS cour.se is a good indication of the effort to make quo 
tations. Very little has been really doing in the stock, yet at times there is an 
appearance of strength and activity more apparent than real. There is a big pool 
at work trying to boost quotations, but, with trading everywhere restricted and 
with outside interest in the market conspicuous only by its absence, it is hard 
work to doanything more than to keep quotations .steady. In their endeavor to 
put General Electric's price up a few points, the bulls on the property recite 
all kinds of favorable stories to warrant the stand they are faking. Efforts were 
made this week to revive the reports of a deal to equip the New York Elevated 
Railroad system with electric motors, but. as stated last week, while such a 
contract would be very pleasing to the General Electric people, the Manhattan 
Elevated Railroad Company has determined to await entering on negotiations 
to this end until the results of similar equipments on the two Chicago elevated 
lines are more fully established. An announcement of more definite value to 
General Electric stockholders is that the Metropolitan Traction Company has 
decided to experiment with an underground trolley systeui for 
patents of which are owned by tlie General Electric Company, 
found practicable, the Metropolitan Traction will equip all its new lines in this 
city with it. 

WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC i.ssues continue strong without being over 
active. There is a renewed disposition to buy the common stock in anticipation 
of the beginning of dividends at the time of the next quarterly distribution on 
the preferred stock; but the lifelessness characterizing the market prevents any 
decided trading. An officer of the Westinghouse Company is quoted as saying: 
"Business is keeping up better than was expected. The aompany expects to 
occupy its new shops at Brinton. near Pittsburg within the next 60 days." 

THE STREET RAILWAY AND ILLUMINATING PROPERTIES demonstrated 
again this week the value of the bargain made with the General Electric Com- 
pany by cancelling two_more lots of preferred stock out of the proceeds of divi- 
dends and interest payments on treasury assets. t)n the 16th there were pur- 
chased 506 shares at an average price of SIS.lb per share, as against S98.37S per 
share paid for 60S shares on July 11, and on the 20th inst. SOS more shares were 
bought at an average price of $09.10, making 13,561 shares purchased to date. 

AMERICAN BELL TELEPHONE stock holds very strong; the firmness is re- 
marked by interested traders, but no new developments have arisen to lend any 
peculiar significance to quotations. 

WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH is one of the strongest of the dividend-pay- 
ing group of stocks. The recent rise is said to have been due not only to a con- 
tinuance of the investment demand but to the operations of a small pool founded 
on the strength of the semi-official assurances that the earnings of the company 
were exceeding all expectations. In fact, it is understood that the revised 
statement of June will show a considerable increase over the preliminary esti- 
mate furnished at the quarterly meeting last month, while the receipts for July, 
despite the big railway strike, are said to be nearly equal to those for the corre- 
sponding period last year. 

PT. WAYNE ELECTRIC stock continues strong on assurances that it will 
realize in liquidation nearer $5.00 than $4.00 per share. The Fort Wayne Electric 
Co!Upany is running its factory "in liquidation" an^l the new Fort Wayne Elec- 
tric corporation is buying and reselling the output. A statement from the 
minority .stockholders in defence of their action in wresting the control of the 
compaiiy from the (General Electric is promised at an early date. 

MEXICAN TELEPHONE stock has been weak a little on reports of aggres- 
sive competition in the City of Mexico, but the Boston officials of the company 
say that they know of no new concessions having been granted, and, as they 
have the exclusive right to use Bell and Blake telephone patents in Mexico, it is 
hard to see how any otlier company can occupy the field. The operations of the 
company for the three months ended May 31 last show net earnitigs of $13,495, 
an increase of $2,396 over. a similar period in 1S93. 



ELECTRICAL STOCKS. 



Par 



Brush III., New York 

Cleveland General Electric Co 100 

Detroit Electrical Works 10 

East River Electric Light Co 10(1 

♦ b;dison Electric 111.. New York 100 

* " " " Brooklyn 1(H) 

" " " Boston 100 

" " Chicago ItX) 

• " " " Philadelphia 100 

Edison Electric Light of Europe 100 

Edison Ore Milling 1(X) 

Electric Construction & Supply Co,, com 15 

'' " pref IS 

Fort Wayne Electric liHI 

General Electric UX) 

Interior Conduit & Ins. Co. , . . ; 100 

Mount Morris Electric UX) 

Westinghouse Consolidated, com 50 

pref SO 

BONDS. 

Edison Electric 111., New York I.IXIO 

Edison Electric Light of Europe I'M 

General Electric Co., deb. 5's 1.000 

TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE. 

American Bell Telephone 100 

American District Telegraph 100 

American Telegraph & Cable lOO 

Central & South American Telegraph 100 



Bid. Asked. 



'.old & Stock Telegraph . . 
' Mexican Telegraph .... 
' Western Union Telegraph . 

•Ex. div. 



New Incorporations. 



CITIZENS' TELEI'HONI-; E.XCHANGE COMPANY. Jersey City, N. J., capital 
stock $150,000, has been formed. 

THE FIRE AND POLICE TELEGRAPH COMPANY. Louisville, Ky., has 
been incorporated, capital stock $50,000. 

THE MANSFIELD TELEPHONE AND ME-iSAGE COMPAVY. Mansfield. <>.. 
capital stock $.>0.000, h9s been incorporated. 

THE GRAND RAPIDS MACHINE ELECTRIC COMPANY, Grand Rapids, 
Mich., capital stock $10,000, has been formed. 

. THE DELAWARE VALLEY ELECTRIC RAILWAY COMPANY, Philadel 
phia. Pa., capital .stock $1,00(5,000, has been formed. 

THE PNEUMATIC FIRE ALARM TELEGRAPH COMPANY OF NEW YORK. 
Jersey City, N. J., capital slock $250,000. has been formed. 

THE MUSICAL TFXEPHONE COMPANY, Saco, Me., capital slock $100,000. 
has been formed to manufacture and deal in telephones, etc. 

THE DIU'IANCE LJGHT AND RAILWAY COMP.'^NY. Defiance. <)., capital 
stock 5100,000. has been formed to supply electricity and gas. 

THE MURPHY POWER COMPA.NY, Chicago. III., capital stock $3,000. has 
been formed to generate electricity for light, heat and power. 

THE CO-OPERATIVE HEAT, LIGHT AND POWER COMPANY, Sioux Falls, 
S. D,, capital stock $50,000, has been formed to generate gas, etc. 

THE NASCENT EXTR.-VCTION METAL CO.MPANY, Denver, Col . capital 
stock $100,000, has been formed to extract metals from earth by electricity. 

THE DULUTHSUPERIOR TRACTION COMPANY. Elizabeth, N. J , capital 
stock $2,0(X),000, has been formed for the purpose of operating street railways. 

THE UNITED ELECTRIC CORPORATION, Minneapolis, Minn., capital stock 
$10,000, has been incorporated to manufacture electrical apparatus and to oper- 
ate lighting, power and railway plants. 

THE FARIES MANUF.ACTURING COMPANY. Decatur, III., capital stock 
$^0,000, has been formed to manufacture electric light holders, etc, etc. Robl. 
Faries, Wm. E. Surface and E. P. Irving are the promoters. 

THE ELDRED ELECTRICAL MANUFACTURING COMPANY. Eldred N. V . 
capital stock $10,000, has been formed to manufacture and sell electrical appli- 
ances, engines, boilers and machinery. W. C. Ranney, L. B^ Doman and A. E. 
Doinan are interested. 

THE KEYSER ELECTRIC LIGHT COMPANY, Keyser, W. Va.. maximum 
capital stock $50,000, has been formed to produce and distribute electricity for 
lighting, etc. F. M. Reynolds, J. M. Templetou and Andrew Keenan, all of 
Keyser, are the promoters. 

THE SEATTLE HOME TELEPHONE COMPANY, Seattle. Wash. .capital stock 
$100,000, has been formed to do a telephone, telegraph and general electrical 
business. J. H. McGraw, J. D. Lowman, A. B. Stewart. A. M. Brooks and 
George F. Guild, all of Seattle, are interested. 

THE FIRE ALARM CONSTRUCTION COMPANY, New York, maximum capi- 
tal stock $1,000,000, has been formed to construct, acquire and operate systems 
of electric and other fire alarms, etc. Leopold Wallach. Henry >!■ Cross and 
Maurice Maas, all of New York, are the promoters. 

THE CINCINNATI ELECTRIC SERVICf; C0MP.\NY. Cincinnati, O., capital 
stock $10,000, has been formed to build and operate electric lines for telephonic 
communication and for other electrical service. M. T. Corcoran, Win. Cullcn, 
J. F. Dougherty, E. D. Whitehead and P. J. Corcoran are the intxirporalors. 

THE OSWEG.ATCHIE LIGHT AND P0W1-:R COMPANY. Gouverncur. N. Y., 
capital stock $60,000, has been incorporated by H. Walter Webb. A. G. Payne. 
Wm. J. Arkell. A. L. McCrea, Jr., and A. J. McDonald to furnish electricity and 
gas to Gouverneur. Edwards, Fowler and other towns in St. Lawrence CounI\'. 

THE UNITED ST.\TES ELECTRIC FORGING COMPANY', New York, max- 
imum capital stock $1,000,000. has been organized to l-uy and sell electrical ap- 
paratus for heating, forging, welding and otherwi.se treating metals. E. Garcia. 
New York, A. C. Garcia, Arlington, N, J., and B. J. Fredericks, New Y'ork. are 
the incorporators. 

ELIZABFVfH, N. J.— The Uuluth & Superior Traction Company has been in- 
corporated. The capital is placed at $2,000,IKX). It will engage in the business 
of constructing and operating electrical street railwaj-s in the cities of Duluth, 
Minn., and Superior, Wis. The incorporators are Edward V. Douglas, of Phila- 
delphia, John H. Davis, of New York, and Frank Bergen, of Elizabeth. 

THE GREAT KANAWHA FALLS, W.iTER POWER. ELECTRICAL MANU- 
FACTURING AND LAND COMP.'^NY, Charleston, W. Va., maximum capital 
stock $2,000,000, has been incorporated to utilize the water power of the Great 
Kanawha Falls and River for the production and transmission of electric power, 
etc, O. A. Patten, W. W. Tompkins and \V. D. Scott, all of Charleston, are 
interested. 



Special Corrcf^poiibcnco. 

New York Notes. 

OiFici-: OF Thk Electrical Wokli>. 
2S3 Broadway. New York. July 23. 1804. 

II-: nO\Rn of 1-:STIMATK and appropriation, of Brooklyn, has aii- 
izcd the issue ol 515,000 tor Ihe erection of new buildings for the fire deparl- 
t. jukI for conduits for the fire alarm. 

IK NASSAU ELECTRIC COMPANY, of Brooklyn, has begun to cart its ties 
rails on Rockaway avenue, and work will be speedily pushed on the new 
oad from Canarsie Shore to Brooklyn. 



I 



July 28, 1894. 



THE ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



91 



HIGHWAY COMMrsSIONp:R HORTON has given consent to the Coney Island, 
Kort Hainiltoji & Brooklyn Railroad to constrnct and operate a railroad by either 
horse or electric power in the varions streets of New Utrecht. 

THK COMMERCIAL CABLE COMPANY, JS3 Broadway, announces that its 
new and third Atlantic cable is completed and in working order. This is the 
tenth year of the company's existence, atid it maintains its reputation for speed, 
accuracy and reliability. 

MR. ADOLPH LAMBERT, travelling salesman, representing the Infinity 
Manufacturing Company, New York city, manufacturers of dry batteries, is 
meeting with marked success during his Western trip the past two weeks, having 
taken some very large orders. 

THE MANHATTAN GENERAL CONSTRUCTION COMPANY, SO Broadway, 
New York, the present agent for New York and vicinity of the Buckeye Elec- 
tric Company, has just been appointed the exclusive agent of that company for 
Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut, in addition to the territory al- 
ready covered by them. The Buckeye Electric Company has placed its interests 
in good hands. 

VITALIS HIMMER, SR., has resigned his position as geneial manager of the 
Himmer & Anderson Dry Battery Company and opened a factory of his own at 
182 Eulton street. New Y'ork. Having been for the past twenty-six years en- 
gaged in the manufacture of electric clocks and the various kinds of batteries, 
being the introducer of the Gastner dry battery, he is well qualified to conduct - 
the business and produce a battery equal to the best. His son, Vitalte Himmer, 
Jr., has recently brought out a valuable improvement in dry batteries described 
elsewhere in these colunius. 



phone exchange business will absolutely cease and determine in December, nil, 
and all they will have to sell will be their plant, and even this the Gove 
will be under no obligation to buy. 



New England Notes. 



Branch Office of The Ei-ECTRiCAt, Woki.d,") 

Room 91, Hathaway Building, 620 Atlantic Ave., I 

BOSTON, Mass., July 21, 1894. j 

THE HARRISON SAFETY BOILER WORKS have established an Eastern 
branch office under the management of Mr. Sumner B. Merrick, at No. 19 Pearl 
street, Boston, Mass., who will give his personal attention to their interests 
throughout the New England States. 

GREENFIELD, N. H. -The town of Conway has voted to raise SS.OOO toward 
the stock of the electric road from Conway to the depot. The road is primarily 
for freight, but passengers will also be carried. Work will be begun at once. 
The balance of capital, $20,000, has been raised by private subscription. 

LAWRENCE. MASS.— The new extension of the Lowell, Lawrence & Haver- 
hill Street Railway to Glen Forest. Methuen, has been opened to the public. 
The line was christened by the annual excursion of the Meirimac River Boards 
of Trade on July 10. Messr.s.Soule & Dillingham, the contractors, are receiving 
much praise for the excellent style of the equipment. 

MAYOR MATTHEWS is determined to precipitate action with reference to 
burying wires within the corporate limits of the municipality in accordance wiUi 
the law enacted by the last Legislature. The nomination of Hon. John R. 
Murphy as Commissioner of Wires under the law was made bv the mayor in 
order to hasten work, for it is the purpose of the latter to have matters in such 
shape that preparatory work will have been finished in season to permit cor- 
porations to place their wires beneath street surfaces early this Fall. 



Enqlfsh Notes. 



(From our own Correspondent.) 

London, July 11, 1894. 

THE FAURE PATENT. -The owners of the Faure patent in this country are 
petitioning the Privy Council for an extension thereof. 

A DAVY-FARADAY RESEARCH LABORATORY.— Mr. Ludwig Mond, of the 
well-known firm of chemical manufactiirers, Brunner. Mond & Co., has just 
made a munificent gift to the Royal Institution. He has purchased the large 
house adjacent to the Institution, and proposes to erect therein a laboratory to 
be called the Davy-Faraday Research Laboratory, which he also proposes to 
equip and endow in a manner in consonance with the demands of modern 
science, for the purpose of enabling research work in "physical chemistry" to 
be carried on. 

ELECTRIC RAILWAY- ENTERPRISE IN LONDON.— As I wrote to you some 
time ago the onerous terms in connection with the running of workmen's trains, 
which the London County Council sought to impose upon the promoters of the 
proposed electric railway which was to run from the city to Epping Forest, 
caused the promoters of the scheme to withdraw it. The withdrawal showed 
the London County Council pretty plainly that the promoters were in earnest 
when they said capital could not be raised under the conditions proposed, and 
the result has been that the County Council reopened negotiations with the pro- 
moters of the bill, and a compromise has been arrived at which will result in 
the bill going forward during the present session of Parliament. 

A PRACTICAL UTILIZATION OF CATHODE RAYS.— The curious rays eman- 
ating from the cathode of a discharge tube, which as Dr. Phillip Lenard has 
recently shown are both photographically active and magnetically .susceptible, 
have not had long to wait before a more or less practical application has been 
made of their properties. In a recent communication to the Academic des 
Sciences. M. Albert Hess proposed to let a cathode beam fall upon a rapidly 
moving photographic film, and to expose the beam en route to the action of a 
rapidly varying magnetic field or fields. If this suggestion prove really practi- 
cable, it would enable us toobtaiu a sort of inertialess Ewing curve tracer. The 
Fiwing curve tracer has hitherto been limited, owing to its inertia, to a freq\iency 
of about 20. 

THE (loVERNMENT AND THE TELEPHONES.- The public pronounce- 
ments and general attitude of the Post-Office towards the National Telephone 
Company have all along been of a very ambiguous character, and it is some sat- 
isfaction that an importunate member of Parliament at last should have suc- 
ceeded in drawing something really definite from the Poslmaster-Ceneral. 
There is, 1 believe, some slight doubt as to the terras upon which the Post Office 
will be able to purchase the telephonic plant of the National Telephone Com- 
pany, when its license expires in 1911, but, according to the Post Office reading 
"I the license, the right of the National Telephone' Company to carry on tele- 



Hctps of tl^e VOceh 



Telegraph and Telephone. 



MEMPHIS, TENN.— The Novelty and Electric Company, it is reported, has 
assigned. 

SALISBURY, N, C— J. Allen Brown and E. B. Neave have .secured a franchise 
for constructing a telephone system, and are now in the market for the neces- 
sary equipment. 

PIKENIXVILLE, PA.— The Police Department has concluded to pnt in a pri- 
vate telephone service, but has not yet deciiled upon the system it will use. Com- 
munications may be addressed to the superintendent of police. 



Council ol Baraboo is considering the ilitro- 
cgarding purchase of electric 
Building. 



Electric Light a nd Power. 

ST. GEORGE, N. B.-The peoplJ are agitating for electric lighting. 

LONGUEUIL, CAN.— An electric light system is to be established here. 

GUTHRIE. OKL.A. — It has been ordered that electric lights be placed in the 
new county hall. 

BAR.\BOO, WIS.— The Comn 
duction of arc lights. 

RICHMOND, IND.— Address Win. S. Kaufn 
lighting outfit, bells, etc. 

INDIANAPOLIS, IND.— Adclre.ss R. P. Daggett St Co., 28 Ma 
concerning electric lighting outfit to be bought. 

MEMPHIS, TENN. -Johnson, Carrnthers & Rand Co. may be addressed con- 
cerning a 20-h. p. electric motor about to be purchased. 

SPOKANF;, wash.— William Moore, city clerk, may be written to as to the 
cost of furnishing that city with lights for street illumination. 

PHILADKLPIIIA, PA. -The Yearsley- Harris Electric Company has changed 
its title to the Harris Electric Company, Thomas \"earsley having retired. 

HOPKINTON. lA.— Hopkinton has decided to have electric lights, and will 
grant an exclusive franchise to maintain an electric light plant there for a term 
of 20 years. 

FLORENCE. S. C. -Address W. E. Sudlow & Co. regarding electric .supplies 
wanted. Prices are desired on transformers 10s. 20s or 30s, or about 200 incan- 
descent lights. 

READING, PA. -The City Council is considering the advisability of the city 
owning its own electric light plant, and has in.structed the city clerk to inquire 
as to cost of same. 

BOSTON, MASS.— Bo.ston is to have another new theatre on the site of l?ie old 
Arena at Ferdinand and Isabella streets. South End. The theatre will have its 
own electrical plant. 

MASSILLON, O.— Sealed proposals will be received until August 9 for the erec- 
tion of a power house for the Massillon State Hospital. Yost & Packard, Massil- 
lon, O., are the architects. 

GOODLAND. IND. -The Goodland Herald is publishing an advertisement for 
sealed proposals for an electric light plant at Goodland of 35 arcs and 1.000 in- 
candescent capacity. The bid is to be opened July 25. 

PITTSBURG, KAN.— A charter was granted to the Pittsburg & Frontenac 
Suburban Electric Railway Company. Capital $75,000. Samuel Barrett and A. L. 
Chaplin, of Pittsburg, and Carl J. Simons, of Chetopa. 

SPOKANE, WASH.— The Centennial Company's Cereal Factory is being im- 
proved. The mill owns 250 h. p., and is only using 140. To make use of the 
wasted power a complete electric light plant will be put in. 

NEW YORK CITY, N. Y.— Architect James Ireland has drawn plans for a 
new one-story brick electric light station, 22x57, at Nos. 204 and 206 Elizabeth 
street, to be built by the Brush Electrical and Illuminating Company. 

WAUSAW, WIS.— At a meeting of the Council the special committee appointed 
to ascertain the cost of an electric light plant reported that a plant could be put 
in at a cost not to exceed $17,000. No definite action was taken by the Council. 

ARCADIA. WIS.— At a meeting of the City Council it was decided to do awav 
with kerosene lamps and use electricity exclusively. Arcadia has had an elec- 
tric plant for some time, but it has been used only for lighting the business 
houses. 

B.AY'ONNE, N. J.— The new electric light company, in whose behalf a petition 
for a franchise lyas presented to the Council, is composed solely of Bavonnc 
stockholders— Messrs. Geo. Carragan, Edward F. White, J, S. Packart and Dr 
Samuel Myers. 

NORWALK, CONN.— The Norwalk and South Norwalk Electric Light Company 
has had a receiver appointed in the person of L. C. Whitney on a petition brought 
by the first mortgage holders. Mr. Whitney is superintendent of the New Britain 
Electric Light Company and has filed bonds for $20,000. 

MANITOU SPRINGS. COL.-C. W. Barker, of the Barker House, is interested 
in the project of establishing a $600,000 sanitarium to be lighted from the com- 
pany's own electric plant. Electricity will be used in every way as far as possi- 
ble, p. Baer, of Philadelphia, is also interested. 

FREDONIA. N. Y.— Robert S. Bishop, president of .\merican District Steam 
Company— Holly undergouud system— is here looking over the plans of the 
Electric Heat and Power Company, which proposes to put in the Holly heating 
system in Fredonia. as well as an incandescent light plant. 

WASHINGTON, D. C.-The syndicate of local and foreign capitalists, which 
recently bought the major part of tht- "low grounds," and all of High Island, 
intend to invest about $750,000 in the plant of the scheme and manufacture 
enough electricity to supply the entire city with light and power. 

TORONTO, ONT.- It was decided to call for tenders for lighting the citv on 
the same conditions as at present, the tenders to be in by .\ugust I. ' When the-^e 



92 



THE EI^ECTTRICAL WORI^D. 



Vol. XXIV. No. 4. 



ttiiflers are in the cominitlee will consider whether the figures offered are such 
as to make it advisable to have the lighting done by a private company. 

TOMAHAWK. WIS.— Mr. nr.-idley will soon commence the erection of a build- 
ing at the rear of Library Hall to be used as a power house to furnish electric 
light and steam heat for the Mitchell House, the Irvington Stables, Library Hall 
and the Tomahawk office. Address W. H, Bradley, president Tomahawk Hotel 
Company. 

SKATTLK, WASH.— A resolution was passed relative to the city lighting, di- 
recting the city engineer and city electrician to submit to the City Council on or 
before July IS a plan for the lighting of the streets. At present there are many 
duplicate arc and incandescent lights, and the present contract with the com- 
pany expires October 1. 

ONTARIO, CANADA.— Address City Engineer K. H. Keating concerning a 
proposed municipal vlectric liglrting system requiring a plant for l,.'iOO lights 
of 2,0(MI candle-power each, to cost $310,000 and to be operated at an expense of 
$106,000. the lamps burning all of every night, or equivalent to $82 per year per 
lamp, against $109 now paid to private parties. 

SPOKANK. WASH.— Sealed proposals will be received until August 8 for fur- 
nishing the city of Spokane with light for its streets and public places. Bidders 
will be required to .state the price per lamp per month, and candle power. All 
lights must be furnished on what is known as the all-night schedule on each 
and every nis^ht of the year. William Morse is city clerk. 

ACKLEY.LA.— H.D.Bruening.who has managed the Eldora Electric Light plant 
since the start, has severed his connection with the company, and will unite 
with his brother. D. S. Bruening. of Ackley. and start an electric light plant at 
that jjlace. The machine shops of S. D. Bruening will be fitted with dynamos. 
etc.. and a three-wire Edison system will be put in in a short titne, 

NEWARK. N. J.— Sealed proposals will be received until July 31 for plumbing, 
gas fitting, piping and electric wire conduits for the United States Custom House 
and Postoffice Building at Newark, N. J., in accordance with drawings and 
specifications. Each bid must be accompanied by a certified check in a sum not 
less than two per cent, of the amount of same. Address Jeremiah O'Rourke, 
Supervising Architect. 



The Electric Railway. 



WILLIAMSBURG, VA.— Address the Mayor regarding the proposition to con- 
struct an electric railway. 

CHATTANOOGA, TfiNN.— The Chattanooga Electric Railway is placed on 
record as having appointed a receiver. 

COLUMBUS, GA.— The North Highlands Railroad Company has been granted 
a franchise for operating an electric railway. 

SAUNDERSVILLE. GA.— J. N. Gimore may be addressed as to the proposed 
electric railway from Saundersville to Tennile. 

WESTMINSTER. MD.— The Baltimore Traction Company will extend its line 
from Baltimore to Westminster and to Washington. 

HAZEL HILL, N. S.— A project is on foot to run an electric railway from 
Hazel Hill to Canso, N. S.. a distance of three miles. 

PORTLAND, IND.— A franchise has been granted for an electric railway be- 
tween Red Key and Dunkirk, and for lighting both with electricity. 

WILLIAMSBURGH. VA.— The formation of a stock company to build an 
electric railway to King's Mill Wharf is in contemplation. 

RUTHERFORD, N. C— Address Jonah White concerning a proposed electric 
railway to be built from Rutherfordton to Chimney Rock, a distance of 17 miles. 

TURTLE CREEK, PA.— The Turtle Creek Valley Electric Railway Company 
proposes to extend its line through Braddock, Turtle Creek, Wilmerding, and 
out to Irwin. 

SYRACUSE. N. Y.— The Syracuse, Eastwood Heights & DeWitt Railroad Com- 
pany will complete the railroad which is partially constructed between this city 
and East Syracuse. 

SAGINAW. MICH.— An ordinance giving the River Park Railway the right of 
way to construct and operate an electric street railway on certain streets was 
passed with objection. 

CANANDAIGUA, N. Y.— M. Dwight Munger, of the Canandaigua Electric 
Light and Railway Company, has contracted to furnish electric lights for the 
village of Palmyra, N. Y., for ten years. 

BALTIMORE, MD.— Address Thos. S.Hodgson, 6 East Lexington street, presi- 
dent Somerset Electric Light and Railway Company, concerning 2}^ miles of 
electric railway, which is to be constructed. 

CLEVELAND, O. — An ordinance has been passed granting the Cleveland 
Electric Railway right to extend and operate its double-track street railway in 
Quincy street from New street to Wilson avenue. 

HOMER. N. Y.— A franchise having been granted to the Cortland & Homer 
Traction Company to run its cars through this village by electricity, the 
work of changing will begin as soon as possible. 

KNOXVILLE, PA. — Kiioxville Borough Council met and discussed the question 
of constructing a new electric line from that place to Mt. Lebanon and Castle 
Shannon. A special meeting will be held Wednesday next to act on the scheme. 

BOSTON. MASS. — Four pieces of land on Eagle street, near Eagle Square, in 
East Boston, comprising in all 300.000 square feet of land, have been secured by 
the West End Street Railway Company for the site of the new power house for 
the electric railway system in East Boston. 

MONTCLAIR. N. J.— Applications for franchises for electric street railways in 
Moutclair over three designated courses were received Irom the North Jersey 
Street Railway Company and referred to a .special committee, composed of 
Messrs. Thompson, Sawyer. Simms and English. 

TORONTO, CANADA.— Messrs. Eraser, Morton and H. H. Dewart, solicitors, 
appeared before the York Township Council asking for the privilege of extend- 
ing the City & Suburban Electric Railway from its present terminus at Toronto 
Junction along the Weston road south to the village of Weston. 

LAUREL. MD.— .\t a meeting of the City Council this week a franchise was 
granted to Messrs. Phelps & Shaffer to build and operate a street railway, with 
either electric or horse power. The road is to be completed in two years. Tlie 
probability is that the road will be operated by electricity, generated by water 
power. 



DIXON. ILL.— The City Council has adopted an ordinance granting a fran- 
chise to the electric railway company for the laying a-nd operating of a street 
car line through the city of Dixon. The sy. stem is to bea part of the Rock River 
Electric Railway from Rockford to this city, the light of way for which has 
already been secured. 

READIN(i, PA.— The Reading & Temple Electric Railroad Company hasasked 
permission to extend its line, beginning at Front and Robeson streets, east on 
Robeson to Centre avenue, to Bern street, connecting at that point with the 
tracks of the Reading Passenger Railway Company on Centre avenue, and re- 
turning by the same'route. 

DOWNINGTOWN. PA.— A few days ago a group of Downinglown's roost in- 
fluential citizens were talking about the borough needing an electric railway. 
One of them said that he considered it would be a good investment for private 
capital to build an L road between this borough and West Chester, and he 
thought the road conld be built for about ?W.000 or $50,000. 

M'KEESPORT, PA.— Attorney J. A. Henderson, Homer H. Sweeney, Jas. and 
Dr. Suckstager, all of McKeesport. have made ajiplication for a charter, grant- 
ing them right of way over Youghiogheny River at foot of Fifth street, and also 
for the purpose of bridging the river and constructing an electric railway three 
miles long, costing $600,000. to connect Glassport with this place. 

ALLEGHENY. PA.— Work on the survey for an electric railway, which will 
connect Pittsburg with Tarentum. Natrona. Springdale. Freeport and all the 
numerous intervening towns on the north side of the Allegheny River, was re- 
cently comp4eted. The -same company of Allegheny capitalists which* owns a 
charter covering a proposed line to Butler by way of Etna and Glenshaw. is 
said to be interested in the Tarentum and Freeport line. 

WASHINGTON, D. C — In the House Mr. Baker introduced a bill authorizing 
the Rock Creek Railway to extend a single track from V Street down Seven- 
teenth, to P, to Fifteenth Street, and from Florida Avenue down Eighteenth 
Street to R. to Fifteenth Street, to I, to Thirteenth, to B. ta Seventh; also on 
U Street through Mt. Pleasant on or near Seventeenth Street, to Rock Creek and 
Zoological Park. Cable or electric power may be used. 

DIXON, ILL.— The City Council has granted a franchise to the electric rail- 
way company for the laying and operating of a street car line through the city 
of Dixon. The system is to be a part of the Rock River Electric Railway from 
Rockford to this city. The right of way has already been secured. The fran- 
chise gives the company the right to use the wagon bridge over the Rock River. 

YONKERS, N. Y.— The North and South Railway Company has been incor- 
porated to construct a street surface road about five miles in length, in Yonkers. 
to run from the vicinity of Shonnard Place to the southern boundary of the city 
of Y'onkers on South Broadway. The capital is $50,000, and the directors are 
William Delavan Baldwin, S. T. Hubbard. John C. Shotts and T. H. Silkman, 
of Yonkers, and others. 

TRENTON, N. J.— The New York & Philadelphia Traction Company has been 
incorporated. The capitalization is $10,0(X1.000. The incorporators are: Ex-Mayor 
Frank McGowan and James P. Durrah. of Trenton, and Jos. H. Reall, of Bloom- 
field. Associated with them are D. K. Bayne. of New York, and others. The 
company proposes to construct ISO miles of track ia the State of New Jersey, 
and to connect New York with Philadelphia by a trolley road. The route will 
be through Newark, and thence by the most direct route to Trenton. Spurs will 
be built to connect the main line with Paterson, New Brunswick. Rahway. 
Elizabeth and other cities. The city has the right of way by two routes from 
this city to Philadelphia. One is down the east bank of the Delaware to Cam- 
den. The other is on the opposite bank. 



« Personal Notes. 

MR. HENRY B. OAKMAN, as his many friends will he pleased to le; 
ccepted the general Eastern agency of the Wenstrom Electric Conipaii 
Oakman is one of the youngest 



Mr 




the electrical field, having been born in 
1S70 in Brooklyn. He received his early 
education in the common schools of that 
city, and at the age of 16 entered the elec- 
trical field by going with the Electric 
Supply Company, 17 Dey street. New- 
York, as office boy. His energ>' and 
ability soon pushed him to the front and 
he rapidly rose to the position of salesman 
and afterwards of buyer. Before he was 
hS he accepted a position with the Long 
Distance Telephone Company as special 
agent and remained with that company 
for one year. He then organized the Em- 
piie Safety Manufacturing Company, oc- 
cupying the position of treasurer, a place 
which he held for about two years. In 
January, 1801. he accepted an offer from 
the Edison General Electric Company as 
H. B. OAKM.^N. city salesman. b\tt in course of a few 

weeks was promoted to the position of State agent for Connecticut, with offices 
at New Haven. He remained here but a few months when he was sent to 
Buffalo by the Edison Company to select a site tor a store and show rooms. Soon 
afterwards he was appointed general Western agent of the Edison Company for 
the State of New York. This place he filled most satisfactorily to the company, 
but on the con.solidation of the Edi.son and Thomson-Houston companies he re- 
signed, and believing in the future of the Wenstrom apparatus he accepted a 
position with the Wenstrom iClectric Company. The result was that he has been 
appointed its general Eastern agent. He also found it advisable to incorporate 
a company to handle the specialties in which he has become interested, and 
accordingly the Oakman Electric Company has been incorporated with Mr. 
oakman as treasurer. 



Miscellaneous Notes. 



CHESTER, TA,— (".round has been broken on the left of Science Hall at 
Swarthmore College for a new building, to be devoted to apparatus and lecture 
rooms for an electrical department. 



July 28, 1894. 



THE EIvECTRICAL WORI^D. 



93 



THK S. K. TARIKF ASSOCIATION has. on the rccoiiiiiiemlatiou of its elec- 
trician. Mr. A. M. Schoen, decided to adopt the rules of the Underwriters' In- 
ternational Electric Association for the installation of electric apparatus. This 
shouUI be gratifying news to the Southern electric workers, 

AN KXPLANATION.— In this column of our issue of June 30 we printed a 
humorous account, clipped from a local paper, of the alleged result of connect- 
ing a trolley wire with a wire fence to keep out trespassing animals. We are 
informed that the article does an injustice to a very worthy man and we regret 
that it found a place in our columns. 

MR. ALLEN RIPLEY FOOTE read a paper before the Northwestern Elec- 
trical Association at St. Paul on July 18. entitled "A Question of Public Policy; 
Shall Public Services be Rendered by Political or Private Monopolies." The 
argument is an examination of the article in the platform of the Knights of 
Labor calling for the Government control and operation of all means of trans- 
porting intelligence, passengers and freight. The general principle is laid down 
that non-competitive businesses should be owned and managed by private mo- 
nopolies under properly guarded franchises and contracts, and a lengthy discus- 
sion defines the character of these limitations. 



feel ( 



iiiident at all tii 



i that 



ch specialty is the best of its 



Crabc aiib 3nbustrtal Hotc5. 

T. W. NESS & CO., electrical supply dealers, Montreal, Can., have failed with 
liabilities of $40,000. 

THE BALL ENGINE COMPANY, Erie, Pa., reports that its shop is rapidly 
filling up with work, and that it has received some very large orders during 
the past few days. 

THE SOUTHERN ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION COMPANY. At- 
lanta, Ga.. of which E. W. Dutton is manager, has closed a contract with the 
Atlanta Cotton Mills for a complete light plant of 400 lights. 

THE OHIO VALLEY ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMPANY, 84 Johnston 
Building, Cincinnati, O.. has been employed to build a fire and police alarm 
system for the city of Clifton, one of Cincinnati's most beautiful suburbs. 

SCRANTON, PA.— The Scranton Electric Construction Company has applied 
for a charter for the purpose of manufacturing and furnishing electric plants. 
Those who are interested are E. P. Sturges, F. E. Piatt, O. 3. Johnson and 
others. 

THE HARRISON SAFETY BOILER COMPANY. Philadelphia, is building one 
8-inch and four 12-inch Cochrane high pressure horizontal separators for use on 
the steam mains of the Philadelphia Electric Traction Company's Delaware 
avenue power house. 

THE ELECTRIC APPLIANCE COMPANY. 242 Madison street. Chicago, 111., 
has found a new field for its Packard-Mogul lamp in the special illumination of 
parks by street railway companies, as an attraction to increase their passenger 
traffic. The Mogul lamp is claimed to be particularly adapted for this class of 
work. 

THE GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY in April. 1891, installed four 100 
kw. multipolar direct-driven dynamos in its Schenectady shops. These have 
served as examples of the economy and ease of operation of this class of gener- 
ator, and since then the company has sold nearly 30,000 kw., or about 40,000 h. 
p., of these machines. 

BRADLEY & COMBS, 7 Stone street, Rochester. N. Y., have issued a descrip- 
tive pamphlet and price list of their universal telephone switch hook. This 
hook does not. it is claimed, infringe any Bell Telephone patent, and is compact, 
neat, universal in application and compulsory in operation, and is well made 
both electrically and mechanically. 

MR. L. W. COLLINS will hereafter be associated in business with Mr. C. E. 
Lee. 65 Lees Building, 147-153 Fifth Avenue, Chicago, dealer in electrical special- 
ties. Mr. Collins is too well and favorably known to need an introduction here. 
The new firm will continue with the class of goods which Mr. Lee has hitherto 
handled, adding occasionally other specialties of merit, according to the 
demands of the trade, but it is not the intention to carry so large a line but that 



class. 

ARMATURE WINDING.— We take pleasure in publishing the following ex- 
tract from a contribution received from Mr. S. W. Rushmore, 126 Liberty street. 
New York, in reply to an iten: which appeared in these columns last week in 
regard to his sy.stem of armature winding. Mr. Rushmore says- "My winding, 
although resembling the method described^by this party, is radically different, 
and the method described by them cannot be applied to the Edison armatures 
with success, and that method can be used only on plating dynamos of a few 
volts potential." 

THE METROPOLITAN ELECTRIC COMPANY, of Chicago, had an interest- 
ing experience in the great strike. They had on hand an order for a lot of rail- 
way material that was particularly wanted for the4th of July, in order to enable 
the railroad manager to fulfill his contract to run a special excursion. The first 
blow of the strike was especially effective, and practically stopped the movement 
of all freight trains. The Metropolitan Company, by working hard, succeeded in 
loading the material on a special car and sending it out by express all right. It 
reached its destination on time, and the excursion was run as though there were 
no strike whatever. 

THE POPPOWITSCH ELECTRIC COMPANY has purchased a tract of land in 
New Haven and is proceeding to build thereon a factory which will accommo- 
date 500 to 600 workmen. The company is, meanwhile, manufacturing on a 
small scale at 215 Java street. Brooklyn. The new factory will be devoted to the 
manufacture of a number of new inventions.among which may be mentioned the 
"depotarite'' batteries, which are made for bell and other open circuit work, 
and also for electroplating, electric lighting and motor work on a small scale. 
George Zucker's Sons. 108 Fulton street, New York, are sole agents for all the 
manufactures of the company relating to electroplating and galvanoplasty. 

THE HARRISON INTERNATIONAL TELEPHONE CONSTRUCTION COM- 
PANY, on account of the large deriiand for the Harrison telephone, has decided 
to move its general offices to the Chamber of Commerce Building, Chicago, 
where, in future, all communications relating to the establishment and construc- 
tion of exchanges or lease of telephones should be addressed. The general office 
of the parent, or Harrison International Telephone Company, will remain as 
heretofore, at 44 and 46 Wall street. New York. On the 1st of August the Harri- 
son International Telephone Construction Company will place on the market 
the Ford automatic switchboard, which is a device by which connection can be 
automatically made, and the central office and operator dispensed with. 

SAMUEL W. RUSHMORE. 126 Liberty Street. New York, reports that his fac- 
tory in Jersey City is completely filled with orders for arc lamps, search lamps, 
commutators and heavy dynamo repairs. He has just closed a contract to rebuild 
the dynamos of the North -Attleboro Steam and Electric Company, of Pawtucket. 
R.I., whose station was burned last February, and has also arranged to rebuild 
the large and small machines that were but partly damaged in the fire of the 
Electric Power Company at St. George, Staten Island. He has orders on hand 
for twelve search lamps and Mangin mirror lamps, six for the Southern Pacific 
Steamship Company, and for a number of prominent yachtsmen. Some of the 
lamps are made specially for running on 500 volt circuits, and a number have 
been sold this season to railroads for exhibitions. Mr. Rushmore is now putting 
in some special machinery and will take on a dozen more men. He also reports 
having great success with the new spiral armature winding. 



Business Hottces, 



BATTERY CUT OUT CHEAP.— Sensitive, reliable, never requires attention. 
Gas lighting much improved by its use. Electric Supply Company, of 105 South 
Warren street, Syracuse, N. Y. 

OPEN AND CLOSED CIRCUIT CELLS.— The Hayden carbon porous cup No. 1; 
the Hayden carbon porous cup No. 2 cell ; a Leclauche clay porous cup cell ; a 
standard Fuller cell; a No. 2 Fuller cell; a single cylinder carbon cell; a double 
cylinder carbon cell. All reliable and efficient, and at prices lower than ever. 
THE HAYDEN-BOOKER MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 2140 DeKalb street, 
St. Louis, Mo. 



3Uustratcb Jlecorb of (flectrtcal Patents. 



U. S. PATENTS ISSUED JULY 17, 18<H. 

522,964. MANUFACTURE OF INCANDESCENT ELECTRIC LAMPS; H. D. 
Burnett, Lynn, and S. E. Doane, Swampscott. Mass. Application filed 
December 3, 1892. A fork for the manufacture of incandescent electric 
lamps, provided with a screw threaded tang, and handle 61 non-conducting 
material having a screw threaded socket to engage with this tang. 

522,983. GALVANIC BATTERY; G. Hewitt, New York. Application filed Sep- 
tember 19, 1S93. In a gravity battery, a carbon battery, a carbon porous cup 
containing bichromate of potash crystals in combination with a solution of 
bisulphate of soda outside the carbon porous cup. 

522.986. SYSTEM OF ELECTRIC DISTRIBUTION AND GENERATION; E. J. 
Houston, Philadelphia, Pa. Application filed November 17, 1887. The com- 
bination with a source of currents of low electromotive force of an induction 
coil having a low tension primary and high tension secondary, the commu- 
tator in the primary, the. commutator in the .secondary timed to change its 
connection in unison with the changes in the primary, the condenser across 
the terminals of the commutator, and the condenser across the terminals of 
the primary, 

522.999. ELECTRICAL CONNECTION CORD; A. H. McCulloch, Boston. Mass. 
Application filed February 6, 1894. A flexible conductor consisting of a 
flexible non-conducting tube and a fluid conductor such as mercury, filling the 
same from end to end. 

523.019. COMMUTATOR FOR DYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES; E.Thomson, 
Swampscott. Mass. Application filed February 10, 1894. In a commutator a 
series of sub-segments surrounded by a band whereby the sub-segments are 
held in place, in combination with an outer set of wearing segments secured 
to the sub-segment?. 

523.027. ARMATURE BaIr AND METHOD OF MAKING SAME; G. "Weber 
and C. W. Marcley. Rotterdam, N. Y. Application filed Deceriiber 22, 1893. 



An armature bar wrapped with mica paper having a smooth finished 
surface, 

J,055. PROCESS OF MAKING BATTERY PLATES: William L. Silvey. Day- 
ton. O. Application filed September 9. 1892. The process of making second- 
ary batterj' plates which consists in submerging a perfoiated cathode and 
a lead anode in combined alkali and acetic acid solution, connecting the 
cathode and the anode with a source of electrical supply and thereby deposit- 
ing the metal of the latter in the perforations of the former, then removing 
the plates from the solution, next subjecting them to pressure to compact 
the spongy deposited metal, and finally washing them in water. (See illus- 
tration). 

J,074. ELECTRIC SWITCH; Jesse F. Kester, Buffalo. N. Y. Application filed 
November 28, 1893. The combination with the contact block and the switch. 
lever, of a face plate secured to the face of the contact block and consisting 
of a non-sparking composition, and a contact plate secured to the lever and 
adapted to pass from the block to the face plate upon opening the switch. 

J.1D4. ELECTRIC RAILWAY SUPPLY SYSTEM: W. A. Butler. New York. 
Application filed March 16, 1894. In an electrical railway system, a series of 
contact devices arranged above the roadway at intervals and connected by a 
guide in combination with an elongated conductor carried by the car and 
having one or more grooved wheels running upon this guide. 

5,119. QUADRUPLEX NEUTRAL RELAY; Charles D. Haskins, Brooklyn. N. 
Y. .application filed April 3. 1893. The combination with an electromagnet 
provided with a stationary core, of a pivotally mounted armature adapted to 
be affected by the electromagnet and ser\-ing as the core of a stationary 
helix of the electromagnet, the helices being equivalent as to magnetic in- 
ductive influence upon their respective cores, these cores being equivalent 
as to magnetic susceptibility : whereby reversal of the current flowing in the 
helices causes the magnetization of the cores to fall, change sign and rise 
in unison. 



94 



XHK ELECTRICAI^ WORIvD. 



Vol. XXIV. No. 4. 



523.120. KI.ECTRIC SIONALINC. ArPARATlS; W. W. Hibbard, Rochester. N. 
Y. Applicatijii filed August 12. 1893. The combiualiou of a main circuit 
pf-ovided with signal boxes, a side circuit, a magnet for controlling the side 
circuit, a diflfcrentiating apparatus with which both circuits are electrically 
contiected. a circuit breaker driven by suitable mechanism and restrained by 
an electric stop, a magnet for releasing the stop, electrodes attached to the 
differentiating apparatus in line with the circuit breaker, and a magnet for 
operating a register at the central station. 

523.121. IJLECTRIC SIGNAI.INC. APPARATUS: W. W. Hibbard. Rochester, 
N. Y. Application filed August 12, 1893. The combination of a main circuit 




X7_ 



,«*— '^J^- 



No. 523,055.— Process oi- Making Battkky Pirates. 

composed of two wires provided with signal boxes, a difTerentiating 
apparatus having electrical connections with the main circuit, a signal box 
attached to the main circuit, and a lateral circuit extending therefrom pro- 
vided with thermostats or manuals. 

523.122. DIFFERENTIATING APPARATUS FOR ELECTRIC SIGNAL SYS- 
TEMh; W. W. Hibbard, Rochester, N. Y. Application filed August 12. 1893. 
The combination with a main circuit of a differentiating apparatus, two 
insulated electrodes with which the terminals of the main circuit connect, a 
circuit breaker provided with contact points which rest in line with the 
electrodes, and means for giving motion to the circuit breaker, the whole 
so arranged as to close the circuit through the main line by the engagement 
of the contact point with the electrodes and to open it by their disengagement. 

523,1^3. ELECTRIC SIGNAL BOX; W. W. Hibbard. Rochester, N. Y. Applica- 
tion filed August 12. 1893. The combination with a main circuit composed of 
two wires, of a signal box attached thereto, a tripping device connected with 
one wire, and suitable electrical connections, the whole capable, when in 
action, of opening the wire, transmitting a signal over the other wire and 
of closing the first wire again after transmitting the signal. 

523.124. ELECTRICAL SIGNAL BOX; W. W. Hibbard, Rochester. N. \'. Appli- 
cation filed August 12. 1893. The combination with a movable arm. resting 
over the face of the box, two manual stops, one in advance of the other, for 
restraining the movable arm, and an electrical stop succeeding the manual 
stops for restraining the arm, the electrical stop being controlled by an elec- 
tromagnet. 

523.132. MAtiNETO CALL BOX; C. E. Scribner, Chicago. 111. Application 
filed November 6, 1891. The combination with a calling generator, of a mov- 
able contact piece and a movable block, a fixed contact anvil and a fixed 
block mechanism in connection with the driving gear of the generator, 
allowing the movable block to bear against the fixed block and to close the 
movable contact piece upon the fixed contact piece when the generator is 
idle, and circuit connections joining the fixed block to a telephone line, the 
movable block and the movable contact piece to one end of the armature coil, 
the fixed contact anvil to the other end of the armature coil and to earth. 

523,140. ELECTRIC MOTOR; J. K. Denison. New Haven, Conn. Application 
filed April 6. IS'M. A barrel shaped armature core having a face curved in 
longitudinal section with alternate long and short ribs thereon, in the grooves 
between which are to be wound the armature coils. 

523,144. ELECTRIC ARC LAMP: W. E. Frost. Lewiston, Me. Application filed 
July 31, 1893. The combination with top and bottom frame plates and posts 
connecting the same, of insulated collars surrounding the posts, and two part 
compound binding posts clamped together about the collars. ■ 

523,146. CONDUIT FILECTRIC RAILWAY; C. U. Jenuey. Indianapolis. Ind. 
Application filed March 5, 1S94. The combination in a conduit railway 
system of a conductor bar mounted to permit a vertical movement, frame 
work carrying the conductor bar and capable of a lateral movement, and 
springs attached to the bar and to the frame and operating lo support or 
carry a portion of the weight of the bar. 

523.160. ELECTRICAL CONDUCTOR: G. H. Ulakesley. Briston. Coiiii. (Vppli- 
cation filed .\pril 7, 1893. A flexible conductor consisting of a body of flat 
tape into the edges of which are incorporated previously insulated wires or 
cables for transmitting electricity. 

523.161. MEANS FOR VENTILATING ARMATURES: T. C. Coykendall. Ron- 
dont, N. Y. Application filed October 17, 1893. The combination with a 
dynamo-electric machine or motor, of a pulley having arms and fan blades 
mounted on the inner face of the rim between the arms thereof. 

523.164. SUPPLY SYSTFIM FOR ELFXTRIC RAILWAYS; K. H. Johnson. New 
York, and Robert I.uudell. Brooklyn. N, Y. .\pplication filed December 19. 
ia*)3. A conducting contact brush secured by a pair f>f links or amis to a 
rigid support beneath the b..dy of a c;.r or veliicU-, the arms being located 
in the same vertical plane and having parallel luovL-iueut therein. 



523.165. SUPPLY SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC RAILWAYS; E. H. Johnson. New 
York, and Robert Lundell. Brooklyn. N. Y. Application filed January 16. 
1894. A sliding contact brush detachably secured to a brush support having 
pivoted connection through a cross bar or standard with the body of a car oi 
vehicle, in combination with a spring connectilig the brush support and its 
sustaining standard whereby the brush is given positive downward pressure 
against the trolley conductor as the car advances. 

523.166. SUPPLY SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC RAILWAYS; E- H. Johnson. New 
York, and Robert Lundell. Brcoklyn, N. Y. Application filed February 10. 
1894. An electric railway provided with an insulating conduit and a series of 
branch or suh-feeder insulating conduits, the feeder conduit being embedded 
in the roadway and the sub-feeder conduits having their exterior ends 
secured in an insulating stringer or support which sustains a series of sec- 
tional trolley conductors. 

523.172. ELFXTRIC RAILWAY CROSSING INSULATOR; H. B. Nichols and F. 
II. Lincoln, Philadelphia, Pa. Application filed May 9, 1894. Thiscomprises 
an arm of insulating material with a slotted and recessed body and having 
channeled metal wings with projections and detachable clamps, a seat of 
insulating material engaging the reces.ses portion of the arm, channelled 
metal arms formed with a slotted or recessed casting provided with forked 
ends engaging the arm and having cun,'ed projections on both sides thereof, 
and detachable clamps connected with the metal arms. 

523.204. INCANDESCENT LAMP:W. E. Forest. New York. Application filed 
August 1. 1893. The combination of a globe provided with a conical neck, a 
perforated stopper fitted to the narrower portion of the conical neck, a per- 
forated stopper fitted to the wider portion of the conical neck, a glass tube 
provided with leading wires inserted in the stoppers, and a body of 
plastic cement surrounding the glass tube and filling the space between the 
glass tube, the inner wall of the conical neck and the adjacent surfaces of 
the conical neck. 

523,247. MAGNETO-ELECTRIC MACHINE: E. Tilmann. New York. Appli- 
cation filed November 22, 1893. An armature for magneto machines com- 
posed of a diametrical core, coils wound on the core, an insulating partition 
separating the coils and core plates extending over the coils. 

523.264. MATERIAL FOR MAKING ELECTRIC LIGHT FILAMENTS; G. A" 
Cannot, London. England. Application filed December 12, 1893. This con- 
sists of a thin yarn of peat fibre carbonized and treated in the ordinary way. 

523.271. CONDUIT ELECTRIC RAILWAY: J. W. FCisenhuth, San Francisco, Cal. 
Application filed March 12. 1894. The combination of supporting chairs, an 
insulated conduit mounted thereon, an insulating partition dividing the 
conduit, conducting the wires mounted on each side of the partition in the 
conduit but in.sulated therefrom, and a trolley adapted lo engage the conduct- 
ing wires. 

523,276. TELEPHONE TRANSMITTER; T. Grissinger. Mechanicsburg. Pa. 
Application filed May 24. 1894. In a telephone transmitter the combination 
with a diaphragm and fixed electrodes laterally connected with conducting 
wires, of a granulated variable resistance medium confined in contact with 
the electrodes and a plunger connected with the diaphragm and arranged to 
exert a varying pressure on the granulated material. (See illustration.) 

523,278. ELECTRIC RAIL BOND; J. G. Hallas. Waterbur>-. Conn. Applica- 
tion filed May 1, 1894. A bond tor rails of electric roads consisting of a body 
of uniform size having one or more coils formed from the metal of the bond, 
the ends adapted to be passed through adjoining rails, angular shoulders 
formed by bending the metal at a right angle, and which are adapted to set 
up against the under sides of the rails and the ends of the bonds to be headed 
down on the upper sides. 

523.284. BONDING JOINT FOR ELECTRIC RAILWAYS; A. L. Johnston. Rich- 
mond, Va. Application filed May 5. 1894. The combination of a rail per- 




No. 523,276.— Telephone Transmitter. 

foratcd to receive a bonding connection, a bonding wire, with a nut adapted 
to the hole in the rail, the nut having a flange adapted to bear against the 
surface of the rail. 

i.305. INCANDESCENT ELECTRIC LAMP; J. E. Criggal. Springfield. Mass. 
Application filed June 11, 1894. A tube of glass having the leading in wire 
which is extended longitudinally through it. a vitrified substance in the lower 
portion of the tube, a body of rubber cement next above and a body of plaster 
closing the month at the top of the tube. 

5.306. ELECTRIC RAILWAY; H. A.. Doty, Janesville. Wis. Application filed 
March 27, 1894. A conductor for electric ralways. comprising a covered wire 
and thin. flat. bare, projecting lugs rigidly secured to the wire and in longi- 
tudinal alignment. 

5,313. ELECTRIC RAILWAY SYSTEM; R. M. Hunter, Philadelphia. Pa. 
Application filed March 14, 1889. The combination of a positive and nega- 
tive working conductor for supplying current to the motors on the cars, a 
generator having one of its poles connected to one conductor,, and its other 
pole connected with the other conductor through a variable resistance. 

(.319. ELECTRICAL CONDUCTOR FOR TROLLEYS; J. W. F:isenhnth. San 
Francisco, Cal. This comprises a main conductor of low resistance and a 
series of short tubular comluctors. each haviiii; permanent electrical con- 
nection with trolleys, etc. 



The Electrical World. 



Vol. XXIV. 



NEW YORK, AUGUST 4, 1894. 



No. 5. 



PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY BY 

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1883 " 63 






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The first iss 


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Vol. XXIV. NEW YORK, AUGUST 4, 1894. No. S. 

CONTKNTS. 



Editorial 

Pupin's System of Cable Working 

Nikola Tesla 

Practical Notes on Dynamo Calculation — XII., by A. E. Wiener . . . 

Earthquake in Tokyo 

Convention of the Northwestern Electrical Association 

A Question of Public Policy, by Allen R. Foote 

Incandescent Lamps; Their Use and Abuse, by A. D. Patfe 

Cost of Producing Electrical Energy, by B. J. Arnold 

Another Inoperative Unipolar Machine 

Treatment in Case of Accidents 

Another Revolutionizing Railway System 

Sine Form of Curves of Alternating E.M.F 

An Experiment that Failed, by J. S. B 

The Measurement of Polyphased Currents, by A. D. Lunt 

Digest of Current Technical Electrical Literature, compiled by Carl 

Hering 

Moonlight Tables for September, 1894 

New Books 

A New Telephone Transmitter 

Manchester Type .Slow Speed Motor 

Railway Generator Switchboard Panel 

Feeder Wire Splicer 

Wireman's Corner Brace 

Electric Launch Battery Controller 

DEPARTMENTS: 

Financial Intelligence 

Special Correspondence 

News of the Week 

Trade and Industrial Notes 

Business Notes 

Illustrated Record of Electrical Patents 



ENGLISH JOURNALISM. 

We are so used to reading slandering, stinging and cutting 
remarks in English journals about America and American inven- 
tions, that we have ceased to notice them, except when tliey furnish 
us amusement. They remind us of the snarling and barking of the 
little dog while he is safely behind his master's fence. But it seems 
to us that the editor of a prominent London conteniporan,', which 
we esteem too highly to name here, has gone beyond the bounds of 
courteous international criticism, when, in a recent issue, he replies 
to an American author, who, with pardonable pride, referred to the 
"American Republic" as "man's greatest political institution," by 
saying that the "political institution" is a "gigantic failure," and 
that it was converted "in one short century to a mere plutocratic 
t3-ranny. ' ' We hope the editor felt a little remorse when he saw 
his remarks in print, especially when hq noticed that a large share 
of the articles in that very issue of his journal — three out of four of 
the leading technical articles — were of American origin, the fourth 
being an unacknowledged translation of a French article. While 
we do not mean to argue that good technical articles could not 
originate in a country which is a "gigantic failure" or a "mere 
plutocratic tyranny, " yet it does seem to us that a country in which 
so much good and original work is being done in electrical and 
other branches of engineering deserves to be treated a little more 
respectfully than to be called a "gigantic failure. " If the remarks 
of the editor were caused by a fit of indigestion, chronic liver com- 
plaint or some such ailment from which he was suffering, he ought 
to get a substitute until he feels better. Such remarks can do no 
technical paper any good. 



RAPID TRANSIT IN BOSTON. 

The majority of votes cast at the referendum election in Boston 
last week for a combined elevated and subway scheme of rapid 
transit finally gives sanction to that project, but judging from the 
violent letters written to the local newspapers in regard to it. the 
result seems far from producing general satisfaction. Both the sj-s- 
tem and the methods used to promote its adoption are energetically 
attacked, and there seems to be a prospect of a good-sized scandal 
in the future. As we have remarked before in these columns, 
underground electrical rapid transit plans seem to repel politicians 
everywhere as they did in Boston, apparently for the reason that they 
do not present the multifarious chances of "pickings" that elevated 
roads involve through condemnation and damage proceedings, 
street franchises, blackmail, etc. The rapid transit commission 
appointed by the Governor of Massachusetts in 1891 reported against 
underground roads for the reason that but little time could be saved 
if passengers had to descend below the surface fifty or sixty feet, 
and then reascend at the end of a mile or less, and the further 
reason that the shock from plunging into the ' ' icy chill of these 
damp sub-cellars" would render their adoption of more than doubt- 
ful expediency^this in face of the success of electrically operated 
underground roads in Europe! As to the arguments that had 
weight in turning sole attention to the system adopted, the follow- 
ing extract from a signed letter in the Boston -Pos/ is significant: 
"In my opinion a bigger scheme for interior boodleism was never 
"carried through the Legislature. What the modus operandi of 
"securing and dividing the boodle will ultimately turn out to be I 
"do not know, nor any one else outside of the cabal who manipu- 
"lated the legislative wires and hypnotized the opponents of the 
' ' deal in the Legislature, and nearly all the Boston press. The 
■ ' history of the so-called rapid transit in this State is a disgrace to 
"those who control such affairs, and I am convinced this last deal 
' 'will capsheaf the whole unsavor)' monument of selfish grasping on 



96 



THK BLECTRICAL WORJLO. 



Vol. XXIV. No. 5. 



' ' the part of corporations and would-be corporations and the weakness 
"ot IcKislators. " 



THE NORTHWESTERN ELECTRICAL ASSOCIATION. 

The recent meeting of the Northwestern Electrical Association at 
St. Paul was so successful, not only in attendance, but in the 
character of the papers read, and the interest maintained through- 
out in the procceedings that the gentlemen at the helm whose skill- 
ful work led to this result deserve unusual credit. There was a 
noticeable lack of the merely perfunctory papers sometimes so 
painfully predominant at similar meetings, and if this characteristic 
is maintained there is no reason whj' the success of the present con- 
vention may not be repeated, and even surpassed. No greater mis- 
take can be made by such bodies than to place upon their pro- 
gramme papers that contain no original value, and are merely 
collections of commonplace remarks strung together for the occa- 
sion. The paper that apparently came nearest to the interests of 
most of those in attendance was the very able argument of Mr. 
Allen Ripley Foote in favor of private against political ownership and 
operation of non-competitive public enterprises. The convention 
did well to order this paper printed for wide circulation, for the 
tone of it is such as not to arouse violent prejudices on eithe r side 
of the question. The arguments are of such a character that a par- 
tisan on one side may quote them to an equal partisan on the other 
with the assurance of a respectful hearing, and not with the usual 
result of further confirming prejudices. It will be seen that the 
position of Mr. Foote is not strictly an ex parte one, for while lay- 
ing down the principles in favor of private ownership he also lays 
down the necessary ones for the protection of the public against 
possible abuses of such ownership. His contention is not that the 
private ownership'and operation of non-competitive public enterprises 
shall be exercised as would be a strictly personal and private busi- 
ness, but that such owner shall have the advantage of the economic 
principles which do not conflict with the public welfare, not as a 
natural right, but because the public interests are thereby best 
served. This puts the matter in a light that will go far toward dis- 
arming the prejudice created in even perfectly fair rainds bj' the 
intemperate claims of some opponents of public ownership. The 
paper of Mr. Page is a contribution to the subject of incandescent 
lamp economy which will be the more appreciated because it is not 
written from any theoretical point of view, but considers the ques- 
tion with reference only to the practical points involved, and the 
way these clearly affect the station manager. His remarks on the 
fallacies of giving undue weight to long life, and of expecting any- 
thing but bad results from raising the voltage on old lamps, as well 
as his observations on the desirability of uniformly maintained volt- 
age, on keeping individual records of lamps, and on the relations to 
customers, cannot be too deeply considered by central station mana- 
gers. In a future issue we shall discuss some of the conclusions of 
Mr. B. J. Arnold's paper. 



FIRE ROOM ECONOMY. 

The paper read by Mr. John C. McMynn at Chicago brings up a 
subject that will soon receive more general attention than it has in 
the past. Heretofore there have been so many other directions in 
which obvious savings in central and power stations could be made 
that the fire room has been neglected, but now that dynamo 
machinery is practically perfect, and the economy of the steam 
engine is receiving close attention, the considerable savings that 
may be made in the boiler department will, in turn, be taken up. 
It is well, therefore, to examine into the various factors influencing 
the eflicieucy of this department in order to see in what directions 
savings can be made, and the relative amounts. A lioiler trans- 
forms the chemical energy of coal into the expansive energy of 
steam, and like in all other transfonnatious of energy, perfect 
efficiency cannot be attained. To consume the coal air must be 
used, which at once introduces an element of inefficiency, for 
almost ninety per cent, of the weight of gas admitted pa.sses off in 
an ■unconibincd state, but with its temperature increased, and the 



part of the oxygen utilized, as well as the gases from the coal, also 
carry off heat. The less air admitted, therefore, and the lower its 
temperature when it passes into the atmosphere, the less heat will 
pass off. With mechanical stokers the former condition can be 
approximately attained, and only the exact quantity of air necessary 
for conibu.stion admitted to the furnace. Through their use, there- 
fore, an undoubted gain may be made, which, however, it seems 
high to place at 30 per cent, unless the hand firing superseded was 
unusually inefficient. The gain from mechanical .stokers not only 
results from allowing a proper regulation of air, but also from pre- 
venting great wastes in opening furnace doors for firing, and in 
permitting a more efficient combustion of fuel, if accompanied, as 
we believe they always are, with means for mechanically working 
the fires. By increasing the ratio of the heating to the grate surface 
the outgoing gases will be further cooled, but as each square foot of 
such surface added decreases in heat absorbing power on account of 
the decrease in the difference of temperature between it and the 
outgoing gases, a commercial limit is .soon reached, beyond which 
it would not pay to add further surface, and as in practice it is 
probable that such a limit has been attained, there is not much, if 
anything, to look for in this direction. The difference of tempera- 
ture between the ingoing and outgoing gases maj- be decreased by 
heating the former, thus introducing a saving. but the reverse will be 
theca.se, it should be needless to .say, if the steam in Ihe boiler 
supplies the heat, as seems the condition in the case quoted in the 
discussion of Mr. McMynn 's paper. The gases, after they have 
passed by the steam surfaces of the boiler, ordinarily can be drawn 
on for sufficient thermal units to heat both the entering air and 
feed water, but even here there is a limit with natural draft, for the 
gases must have a considerable temperature, depending upon the 
height of the chimney, to furnish the necessary draft head. With 
blowers, however, we have a different set of conditions, and their 
use, in connection with mechanical stoking, seems to present ideal 
conditions for efficiency. With blowers the air required can be 
regulated to a nicetj', and for all rates of combustion; being 
independent of natural draft, the gases, after doing duty in the 
boiler, may be forced into a second chamber, and by passing over 
feed water surfaces and finally over thin pipes through which the 
air for combustion is drawn, their temperature may be reduced 
below a point possible with natural draft. The pressure at which 
the blowers should be worked will depend upon the mechanical 
obstruction offered by the above surfaces, and their useful heat 
absorbing area, so that-without these data it cannot be predicted. 
For a given case it would be determined by the final temperature 
of the escaping gases. The only economy in the use of blowers is 
to reduce this temperature, and as the difference of temperatures 
between the boiler surface and gases cannot be economically reduced 
below a certain point it will be seen that feed water or air heating 
surfaces, or both, are uecessarj- to attain this economy-. There are 
cases, of course, where blowers may be used with economy, though 
leading to a direct waste of heat, as in stations w'ith a sharp peaked 
load line where the wa.ste, during the short time daily the blowers 
are used, may be more than compensated for by less first cost of 
boilers, less space occupied and less waste during the other hours 
from radiation, banked fires, etc. ; also where a cheap grade of fuel 
may thereby be substituted for a more expensive one. It is proba- 
ble that with the combination here outlined a boiler efficiency of 
probably 80 per cent, may be attained. At present 75 per cent, is 
a very high figure for boilers in normal condition, while SO per 
cent, is perhaps nearer the u.sual efficienc}', so that we have a mar- 
gin of SO per cent, for savings, though, of course, this will be 
reduced by the interest on, maintenance of, and cost of working 
the increased apparatus. We have assiuued that condensing engines 
would be used with the boilers, for otherwise the cost of change to 
that type would ordinarily offer enough of an economical margin to 
put off the fire room for future attention. It has also been assumed 
that such obvious matters as boiler lagging and setting are attended 
to, for it would seem to be useless to expect an intelligent interest 
in any question from a man who loses IS per cent, by an inferior 
boiler setting, though we doubt if such- cases are as frequent as Mr. 
IMcMynn's remark would seem to imply. 



August 4, 1894. 



XHE ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



Pupin's System of Cable Working. 

Our esteemed American contemporary, The Electrical World, is 
somewhat put out at some remarks which we recently made with 
reference to Dr. Pupin's system of increasing the speed of working 
of submarine cables. If we have exceeded the bounds of courteous 
criticism in the remarks in question, we unreservedly withdraw 
them, though, at the same time, we must adhere to the main facts 
of our contention. When an invention is based wholly, or almost 
wholly, on theory, it is often extremely difficult to point to where 
the fallacy lies, and it is far better to bring forward the evidence of 
practical knowledge and experience to prove the argument. In 
the present case we chiefly based our remarks upon the results of 
very numerous experiments which we happen to know have been 
made during several years past by the electricians of the British 
Postal Telegraph Department upon Wheatstone automatic fast speed 
working. In order to obtain high speed on long circuits, it has 
been found necessary to introduce "repeaters" at intermediate 
points, so as to bring the working "K R" within the limits neces- 
sary to give the high speed. The apparatus for this purpose is 
somewhat complex, and in the course of the numerous experiments 
which have been made, a very great number of trials were carried 
out with shunted condensers at one or more intermediate points to 
see whether the division of the line with such condensers would 
not enable fast speed working to be obtained without the use of 
repeaters. The result of the experiments was to clearly indicate 
that the tendency of such contrivances was to reduce, and not to 
increase, working speed. The actual arrangements tried were much 
on the same lines as those indicated by Dr. Pupiu, though possibly 
certain of the combinations suggested by the Doctor were not experi- 
mented with. We should be the first to congratulate the inventor 
if he could practically show that he has actually hit upon a method 
which effects the object which he theoretically believes he has 
arrived at; but in the absence of the application of the touchstone 
of experiment we must remain incredulou,s. We shall, however, 
look forward with interest to the development of Dr. Pupin's work, 
and hope that we have been mistaken in our estimate of it. It has 
been our fortune (or misfortune) on more than one occasion to have 
to listen patiently to the enthvisia,stic arguments of inventors, who 
with apparently perfect logic have conclusively- proved their 
contentions, but in the end the disappointed inventor has 
nearly always found that the result has not been what 
he anticipated. Facts are stubborn things; an unfortunate 
citizen had managed to get in the meshes of the law and to 
be incarcerated in the county gaol; his legal adviser, who had been 
sent for, and had carefully listened to his client's statement of woes, 
after a little reflection assured him that he need not alarm himself. 
"I have carefully considered your statements, and am perfectly 
satisfied that you cannot possibly be imprisoned for what you have 
done." The unfortunate citizen did not seem much comforted. 
"What is the use of your telling me I can't be shut up? Confound 
it, man, here I am." — London Electrical Review. 



Nikola Tesla. 



The Sunday World of July 22 prints an interesting half-page 
article on Nikola Tesla, written by Mr. Arthur Brisbane, and 
accompanied by a portrait which we reproduce, without, however, 
the full caption which was as follows: "Nikola Tesla. Showing the 
Inventor in the Effulgent Glory of Myriad Tongues of Electric 
Flame After He Has Saturated Himself with Electricity." In de- 
ference to the well-known modesty of Mr. Tesla, we will not re- 
produce the newspaper writer's highly complimentary description 
of his personality and achievements, but confine ourselves to the fol- 
lowing extracts, containing his remarks on the future of electricit)' 
and on the effects on the human body of high voltages coupled 
with high frequencies. 

In answer to a question from the interviewer as to what he hoped 
to .see accomplished by means of electricity, Mr. Tesla replied : 
"You would think me a dreamer and very far gone if I should tell 
you what I really hope for. But I can tell you that I look forward 
with absolute confidence to sending mes.sages through the earth 
without any wires. I have also great hopes of transmitting electric 
force in the same way without waste. Concerning the transmis.sion 
of messages through the earth, I have no hesitation in predicting 
success. I must first ascertain exactly how many vibrations to the 
second are caused by disturbing the mass of electricity which the 
earth contains. My machine for transmitting must vibrate as often 
to put itself in accord with the electricity in the earth. ' ' 

When asked if he did not feel a little worried a,bout taking a cur- 



rent of a quarter of a million volts, Mr. Tesla said. "I did at first 
feel apprehensive. I had reasoned the thing out absolutely; never- 
theless, there is always a certain doubt about the practical demon- 
stration of a perfect!}' satisfactory theory. M}- idea of letting this 
current go through me was to demonstrate conclusively the folly 
of popular impressions concerning the alternating current. The 
experiment had no value for scientific men. A great deal of non- 
sense is talked and believed about 'volts, ' etc. A million volts 
would not kill you or hurt you if the current vibrated quickh- 
enough — say half a million times to the second. Under such con- 
ditions the nerves wouldn't respond quickly enough to feel pain. 
You see, voltage has nothing to do with the size and power of the 
current. It is simply the calculation of the force applied at a given 
point. It corresponds to the actual pressure per square inch at the 
end of a water pipe, whether the volume of the water be great or 




NlKOI^A Tksi,.\. 

small. A million volts going through you doesn't mean much 
luider proper conditions. Imagine a needle so small that the hole 
it would make in going through your body would not allow the 
blood to escape. Imagine it so small that you couldn't even feel it. 
If )'ou had it put through j'our arm slowly, that would be, electri- 
cally speaking, a very small voltage. If you had it stuck through 
your arm with great rapidity, going, say, at the rate of a hundred 
miles a second, that would be very high voltage. Voltage is speed 
pressure at a given point. It wouldn't do you anj' more harm to 
have a needle shot through your arm very rapidh- — that is to say, 
with high voltage — than it would to put it through slowly. In fact, 
if it hurt you at all, the slow operation would probably hurt more 
than the other. The question of danger is simply the size of cur- 
rent, and yet if a big enough current should be turned against you 
and broken with sufficient rapidity — if it should, so to speak, jerk 
back and forth an inconceivable number of times to the second — 
it wouldn't kill you. Whereas, if applied continuously, it would 
simply burn you up. ' ' 



98 



THE ELECXRICAIv WORLD. 



Vol. XXIV. No. 5. 



Practical Notes on Dynamo Calculation.— XII. 



BY ALFRED E. WIENER. 

26. Grouping of Armature Coils. Formula for Connecting. 
A g^eneral formula for connecting the conductors of a closed 
coil armature has been given by Arnold' as follows : 
If K = Number of conductors arranged around armature core ; 
a = Number of conductors per commutator segment ; 
b = Number of bifurcations of current in armature ; 
b = 1, single bifurcation, or 2 parallel circuits ; 
b = 2, double " " 4 " " ; etc. 

P = Number of pairs of magnet poles ; 

y = "Pitch," or "spacing" of armature winding; i. e.. the 
numerical step by which is to be advanced in connecting 
the armature conductors; 
then the number of armature conductors can be expressed by 

K =.a X (/'X J'± *), 
from which follows the connecting formula for any armature : 

J- = ^ X (^ + 6 ). (63) 

The general rule, then, for connecting any armature, is: 
" Connect the end (beginning) of any coil, x, of the armature to 
the beginning (end) of the (.r +>')"' coil." 

For the various methods of grouping the armature coils, the 
above formula is applied as follows : 

a. Parallel Grouping. — In this method of connecting there are 
as many parallel armature branches as there are poles, viz. : 2 P 
circuits, or P bifurcations. Spiral winding, lap winding and 
wave winding may be applied : 

(1.) Spiral Winding and Lap Winding. — In this case the multi- 
polar armature is considered as consisting of /^bipolar ones, and 
independently of the number of poles, P—\ and 6 = 1 is to be 
inserted in (63), and the formula applied to a set of conductors 
lying between two poles of the same polaritj'. 

(2.) Wave Winding. — Here the actual number of pairs of poles, 
P, and the actual number of bifurcations, b = P, is to be intro- 
duced in (63), and the formula applied to the entire number of 
conductors. 

/). Series Grouping. — This is characterized by having but two 
parallel armature circuits, or one bifurcation, no matter what 
the number of poles maybe; for series connecting, therefore, 
we have b = 1. 

In the special case of /* = 1, bipolar dynamos, the series con- 
necting is identical with the parallel grouping, and the winding 
maybe either a lap winding (spiral winding) or a wave winding; 
the latter holds good also for P= 2 ; i. e.,for /our po\a.r machines. 
For dynamos with more than four poles, P> 2, however, series 
grouping is only possible by means of wave winding. 

c. Series Parallel Grouping. — In the mixed grouping the num- 
ber of bifurcations is greater than 1, and must be different from 
P, hence in the connecting formula we have b > 1 and b ^ P. 

In this case there are either several circuits closed in itself, 

with separate neutral points on the commutator, or one single 

closed winding with b parallel branches. The latter is the case 

A' 
ii y and — are prime to each other ; the former if they have a 

common factor; this factor, then, indicates the number of inde- 
pendent circuits. 

.»7. .■Ipplication of Connecting Formula to Special Cases. 

a. Bipolar Armatures. 

(1.) For any bipolar armature the number of pairs of poles, as 
well as the number of bifurcations, is = 1 ; furthermore, the 
number of coils per commutator bar is usually = 1 ; consequently 
rt = 1, if in the connecting formula the number of conductors, 
A', is replaced by the number of coils, n. For ordinary bipolar 
armatures, therefore : 

P-\,a-\,b = \\ ^ = « + l (64) 

(2.) If the number of commutator segments is half the number 
of armature coils, i. e., two coils per commutator bar, then 

P = 1, a ^ 2, b = I : y = -^ +1 (65) 

b. Mtdtipolar Armatures with Parallel Grouping. 

(1.) By multiplying the bipolar method of connecting, we have : 

/•= 1, a = 1,6 = 1; jc = « + 1 (66) 

This is a spiral winding ; beginning and end of neighboring 

' E. Arnold, Die Ankenvicklunpen der Gleichstrom Dynamomaschineii. 
Berlin, 1891. 



coils are connected with each other, and a commutator connection 

made between each two coils. The number of sets of brushes is 

2P. 

For multipolar parallel connection and spiral winding with 

but two sets of brushes, either n divisions may be used in the 

commutator, and the bars, symmetrically situated with reference 

to the field, cross-connected into groups of /'bars each — or only 

n 
—p segments may be employed, and P coils of same relative 

position to the poles connected to each bar by means of /"sepa- 
rate connection wires. 

(2.) In connecting after the wave fashion by joining coils of 
similar positions in different fields to the same commutator 
segment, the following formula is obtained : 



P-P, a = 1, * = /';.... y 



P 



(« -f P) 



(67) 



If y and n have a common factor, this method of connecting 
furnishes several distinct circuits closed in itself, the common 
factor indicating their number. 

(3. ) UP similarly situated coils are connected in series between 

n 
each two consecutive commutator bars, only -„■ segments, but 

2/* sets of brushes are needed ; the winding is of the wave type, 
and the connecting formula becomes : 



P-- 



P,a = P,b = P; y=^(^ + p) = ^, + \ 



(68) 



c. Multipolar Annatures with Series Grouping. 

(1.) If all symmetrically situated coils exposed to the same 
polarity, by joining the commutator segments into groups of P 
bars each, are connected to each other, they can be considered as 
one single coil, and we obtain : 



P= P,a = \, b 



y = p (« + l) 



(69) 



Each brush, in this case, short circuits /"coils simultaneously. 

The same formula holds good, if beginning and end of every 

coil are connected to a commutator bar each. The latter can 

always be done if /"is an uneven number ; but if /" is even, the 

number of coils, «, must be odd. In the case of /"uneven, if n is 

even, the brushes embrace an angle of 180°; but if « is odd, an 

180° 
angle of only — p- is enclosed by the brushes. 

(2.) Instead of cross connecting the commutator, the winding 

» 
itself can be so arranged that only -p" bars are required. In 

this case the connections have to be made by the formula : 

P=P,a = P,b = \; y=±-^JLj^ {^ (70) 

Note. — In drum armatures the beginning and end of a coil 
being situated in different portions of the circumference, thej' 
should be numbered alike, and yet marked differently, in order 
to facilitate the application of the above connecting formula-. 

By designating the beginnings of the coils by 1, 2, 3, , and 

the ends by 1', 2,3', , this distinction is attained. 

(To he continued. ) 



Earthquake in Tokyo. 



Mr. S. Katogi, of Tokyo, sends us an account of a violent earth- 
quake which occurred at that place at 2 p. m. on June 20, in which 
.several persons were killed and much damage done to electrical 
overhead lines and central .station chimneys. .-Vlniost all telegraph, 
telephone and fire alann service was interrupted, mostly through 
contacts between lines. Nearly all the brick buildings in the town 
were damaged more or less, while the brick chimney of the first 
station of the Tokyo Light Company was cracked very badly and 
the station put out of counni.ssion for three nights; the brick chim- 
neys of the second, thirn and fourth stations were also cracked, 
but that of the fifth is an iron one and was not injured. The brick 
chimney of the Teikoku Station was damaged somewhat, but that 
of the Shinagawa, a brick structure protected with iron, was unin- 
jured, as was also the iron chimney of the Fukagawa Station. We 
are informed that tlie les.sou in regard to the futility of builaing brick 
chimneys in an earthquake country has been well learned this 
time, and that hereafter it is probable that none other than iron 
ones will be erected. 



d 



August 4, 1894. 



THE EIvECXRICAIv WORI^D. 



99 




'°%.ri^' 



t:LCCWAbA5S^C!ATP[S 



s>, 



^WMm:^\wm.. 



^)OlX t<^Vh) 2^> K\9« 



THE second semi-annual convention of the Northwestern Elec- 
trical Association, held at the Ryan Hotel, St. Paul, on 
July 18, 19 and 20, was not onl}' an event of interest to the 
section of the country most directly represented, but, from 
the high character of the papers read, one of importance to the elec- 
trical public generally. Leaving aside the many questions as to the 
desirability of electrical associations and societies embracing the lo- 
cal interests of various sections of the country, it cannot be denied 
that the results of the meeting of the North Western Association 
proved its usefulness and confirmed the expectations of those who 
labored for its success. 

Our readers are more or less familiar with the Northwestern Asso- 
ciation, its scope and objects. It is now in its second year, and its 
success seems assured. Though its second semi-annual meeting was 
held in the midst of an unparalleled business depression, when rail- 
road travelling in the west was fraught with many dangers, a very 
large number of central station managers, owners and representa- 
tives registered at the Ryan Hotel, in addition to a great number of 
suppl)' men and manufacturers, some of whom had exhibits in the 
coriidors of the hotel. The electrical journals were also well rep- 
resented, and the whole affair was most gratifying to the officers 
of the association. 

The entertainment features of the meeting will long be remem- 
bered, the people of the "Twin Cities" having taken special pains 
to make their visitors welcome. All those who were present are 
already pledged to attend all future meetings. 

The sessions of the meeting were models of dispatch and thorough 
ness. There was no lack of excellent papers, good talkers, and a 
spirit of eager participation in ever3'thing that was going on. To 
these features the success of the convention is largely due. We 
give below a detailed account of the various sessions, and print 
elsewhere in this issue the excellent papers of Mr. A. D. Page, 
Mr. B. T. Arnold and M--. Allen R. Foote, the former in full. 

WEDNESDAY MORNING. 

The association met at the Hotel Ryan at 10:30 a. m. Wednes- 
day, July 18, 1894. In the absence of the president, Mr. C. C. 
Paige, of Oshkosh, Wis. , the first vice-president, Mr. W. R. Baker, 
of Waupaca, Wis. , called the meeting to order with a few appro- 
priate remarks, and after the transaction of considerable business 
the session was adjourned to 2:30 p. m. 

WEDNESDAY AFTERNOON. 

In the absence of the author, Mr. Fred. De Land read a paper 
by Mr. John C. McMynn on "Economy in the Boiler Room." 

Mr. McMynn referred to the desirability of good setting for boil- 
ers, stating that a saving of at least 15 per cent, can be effected 
in this respect with horizontal tubular boilers. The use of feed 
water heaters is urged, and the temperature of the feed water should 
be made to approach 212 degrees as nearly as possible, not only for 
economy but also to render the deposition of .scale in them more 
certain. It is recommended that boiler compounds be selected with 
reference to the quality of feed water used, and a chemical analysis 
made to determine the question. Mr. McMynn recommends that 
whenever possible the fuel and water fed to boilers should be 
weighed or measured, and that a water meter be installed for the 
latter purpose ; he also thinks that it would be economical to have 
the engineer make calorimetric tests of the quality of steam. 
Without entering into the relative merits of water tube and horizon- 
tal fire tube boilers, Mr. McMynn gives the following formula, 
which, he says will enable a decision to be arrived at in a given case; 



A + C+ IV + 



B(\-\-b) + D + P(\ + b) 



H N 

where B = cost of boilers. 

P =: " boiler plants. 

b = rate of interest on above costs. 

A = cost of attendance per h. p. hour. 

C = " compounds and incidentals per h. p. hour. 



IV = " fuel per h. p. hour. 

D = yearly cost of repairs. 

// = horse-power. 

JV = number of hours plant runs per year. 

The question of fuels is discussed, and it is stated to be econom- 
ical to enlarge a plant to burn a cheaper fuel with less evaporation, 
the limit being the point where the interest on the investment 
equals the saving per year. While oil is approved, whether it will 
prove economical depends on the price and the number of boilers in 
a battery. It is stated that the Auditorium plant in Chicago saved 
S6,000 per year by using natural gas. Reference is made to recent 
improvements of the Pullman Company, which now employs the 
Hawley down draft with great economy, burning the refuse of the 
wood working shops and poor grades of coal, and has adopted the 
Warren Webster vacuum system. 

In the discussion Mr. Debell spoke of the good results from burn- 
ing slack coal with blowers which drew hot air from above the 
drum of the boilers, the temperature being raised to 200 degrees. 
Mr. Rau commeuded the Sellers-Galloway boilers, but Mr. Stewart 
thought that while this t^'pe was efBcient the tubes were difficult to 
clean. Messrs. Stewart and Grover spoke highly of mechanical 
stokers, the latter stating that he had saved 30 per cent, by their 
use. 

Prof. Shepardson then read a paper on "The Relations Between 
Technical Schools and the Electrical Industries," which made an 
earnest and manly plea for technical education. He referred to the 
vast amount of capital invested in electrical interests — probably not 
less than two billion dollars — and to the work of the various techni- 
cal institutions throughout the country in educating young men 
who will be competent in a technical sense to fill the many import- 
ant positions in this great field in which a special technical knowl- 
edge is necessary for success. He also referred to the wrong 
impression of some practical men of the work done by the technical 
schools, which is based upon the idea that the training is too theo- 
retical and impractical. On the contrary, the technical schools are 
more and more teaching the fact that success in engineering may be 
obtained only by hard and unceasing work, and that the student 
must learn theory and practice together, that he must temper his 
theory with practice and govern his practice bj' theory. The 
students are urged by their instructors to spend their summer vaca- 
tions of three months in electrical factories, repair shops, electric 
light and railway stations, in wiring or whatever way they may be 
able to gain experience in practical work. Under favorable circum- 
stances they are urged to continue their experience through a full 
year before returning to complete their technical course, and in 
many cases after graduation the .students return to work for the 
same concerns with which they spent their vacations. While a 
thorough grounding in theory is desirable, much importance must 
be given to actual experience, and the work of the courses is there- 
fore made as practical as possible. Prof. Shepardson suggests what 
the relations betw^een a technical school ana the men engaged in 
electrical business should be. The schools aim to help the latter 
by educating men to help raise the standard of construction and 
repair work, and to assist in developing new industries and be of 
good service wherever they are located ; by offering the facilities 
of libraries and laboratories for researches and original investiga- 
tions; by providing the necessary facilities for making expert tests 
of efficiency, strength of materials, etc. In turn it is asked of those 
engaged in electrical industries to encourage the schools by encour- 
aging the graduates, and to use the schools as employment bureaus. 
He also suggests that they aid the schools by sending to them 
samples and specimens, the results of peculiar accidents, and pieces 
from scrap heaps showing how different materials and apparatus 
stand use and abuse, pieces of discarded apparatus with reasons for 
its disuse, specimens of historical interest showing the steps of 
development, etc. The reading of the paper was followed by 
applause, and considerable discussion took place between the mem- 
bers as to the relative merits of correspondence and technical 



100 



THE ELECTRIC A I^ WOl^LU. 



Vol. XXIV. No. 5. 



schools, Prof. Shepardson advocating the latter, and Messrs. Brooks, 
Thorn, Norcross, Stewart and Sullivan contributing their views. In 
the evening a large party joined in an excursion to Lake Conio, 
where a hand concert was given for their entertainment. 

THURSnAY MORNING. 

After .some discussion, upon the motion of Mr. E. L. IJebell, the 
chairman, a committee of three, consisting of Messrs. Carroll Collins, 
Pliny Norcross and W. N. Stuart, was appointed to consider the ad- 
visability of making the secretaryship a salaried office, and their 
report advising that $75 should be appropriated for this purpose was 
adopted, though Mr. Thom, the present secretary, expressed a pref- 
erence to give his services gratis. 

After transacting various other matters of business, including in- 
structions to the Committee on Schedule of Rates to make a com- 
pilation of central station statistics within si.v months and print 500 
copies, Mr. H. J. Arnold read a paper on "The Cost of Producing 
Electrical P^nergy, " which is printed elsewhere in this issue. The 
discussion which follows was participated in by Messrs. Kammeyer, 
Cuneo and Markle. 

Mr. Chas. H. Chalmers then read a paper by Mr. Gilbert Donald- 
son, electrical engineer of the D. & D. Electric Company, on 
"The Modern Dynamo." Mr. Donaldson's paper, after sketching 
the general advance in dynamo construction, and referring to the 
progress in multipolar machines in particular, dwells on the sub- 
ject of the new type of multipolar direct constant current closed 
coil arc dj-namo recently put on the market. He states that the 
difficult point of these machines seems to be to get good automatic 
regulation and sparkless commutation, and referred to the various 
claims as to the proper shape of the pole pieces to obtain these 
ends. In some experiments of his own along these lines he found 
that so far as the sparking goes the shape of the pole pieces cuts a 
very small figure except in one case, which, however, is a very 
important one. If the dynamo is run, say, 25 or SO per cent, below 
its real capacity, almost any pole piece will not spark, but above 
this the case is altogether dififerent, and the shape has nmch to do 
with the sparking. The real point is to get sparkless commutation 
at maximum output. This can be done by putting plenty of iron 
in the polar tips, the effect of which is to get a more uniform field 
throughout, and also provide suiificient induction to balance the 
self-inductance of the short circuited coil when the brushes are well 
around toward the neutral plane, or line where the induced E. M. F. 
changes sign. No special shape is nece.ssary, the requirement being 
simply to make the tips heavy and rather full, which allows the 
lines of force to spread out toward the tips and thus be of more uni- 
form density. Another interesting way of securing a fairly uniform 
field is to make continuous pole pieces, but this has the disadvan- 
tage of reducing the capacity of the machines. 

THURSDAY AFTERNOON. 

The meeting was called to order by Mr. Debell, and Mr. C. K. 
Stearns read his paper on the ' ' Economical Operation of Electric 
Light Plants. ' ' Mr. Stearns insisted upon the necessity of the 
installation of the most economical machinery and material, even 
though the first cost is greater, and the desirability of a strict system 
so organized that the manager ot a central station may know what 
each item is costing from day to day ; he also strongly recommended 
the use of recording meters, preferably wattmeters. Much atten- 
tion is paid in the paper to the subject of charging for lights, and 
it is held that the most economical method for both customer and 
company is the meter system, as it not only protects the central 
station, but checks extravagance on the part of the customer. It 
has been found in a number of cases that with the meter system the 
maximum load has been reduced at least 30 per cent. It is recom- 
mended that the change from (lat rates to meters be made in the 
sununcr time when the lamp bill of the cu.stomer is at its minimum, 
as he will then have an opi)ortijnity to gradually introduce the 
necessary economj- in the use of lamps before his bills are large. 
If the meter basis of charge were adopted, aiul the rate so placed 
that the cu.stomer would pay for the light really needed about what 
was previously paid before by contract for the wa.steful service, the 
consumer would speedily learn to so economize as to use onlj- what 
was necessary, thus reducing the real consumption, while practicall)- 
the same income would he received. Consumers are almost always 
pleased with this arrangement because it leaves the amount of the 
bill entirely dependent u])OU their own economy. Another advan- 
tage of the wattmeter is that it will be a check not only upon 
'.he coal pile, but on the line, by acting as a detector of leaks, and 
on alternating circuits would indicate the loss of transformers, and 
thus lead to their best disposition. Mr. Stearns concludes his paper 
with descriptions of the various practical wattmeters on the market. 

An interesting discussion followed, which was participated in by 
Messrs, Cuneo, Stewart, Grover, Thom and Rau. 



Mr. Page then read his paper on "Incandescent Lamps: Their 
llse and Abuse, " which we reprint elsewhere in this issue. Those 
joining in the discussion which followed were Messrs. Norcross, 
Thorpe, Stewart, Markle, Tliom, Kammeyer, Arnold and Howell. 

"A Question of Public Policy" was the title ot an able paper, 
reprinted elsewhere in abstract, next read by Mr. Allen Ripley 
I'oote, of Washington, D. C. Mr. Foote was interrupted several 
times by applause, and at the conclusion of the paper cheers and 
applause followed. 

After tendering a warm vote of thanks to Mr. Foote for his 
paper, which was enthusiastically commended, and adopting reso- 
lutions thanking the various gentlemen who had contributed to 
the success of the meeting, the secretary stated that the next con- 
vention of the .Association would be held in Milwaukee in January, 
1895. On motion by Mr. Norcross, the following named gentle- 
men were elected to honorary membership: Prof. G. D. .Shepardson 
and Messrs. A. D. Page, Allen Ripley Foote, Gilbert Doualdson, 
C. K. Slearns, B. J. Arnold and John C. McMynn. The evening 
was very enjoyably spent by the members as guests of Mr. Huey, 
representing the General Electric Company, and of the Babcock- 
Wilcox Company, in an excursion to Lake Harriet. 



The da)- was pleasantly spent by the members in visits of inspec- 
tion. Invitations were received to visit the central stations of the 
St. Paul Gas and Light Company, the power houses of the Twin City 
Rapid Transit Company, the electrical laboratory of the University 
of Minnesota, the central stations of the Minneapolis General Elec- 
tric Company and the Minneapolis International Electric Company, 
the Electrical Engineering Company's store and offices, the D. i D. 
Dynamo and Motor factory, and Siemens, Brush, Standard and D. 
& D. isolated plants. An excursion to Minnehaha Falls was 
kindly arranged by Mr. Morgan Brooks, of the Minneapolis 
Engineering Company, and much enjoyed. 

The following is a list of those in attendance: 

BEAVER DAM, Wis. W. H. Thorpe. CHICAGO A. C. Bunce, W. N, Stewart, 
H. F, Latimer. H. B. Morgan, L. W, Burch, Fred. DeLand, F, E. Donohoe. C. E. 
Gregory, M. J. Sullivan, John R, Markle, Chas, S. Marshall. Chas, S. Cook, 
J. Stedman, B, 8, Terry, M. C, Wheaton, J. B, James, Wm, Wilson, W. W. Low, 
S. T, Well, E, G. Neiler, B. J. Arnold, C, F, Gage, B, F. O'Hara, C. Kammeyer, 
CLEVELAND, O, B F. Miles, J. G. Pomeroy, GREEN BAY, Wis, Carroll Collins, 
JANESVILLE, Wis, Pliny Norcross, E, P, Norcross. LA CROSSE. Wis, H. 
Amundson. LA PORTE, Ind. J. H. Harding. MADISON, Wis. C, Gunderson, 
M.'i.NK.\TO, Mich. R, E, Brown. MASON CITY, la. W. P, Filch. 
MENOMINEE. Mich, E. T, Daniell, MILWAUKEE, Wis. H. C. Koch, O. 
M. Rau, T, R, Mercien, H, Andrae. G, H. Finn, MINNEAPOLIS, Minn,, W. 
N. Stewart, Robert W. Bruce, Morgan Brooks, J. W, Hardy, F, J, Cram, J, H. 
Finney, A, S, Huey, Chas, Wilson. Prof. Sheparpson, A, M. Robertson, Gilbert 
Donaldson. NEW YORK, W, S, Howell, K. D. Page, J, L, Bell. OCONOMOWOC, 
Wis. Charles Cuneo. SHEBOYGAN, Wis, E. L. Debell. SIOUX CITY, la. H, 
C, Woodruff. SPARTA, Wis. J, M. Newton, ST, PAUL, Minn. J, G, Robert- 
.son, O. Claussen, W. J. Bonwell, F. S. Bradbury, J. J. Schoenleber, C. K, Slearns, 
B. Howorth, C, S, Timberlake, WASHBURN. Wis. W. E. Renlfrew. WASH- 
INGTON, D, C. Allen R, Foote. WAUPACA, Wis. W. B. Baker, I. P. 
Lord, H, C, Thom, V. Irving WAUWATOSA. Wis. T. F, Grover, WILSON 
CITY. la, W. P. Filch. 



SEEN AND HEARD AT THE CONVENTION. 

THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMPANY, represented by Messrs. M. 
Brooks and F. J. Cram, did themselves proud in the way of entertainment. 
They were responsible for the delightful trip on the "Falher of Waters.*' and 
the day visit to the various interesting points of Minneapolis. They received 
many compliments, 

THE FORT WAYNE ELECTRIC CORPORATION interests were well seri'ed 
by Mr, John H. Finney, of Finney & Modisetlc, 811 New York Life Building, 
Minneapolis, who was in constant and watchful attendance upon everything 
that was going on. 

WESTINGHOUSE, as usual, was «o the frort. Manager Cooke, of the 
Chicago office, liad a brilliaiU little exhibit in the lobby, where he showetl a 
bank of "stopper" lamps burning to perfection. He also had a Shallenberger 
metei in action. 

THE GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY had something of a monopoly in 
way of attention. Messrs, Page and Howell did the honors for the lamp 
department, Mr. Page's admirable paper being one of the literary features of 
the convention. In addition to these two hustling and well. known experts, 
Messrs. Bunce and Wheaton, of the Chicago oflice, and Messrs. Stearns and 
Huey, of the Northwestern office, kept the name and specialties of this firm 
very m\ich in evidence. Under the name "General Electric Company" were 
displayed a most complete line of its literature, as well as many of its most 
popular specialties, 

HAHCOCK & WILCOX boilers had things about their own way as boilers 
went. A very handsome model of this boiler was displayed, as well as sections 
of the boiler itself, full size, Mr, Chas, Wilson was in charge. 

THE ME'I'ROPOLIT.AN ELECTRIC COMP.\NY, of Chicago, sent their Mr. 
I^. W. Burch, who succeeded in making a neat display of Metropolitan lamps. 
N. I, R, and I, X. L. wires. P, & B, Paints and Compounds, and other leaders 
handled by (his leading house. 

FAYERWEATHER & LADKW, manufacturers of leather belting, kept th 
name prominent at the hands of their Mr. H, B. Morgan, formerly with the 
Munson belling interests. His cards were well circulated. 



il 



Al GUST 4, 1894. 



XHE ELECTRICAIv W^ORIvD. 



101 



BRONNELL'S SODIUM PHOSPHATE was described and made prominent 
through the medium of a neat little leaflet. The headquarters of this firm is at 
Cragin, 111. 

THE CHICAGO CROSS ARM COMP.^NY, through Mr. Chas. Marshal, of 
their Monadnock ofBce, distributed some interesting data on woods used for 
cross arms. If the attending delegates did not secure a copy they should do so 
by writing the company. 

THE SIOUX CITY ELECTRICAL SUPPLY COMPANY made a neat display 
of some of their specialties, one of which was "Clarks Patent Pulley Block." 
They also showed something new in the way of overhead insulating material. M r. 
H. C. Woodruff looked after this interest very thoughtfully and energetically. 

THE CENTR.\L ELECTRIC COMP.\NY had an unusually good representa- 
tive in Mr. H. K. Latimer. While he did not always move last, he generally 
"got there" in good shape. Many kind things were said of this house and its 
specialties. 

S.^LAMANDER" WIRE was cleverly described in an attractive pamphlet 
entitled "Of Interest to All Parties Using Electric Wires." These were found 
about the hall, having been distributed by the makers of this famous wire, 
Messrs. Washburn & Moen, through their Chicago office. Mr. C. T. Gage, of 
this company was in attendance. 

THE ELECTRIC .\PPLIANCE COMPANY had many advantages over the other 
exhibitors. In the first place. President Low, of that company, was one of Ih^ 
most popular men present, with his good cigars, and he was ably assisted by 
Mr. Wm. Wilson. His display consisted of a Packard transformer, Packard 
lamps. "O. K." aiid"Paranite" wires, and no end of assurances that the special- 
ties of this house could always be relied upon. It developed that this company 
had many friends in the association. 

SWAN LAMPS were well handled by Mr. James G. Pomeroy, who made a 
very neat still exhibit of many types of this lamp. 

E. & D. MOTORS AND DYNAMOS came into prominence through the paper 
of Gilbert Donaldson on "The Modern Dynamo." This apparatus is manu- 
factured in Minneapolis, and is well known in the Northwest. 

C. E. GREGORY, of Chicago, without whom an electrical convention would 
have a missing link, was exceedingly popular, and succeeded in distributing 
scores of his little "Handy Directory." Mr. Gregory is starting on quite an 
extended pleasure trip. 

GOODRICH HARD RUBBER SPECIALTIES were represented by several 
placards, and that cleverest of all clever pamphlets, "Things Are Not Always 
What They seem." 

THE SIEMENS-HALSKE interests were handled by Mr. W. N. Stewart, who 
came into prominence by his advocacy of the new 220-volt incandescent lamp. 

HERM.\N ANDRAE, of Milwaukee, represented the elder Andrae, and made 

J. R. MARKLS;. Western manager of the Chloride Battery interests, did much 
to advance the cause of storage batteries in central stations, both in and out 
of the convention hall. 

THE WESTERN ELECTRIC HEATING COMPANY made a very handsome 
display of their heating apparatus. This included a full line of electrically 
equipped domestic devices. The exhibit was in charge of Mr. C. S. Timberlake, 
the St. Paul special agent of the company. 

F. E. DONOHOE, Chicago manager of the American Electrical Works, 
Providence. R. I., was another convention favorite. Mr. Donohoe has started 
in well with his Chicago office, and every one predicts for him a great success. 

THE NATION.'VL CARBON COMPANY, Cleveland, sent Mr. B. F. Miles as 
their representative. Their action proved a shrewd business move, as Mr. Miles 
did the honors in great shape. 

A. C. BUNCE, of Chicago, one of the leading spirits of the association since its 
inception, and the chief jester of the St. Paul meeting, seemed to have no end 
of friends, and made no end of fun. 

THE OFFICIAL B.'VDGE of the convention was a very handsome affair. It 
consisted of a pendant ring from a cross bar in the centre of which hung a 
miniature incandescent lamp, this being attached to a bit of blue ribbon. Below 
the ring the different grades of memoership were designated by the words 
"Associate," "Active" and "Honorary." 

E. G. NEILER. one of the World's Fair electrical engineering staff, repre- 
sented the firm of Pierce & Richardson, of Chicago. 



A Question of Public Policy.* 



Sn.\LL PUBLIC SERVICES BE RENDERED BY POLITICAL OR PRIVATE 
MONOPOLIES ? 
BY ALLEN RIPLEY FOOTE. 
Mr. Foote takes as his text a plank from the platfonn of the 
Knights of Labor, which demands that the government shall obtain 
possession, under the right of eminent domain, of all telegraphs, 
telephones and railroads; and that hereafter no charter or license 
shall be issued to any corporation for the con.struction or operation 
of any means of transporting intelligence, passengers or freight. 
The various economic questions concerned in the question of public 
ownership are thoroughly discussed, and the arguments of Prof. 
Richard T. Ely and his school dissected. It is maintained that if 
all men were good, perfect results might tre attained, but that as we 
must take human nature as we find it, our choice lies, in the man- 
agement of public non -competitive enterprises, between political 
monopolies controlled by imperfect men and managed by imperfect 
men — just now known as political bosses — and private monopolies 
owned and managed by the same kind of men. The former course 
is likel}^ to lead to corruption, and finally to tyrannies, while the 
latter is most likely to develop the inherent economic advantages, 




♦Abstract of a paper read before the Northwestern 
aul. Minn., July 19, 1894. 



Electrical Association, St. 



of which, however, the private owner by proper legislation may 
only be permitted to enjoy those that result from the industry and 
saving which he alone will exercise, which creates its own profit, 
and which it is a natural right vest- 
ed in him to enjoy. Mr. Foote 
then lajs down a definite declara- 
tion and statements of public policy 
which we reproduce in full. 

The best interests of the public 
welfare require, whenever a mu- 
nicipality can obtain a service for 
the supply of a municipal need, 
without creating a public debt or 
the investment of tax payers' 
money for such purpose, at a cost 
to the users of the service not 
greater than it would cost if sup- 
plied from a plant owned and ope- 
rated b)' the municipality, by con- 
tracting with a private company 
to supply such service, that 
the municipality shall have au- 
thority to make such a contract in accordance with the best 
economic conditions. These conditions require, in consideration of 
the investment of private capital for the purpose of supplying a 
public service, and the organization by the owners of such capital 
of a company responsible for the proper management and satisfac- 
tory supply of such service, that the municipality shall secure to the 
company by contract the full enjoyment of economic advantages 
that shall be the equivalent in every re.spect of the economic con- 
ditions that the municipality would enjoy if it owned and operated 
on municipal account a plant for supplying the same service. 

A municipality shall have authority to acquire the complete own- 
ership of any plant owned by a private company and operated by 
it under contract with the municipality for supplying a public ser- 
vice, by pacing the full value of the same when judicially deter- 
mined, whenever it has been demonstrated beyond a reasonable 
doubt b)- judicial investigation that an economic gain for the 
public welfare can be secured by such action, sufficient in amount 
to justify such change in public policy, and then only. 

To safeguard the public welfare, all contracts made under author- 
ity of this provision shall stipulate that the company is to erect and 
to extend its plant so as to supply the service, in the best known 
manner and at the lowest practical cost to the users of the .service, 
to every section of the municipalit\- whenever and wherever the 
municipal authorities may from time to time require; that it shall 
fix its charges for the public, commercial and private use of the ser- 
vice it renders at such rates as shall be only sufficient to cover interest 
on its outstanding shares of stock and bonds legally issued, at the 
same rate the municipality pays on its bonded debt, a reasonable 
allowance for the depreciation of the value of its plant from use, 
accidents and contingencies, all operating expenses, and the value 
of all material consumed in the processes of operation and ordinary 
repairs, and a net profit for dividends of not to exceed 10 per cent, 
per annum. All such contracts shall stipulate that the prices fixed 
by the company for the service it renders shall be stibject to review 
by the municipal authorities at the termination of regular periods 
of five years each ; that the extension of the service plant, the 
adoption of improved apparatus, methods of distribution or system 
of management, designed to render the production or final use of 
the service better or more economical, may be required by the 
municipal authorities at any time. 

To safeguard the welfare of the contracting company contracts 
shall stipulate that no extension of the service plant, change of 
apparatus, method of distribution or system of management shall 
be required by the authorities of a municipality unless the rate of 
charges for services rendered, and the income from the same actual 
or prospective, be sufficient to fully pay the considerations for ser- 
vice rendered herein specified, but the contracting company may- 
consent to make extensions or changes of any kind whenever 
requested to do so by the municipal authorities without reference to 
the effect such changes may have upon investment in relation to 
income. 

In case of a disagreement of any kind between the authorities of 
a municipality and a contracting company, such disagreement shall 
be settled by a Board of Arbitration selected for the special purpose, 
the company naming one, the municipal authorities naming another, 
and the two members so selected naming a third, the findings of 
the Board of Arbitration so selected to be final and binding upon 
the company and upon the municipality. 



102 



THE ELECTRIC A Iv WORLD. 



Vol. XXIV. No. S. 



Incandescent Lamps: Their Use and Abuse. 




BY A. D. PAGE. 

In the present state of the art of incandescent lighting, in no way 
can central station managers increase the efficiency of their invest- 
ment more than by careful .study 
of ways and means of operating 
lamps in a manner which will in- 
sure an average maxinmm light 
for a uiininmni expenditure. 

Too large a .percentage of cen- 
tral stations judge the quality of 
lamps sold them almost entirely 
by their life, and even that poor 
basis of calculation is still further 
distorted by keeping no ampere 
records nor averaging results, but 
judging solely by the individual 
records of such lamps as may fail 
in the first hundred hours, or of 
those which live hundreds of 
hours past the point at which, from 
an economical standpoint, thej' 
should have been broken. The 
importance to central station managers of judging lamps which are 
sold to them from some better basis than individual or even average 
life can be better appreciated by referring to Fig. No. 1, showing 
curves of deterioration in candle power of lamps manufactured by 
different companies. ( In considering deterioration in candle power, 
it should be stated that it is a characteristic of every lamp which 
has yet been manufactured and should be considered entirely inde- 
pendent of blackening or discoloration of the bulb. Lamps may 
deteriorate to SO per cent, of their initial candle power within two 
hundred hours and still show scarcely a trace of blackening. ) All 
lamps, the curves of which are shown, were purchased within six 
months in the open market in lots of from ten to twenty-five, and 
the curves are the average result obtained by starting each lamp at 
the particular voltage which would bring the lamp to exactly 3 
watts per candle, maintaining the voltage constant throughout its 
life. 

Curves 3, 5 and 6, Fig. 1, represent the best results obtained from 
the product of numerous foreign manufacturers. Curves 4, 8, 9, 
10, 11 and 12, each represent a different domestic manufacturer.- 

While there is no reason to suppose that the average life of lamps 
shown by curves 4 and 7 will be shorter than that of lamps repre- 



v\\s 


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^ 














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\N^ 


^^ 


^~H 


^^^1 








m\^ 


w 


\^ 


r^" 


-\ 










° \ \ 


\\\ 


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, V 


^^^ 


~~"~-^2 








< \ N 


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\^ 






5:;;--^ 


;4 




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sVK 


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6" 


, 


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12\ 


m 


,\10N 


nTn. 


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700 800 



Fig. 1. — Curves of Candle Power. 

sented by curves 10. 11 and 12, there is also no certainty that it will 
be longer, and if a lamp is to be branded as poor by the central 
station manager, because of the breakage of a small percentage of 
lamps in the first one hundred hours, then the advantage is in favor 
of the lamp which reached 50 per cent, of its original candle power 
in the first two hundred hours, thus maintaining the carbon at a 
high degree of incandescence with the necessarily greater strain of 
the filament for only a few hours. 

The carbon which maintains its candle power must continue to 
bum at a higher temperature, nearer the point of vaporizing, and 
is more likely to be destroyed by an abnormal increase in pressure 



than one which cools within the first few hours to a point where 
considerable increase in voltage is required to bring it to its initial 
degree of heat or incandescence. 

From the standpoint of the central station, one of the worst 
guarantees that you could demand from the lamp manufacturer 
would be an individual life (for each lamp) of one or two hundred 
hours. The reason for such demand, when made on your part, 
arises from the erroneous impression that the lamp which lives only 
one to two hundred hours is necessarily defective. Nearlj' every 
lamp sold you, and particularly those which show the best results, 
rises in candle power for the first few hours (this is not shown in 
Fig. 1, as in only one case was the first test after the lamps were 
started made before the candle power commenced to drop). 

On nearly every centra! station, particularly on alternating cur- 
rent stations, during light load, the pressure on the primar>- is 
abnormally high, .^dd to this the difference between drop in the 
transformers and secondary wiring, as between full and light load. 



3 K 


S 


CANDLE POWER iT 


I 2 s 








\J 


V,^ 


^3-^^ 


>-i 




1^ 






























2 
















4//5 















Fig. 



-Curves of Candle Power. 



* a paper read before the Northwestern Electrical Association, St. Paul, 
Minn., July 19, 1894. 



and the result which a test is quite certain to show is pressure on 
the one or two lamps which the customer is burning during light 
load from 6 to 10 per cent. high. 

Referring to Fig. 2, we find that burning a new 16 c. p. 3'. watt 
lamp 7 per cent, high would, for the first few hours, raise its candle 
power to 25, and its efficiency to about 2.6 watts per candle. In 
less than one hundred and fift\' hours, even maintaining the high 
pressure mentioned, the candle power and efficiency would fall 
below normal; but in the meantime, the new lamps which have 
been burned under the above conditions have been abused to an 
extent which would be quite certain to make the showing of some 
individual lamps very poor, through no fault of the lamps. 

After lamps have been in use about two hundred hours, under 
average conditions, they could then be used where the pressure was 
high, without bringing the carbon to a dangerous degrees of incan- 
descence. 

One of the best illustrations I can give of the importance of your 
mdgiug lamps from some better standard than simply life, is to 
refer to an incident of which I had reliable information, where a 
representative of the lamp company, who manufactured the lamps 
shown by curve 12, Fig. 1, exhibited the valuable qualitj' possessed 
by his lamp standing very high pressure. With a rheostat it was 
exhibited biiruing from normal to a very high candle power. He 
represented it as the toughest filament ever placed in a lamp, and I 
have no cause to disbelieve him. 

If central stations run with a variation of from 6 to 20 per cent, 
in pressure, they will find it necessary to demand tough lamps, the 
uatuial product of the amateur lamp manufacturer. To bring a 
product up, however, even from curves 9, 10 and 11 to curve 4, 
means experience and thousands of dollars spent in experiments. 

It also means that each one of over fifty different operations 
through which the parts of a lamp pass from start to finish should 
receive careful, intelligent handling or direction. Perfection in 
any one particular will not attain even average results. 

The manufacturer of lamps shown by curve 4 might have furnished 
the same carbons to manufacturers of lamps represented bv curves 
10 and 11, and the result which they would obtain would not differ 
materially from that secured with their own make of carbons. 
Curve 4, though it represents as high an average grade of lamp of 
any voltage above 100 as has yet been furnished to the customers 
of any lamp manufacturer, does not represent the highest point 
which will be attained. 



August 4, 1894. 



THE EIvECXRICAL WORLO. 



103 



Curves 1 and 2 represent experimental lamps manufactured and 
furnished for test by the same company, whose regular product is 
represented by curve 4, and I am informed by reliable experts that 
within a few months the entire product of the company will be 
brought up to the standard represented by curve 1. 

That the relative value of the lamps represented by these cur\'es 
may be fully appreciated, let us take the average candle power of 
curve 1, Fig. 1, which for six hundred hours is 14-19 candles, and 
we find, to maintain the same average candle power, using other 
lamps, wt should have to break lamps represented by curve 4 at 
five hundred and thirt}- hours; curve 7 at one hundred and seventy 
hours; curve 8 at one hundred hours; curve 9 at one hundred and 
twenty hours; curve 10 at ninety hours; curve 11 at seventy-five 
hours, and curve 12 at thirty-five hours. 

All of the lamps represented by Fig. 1 are of voltages from 100 
to 125 volts, and though started at a higher economy (vs. 3 watts 
per candle) than is commonly practiced by central stations (the 3.1 




100 200 

HOURS 

Fig. 3— Curves of C.\ndle Power. 



standard of Edison illuminating companies being the highest of 
which I have personal knowledge). Testing at 3 watts comes 
nearer to results obtained by commercial practice than a lower in- 
itial economy, as the tendency of the average central station is to 
run high. 

Fig. 3 represents lamps of from SO to 60 volts, started at 3 watts 
per candle, and tested under the same conditions as the 100 to 120 
volt lamps. 

No. 1 is the product of the same factory as Nos. 1, 2 and 4, Fig. 
1. No. 2 was manufactured by the same company as No. 9. No. 
3 %vas manufactured by the same company as No. 11. No. 4 was 
manufactured by the same company as No. 10. 

As proven by these curves, and also, I believe, as generally 
acknowledged, it is much easier to produce a fairly good SO volt 
lamp than one of a voltage above 100; but, considering the progress 
■which has been made within the past year in the high-volt lamps, 
I believe that in a short time a large percentage of alternating 
current central stations will find it to their advantage to use large 
transformers and secondary mains on the three- wire svstem, cover- 
ing one or more blocks from one transformer or bank of transformers, 
and using only lamps of over 100 volts, thus greatly economizing 
in copper and securing much better regulation than is now secured 
with numerous small transformers and 50 volts on the secondary. 

The importance of good regulation or a constant voltage at the 
lamps is too little appreciated, the general opinion of central station 
managers apparently being that so long as the life of the lamp is 
satisfactory to themselves or their customers, if they increase the 
voltage either temporarily or permanently, the result would be to 
increase the average light. The facts are that burning lamps above 
their normal rating decreases the entire average candle power on 
the customers' circuits, and at the same time, if the station is on a 
meter basis, increases the amount of the customers' bills. The 
above statement is particularly true of lamps only of average 
quality. 

Referring to Fig. 2, curve S represents a 108 volt, 16 c. p., 3)4 
watt lamp -burned at a constant voltage and reaching 11 candles at 
five hundred hours. Starting the same lamp at 110 volts or at 17j-< 
candles, 3.3 watts per candle, inside of two hundred hours the 
candle power curve crosses the one burned at normal. Starting it 
at 112 volts or at 19>^ candles, 3.1 watts per candle, in less than 
two hundred hours the candle power curve crosses both the others. 

Curves 1 and 2 follow the same general law. The higher we raise 
the voltage the more rapid the drop in candle power, and when we 
consider that the lamp represented by curve 1 must be kept at 116 
volts in order to give 14 candles of light after two hundred hours, 
and that should the voltage be brought back to normal or 108 volts, 



the candle power would be only about 9 candles, we can appreciate 
that on a station where the voltage varies even 7 per cent, the 
result must be a very uneven and poor quality of light, even though 
the life of the lamp is satisfactory. 

The tendency of all central stations seems to have been to gradu- 
ally raise their voltage with the intention of thus either burning out 
or increasing the candle power of the old lamps on their circuits. 
The result is only to either burn out an abnormal number of new lamps 
or bring them down to the candle power level of the old ones within 
two hundred hours. 

The only practical method of keeping the average candle power 
of lamps on a station at a point which will be satisfactory to cus- 
tomers or on a competitive basis with other methods of lighting is 
to keep records of the average life on the entire station where free 
renewals are furnished and then to take out of the .soclcets and break 
up all lamps which are dim, by this means keeping down the aver- 
age life to whatever constant is decided as the best under local 
conditions. Where lamps are sold to customers, to keep the candle 
power of lamps in use on the circuit of a central station at a point 
which will insure satisfaction or tend to keep the electric light 
popular, is a difficult problem. Whether the customer is on a meter 
or on a contract basis, it is poor economy for him to keep lamps in 
his sockets which are giving only 50 per cent, of their initial candle 
power, but for the corporation which sold him the lamps and sup- 
plies him with current to call his attention to the fact that lamps in 
his sockets are giving only about 8 candles, and to attempt to sell him 
lamps at 50 or 60 cents each, is not likely to bring about the desired 
result. To meet the above difficulties a number of central stations 
in diflferent parts of the country are now selling lamps at retail to 
their customers at cost, and a few stations even below cost, at the 
same time doing all in their power to prove to them that only by a 
liberal u.se of lamps can they obtain the greatest amount of light for 
a given expenditure of mbne}-. 

As the profit on the sale of 'amps is decidedly a secondary matter 
as compared to the sale of current and the increa.sed quality of the 
light, the above plan should commend itself to all central .stations 
not on the basis of furnishing free renewals. It is also worthy of 
consideration that by adopting the above plan the station controls 
what lamps shall be used on its circuits without dictating to its 
customers, an important point while lamps show such widely 
different results as those shown by Fig. 1, and while customers 
continue more likely to believe that the corporation is not .supplying 
proper current than to believe that the (piality of lamps they have 
been purchasing is at fault. 

Another method of inducing customers to destroy dim lamps 
which has found favor with a number of stations is to make a price 






200 300 

HOURS H.o.iwj 

Fig. 4 — Curves of Candle Power. 

for lamps of say 40 cents each, and agreeing with their customers 
to exchange all dim lamps (which they have sold them) at half 
price, that is, for every dim lamp which the customer returns before 
the carbon is burned out he receives a new lamp for 20 cents. 

Within the past few months the question has often been asked 
ine by central station managers, "What economy of lamps should 
we use?" This question should, I believe, be settled by central 
station managers themselves on presentation of facts, they havino- 
control of the regulation of their station and knowledge of local 
conditions. 



104 



THE ELECXRICAI^ WORLD. 



Vol. XXIV. No. 5. 



Fiji. 4 shows llie same quality of laiiip manufacture as curve 2, 
Fig. 1, and represents 16 c. p. lamps started at an initial economy 
of 4, 3y2, 3 and 2}< watts per candle. The accompanying table 
shows candle power, average candle power, average economy and 
average candles per electrical horse power at one hundred hour 
periods in their life. 

In considering these curves and table it should be remembered 
that the result would have been much less favorable to the higher 
economy lam])s liad the test been made and the curves plotted with 
a poorer (juality of lamp, and also that sati.sfactorj' results with 
lamps of higher economy than 3}i watts per candle can only be 
obtained b)' exercising the greatest care in maintaining a constant 
voltage at the lamps. Referring to the table briefly, it will be 
found that even at six hundred hours lamps of the highest initial 
economy show the best average result as to average watts per candle 
and average candles per horse power, and that at nine hundred 
hours 3 watt lamps show better average results than lamps of 3.6 
or 4 watts. The greatest objection which can be urged against the 
high economy lamp is that while at nine hundred hours the 4 watt 
lamp reaches a minimum candle power of 13}4 candles, and the 5)4 
watt lamp about 12 candles, the 3 watt lamp reaches 10 candles and 
the 2'4 watt lamp at six hundred hours reaches 8 candles. At the 
present price of lamps, where fuel is high and the customers' bills 
are made up on the basis of lamp hours, it would, without question, 
pav the station to use high economy lamps, breaking them at a 
point which would insure satisfaction as to average light and keep- 
ing the average life comparatively short. 

Whatever economy or make of lamp you decide to use, bj' no 
means can you so greatly increase the efficiency of your station as 
by making every possible effort in the direction of maintaining a 
constant voltage at the lamps. This can only be accomplished and 
maintained by constant use of reliable, portable instruiuents. No 
switchboard instrument should be relied on, without often checking 
it by some reliable standard, and it should also be borne in mind 
that, owing to the varying drop at various loads, constant voltage 
at the station is just what is not wanted. If you do not possess a 
reliable, portable voltmeter, .such an instrument .should be your 
next purcha.se, then by constant use on your circuits at different 
loads and profiting by the knowledge thus obtained, you would soon 
find a marked improvement in your lighting, and would he in a 
position to judge which make and what economy of laniji is tlie 
best for you to purchase. 





64 WATTS 


56 Watts 


48 Watts 


40 Watts 


100 Hours— C.P.. 


17.28 


17.44 


16.8 


16.16 


Average C. P.. 


16.8 


17.06 


17.09 


16.% 


Average Watts per Candle. . 


.1.0 


3.28 


2.8 


2.36 


Candles per /.H.P.. 


191. 


227. 


266. 


316. 


200 HoCRS— C.P.. 


17.12 


16.32 


15.2 


14.08 


Average C.P.. 


17.03 


16.94 


16.51 


15.97 


Average Watts per Candle. . 


.176 


3.3 


2.9 


2.S 


Candles per /.H. P.. 


198. 


226. 


257. 


298. 


300HODRS- C.P.. 


16.64 


15.04 


13.92 


12. 


Average C.P.. 


16.96 


16.53 


15.86 


14.% 


Average Watts per Candle. . 


3.77 


3.39 


3.03 


2.67 


Candle.sper/.H.P.. 


198. 


220. 


246. 


279. 


400 HOURS— C.P.. 


15.68 


14.08 


12.8 


10.56 


Average C, P.. 


16.74 


16. 


15.2 


14.03 


Average Watts per Candle. . 


3.82 


3.5 


3.16 


285 


Candles per /.H. P.. 


19S. 


213. 


236. 


262. 


500 Hours— C.P.. 


IS. 


13.28 


11,68 


9.12 


Average C. P.. 


16.45 


15.57 


14.62 


13.2 


Average Watts per Candle. . 


3.89 


3.59 


3.28 


3.03 


Candles per /.H.P.. 


192. 


208. 


227. 


246. 


600 Hours- C.P.. 


14.40 


12.8 


11.04 


8. 


Average C.P. . 


16. 


15.15 


14.08 


12.43 


Average Watts per Caudle. . 


4. 


3.7 


3.41 


3.22 


Candles per /.H. P.. 


187. 


202, 


219. 


23i. 


700 Hours- C.P.. 


13.92 


12.32 


10.56 




Average C.P. . 


15.84 


14.78 


13.23 




Average Watts per Candle. . 


4.04 


3.79 


3.52 




Candles per /.H.P.. 


18S. 


197. 


212. 




800 Hours— C.P.. 


13.6 


12. 


10.24 




Average C.P. . 


1.5.6 


14.45 


13.63 




Average Watts per Candle. . 


4.1 


3.88 


3.62 




Candles per /.H. P.. 


182. 


192. 


206. 




900 Hours— C.P.. 


13.28 


11.84 


9.92 




Average C.P. . 


15.36 


14.18 


12.88 




Average Watts per Candle. . 


4.17 


3.W 


3.73 




Candles per /.H. P.. 


179. 


189. 


200. 






American Fire Department Outdone. 

It appears that the members of the Italian fire brigade are very 
prompt in responding to alarms of fire. According to an illustration 
in "L'Elettricita, " the firemen arrive at houses struck b)' lightning 
before the lightning fla.shes disappear from view. — London Electrical 
Engineer. 



Cost of Producing Electrical Energy.* 

BY B. J. ARNOLD. 

The losses between indicated and electrical horse power in a 
fairly well designed high speed, belted, direct current station, are 
about as follows: Engines 10 per 
cent. , belts 4 per cent. , dynamos 
10 per cent., line 10 percent., 
making a total commercial efli- 
citncy of 70 per cent. 

In alternating direct belted 
plants the losses on engines, belt 
and dynamos are practically the 
same as given above. The losses 
in the primary circuit are u.sually 
S per cent. Where there are 
many small transformers and when 
working under loaded, as they 
usually are for a large portion of 
the time in small central stations, 
the average loss will be about 10 
per cent. , although when they are 
working at their rated load they 
will give an efficiency of 93 per cent, to 95 per cent. The loss on 
the secondary wiring is usually 2 per cent. Combinin these losses, 
we find the average commercial efficiency of the alternating plant to 
be 65 per cent. In stations operating large engines belted to a 
countershaft the losses are practically the same as given above, ex- 
cept that the loss between the power delivered by the engine and 
the power delivered to the generators is usually about 20 per cent., 
making the commercial or industrial efficiency of the above systems 
58 per cent, and 52 per cent, respectively, although there are many 
cases on record in which the losses are far greater than these, caused 
by uiLsoldered joints in the line construction, or defectivelj- designed 
and operated machinery. 

Table No. 1, published recently in L'Industrie Electrique, was 
prepared by Mr. J. Laffargue. I have reproduced it here, as it con- 
tains the mo.st complete infonnation regarding foreign central 
stations that I have been able to secure. The stations are all located 
in Gennany; two of them, those at Elberfeld and Hamburg, being 
direct current plants, the one at Cologne an alternating station, and 
those at Barmen, Hamburg and Dus,seldorf direct current stations 
with accumulators as auxiliaries. The table enables us to compare 
the relative merits of the three systems, and as will be noticed, the 
alternating .station at Cologne produces 71 watt hours per pound of 
coal, and delivers a kilowatt to the customer for 6.65 cents. The 
station at Hanover produces the greatest number of watts per pound 
of coal, viz., 219, and delivers a kilowatt hour to the consumer for 
5.2 cents, while the best result of all is shown by the station at 
Dusseldorf, producing, as it does, 1.S5 watt hours per pound of coal, 
and furnishing a kilowatt to the customer for 4.54 cents. This 
would seem to indicate that there is an advantage in using 
accumulators. 

It is also interesting to note that the average commercial effi- 
ciency of the accumulators is 76.1 per cent. 

Mr. Laffargue adds that the following percentages are allowed for 
depreciation: lyi to 2 per cent, on the buildings; 4 to 5 per cent, 
on the boilers and engines, and 6 per cent, on the accumulators; 3 
per cent, on the mains, and 8 to 10 per cent, on the various auxil- 
iaries of the plant. These figures are about correct for practice in 
this country, except on the accumulator question, and as there are 
now numerous strong companies entering the field in this country, 
w'ho are willing to guarantee to maintain battery plants for 10 per 
cent, per annum, it is possible that we can soon reach the state of 
perfection in the Hue that is indicated by the.se figures. 

In comparing the figures on a basis of cost per kilowatt hour 
delivered to the con.sunier, the loss in the mains at the various 
stations should be taken into consideration, as it will be noticed 
that at Dusseldorf the loss between the station and the consumer is 
over 30 per cent., at Hanover 20 per cent.. Barmen 15 per cent., 
while at Hamburg and Elberfeld it is but 5'> per cent, and 2"; per 
cent, respectively. Were these allowances made, it would probably 
bring the cost at Dusseldorf much below the present figure, but not 
knowing the exact conditions it was impossible to make the 
proper allowance in this paper. 

The first part of table No. 2, marked "Direct Current," was pre- 
pared from reliable information on file in the writer's office, and is 

•Abstractor a paper read before the Northwestern Electrical Association. St. 
Panl, Minn., Jnly 19, 1894. 



Auc;usT 4, 1S94. 



THE ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



105 



llie result of tlie operation of fifteen large direct current stations In general, however, I will state that the expense of operating in 

located in different parts of the United States. The three succeed- central lighting stations, is approximately as follows: 

ing parts of the table marked "Direct Current," "Alternating p-uel 23l5nercent 

Current" and "Combined Sj'stems, " have been compiled from Labor 31.20 '^ 

information secured from the report of the committee on statistics Repairli ......................'...........'.'.'.'..'. u'lo 

of the National Electric Light Association, presented at its last General expenses 23.15 " 

^ , . '^, . Other expenses 11.65 " 

meeting, and figures were chosen only from such stations as seemed 

to bear evidence of careful compilation. This report did not give '""" 100.00 

the cost of coal per ton, nor the cost of coal per kilowatt hour, but The last portion of table No. 2 is a synopsis of table No. 1. Table 

TABLE No. 1. 



Direct Current. 



Direct Current with Accumulators. 



Alternating. 



GENERAI. DATA. 

Fifty watt lamps capable of being* supplied from the works 

" " " " " " *' mains 

Available power in kilowatts 

EXPENSES OF FIRST ESTABLISHMENT. 

Installation capital, in dollars 

Specific expenditure, in dollars per kilowatt 

" " " " '* lamp 

RECEIPTS AND EXPENSES. 

Duration of working, in years 

Total receipts, in dollars 

Receipts, per cent, of the capital 

Total expenditure, in dollars 

Expenditure, per cent, of the capital 

Rough total profits, in dollars 

Profits, per cent, of the capital 

EXPENSES— COST. 

Total energy in kilowatt hours, produced 

" " " '• " distributed 

Efficiency of the mains, per cent 

Energy in watt hours per lb. coal, produced 

" " *' *' " " " distributed 

Salaries in cents, per kilowatt hour, produced 

*' " " " " " distributed 

Cost per kilowatt hour in cents, produced 

" " '* " " " distributed 

Mean selling price in cents per kilowatt hour, including all expenses 

Charge without deduction for the kilowatt hour in cents 

Price for cubic feet of gas, consumption above 3,000 cubic feet, cents 

CO-EFFICIENTS OF I'TILIZATION — DURATION OF LIGHTING. 

Number of SO watt lamps installed - 

Maximum power utilized in kilowatts 

Ratio of power utilized to power available 

Duration of lighting, in hours, per annum 

EMPLOYMENT OF ACCUMULATORS. 

Energy expended for the charge, in kilowatt hours 

Energy furnished by the discharge, in kilowatt hours 

Industrial efficiency of the accumulators, per cent 

Ratio of energy supplied by the accumulators to the total energy dis- 
tributed, per cent 

Loss in the accumulators, por cent, of the total energy distributed 



Elberfeld. Hamburg. 



272,829.96 
545.25 
24.25 



5. 
46,281.80 

20.5 

17,498.99 

6.41 

28.782.81 

14.09 



313.438. 

305,794. 

97.5 



Barmen. Hanover. Dusseldorf. 



473,912.90 
816.93 
3143 



112.245.49 

23.68 

26.568.21 

5.62 

85,67' 



18.05 



204,425.53 
908.50 
31.43 



23,995.08 

11.74 

8,365.67 



114,996. 
122,026. 
84.16 
194. 
».). 
3.28 
3.90 
5.76 
685 
19.85 
17.65 
.13 



504,176.51 
785.70 
39.28 



60,003.22 
15.8 

18,370.92 
4.46 

46,621.30 
11.34 



452,520. 
365,115. 
80.67 



557,194.58 
926.35 
46.32 



1. 
54,710.04 

9.8 
15,338.13 

39,38l!9r 



484.111. 

337,285. 
69.68 



1.63 
2.33 
3.15 
4.54 
16.20 
20.95 
.103 



279,506. 

216,561. 

77,5 



472,500.58 
693.55 
34.68 



1. 
5*,73S.6S 

11.5 

20,460.21 

4.07 

34,278.44 



66S 
17 81 
16.% 



15,329. 
325. 
O.SO 



TABLE No. 3.-24 Hour Test on Coal. 







Tempera- 
ture. 


C . 

is 

5« 


Average Watts. 




1 

" 

a" 


B 
U 


.0 
2-' 

s- 


S J. 

o-I 
«.-S 


fa 

(3 


0.2 


Evaporation per 
Lbs. 


Hour 


0" 







l| 


|R= • 









1-^ 


c g 




"on 
ill 
^5 


T3 

Bo 

0- 


Per lb. Fuel 


SfefS 




< 






Feb. 2. 


125 

'i25 
125 


116° 
1280 
118° 
116° 
110° 
116° 
118° 
114° 


640° 
680° 

■626°' 

635°' 


5.8 
1.5 
25 
3.6 
5.8 
1.3 
3.1 
24. 


39215 
34100 
41360 
26620 
2572 
24640 
40480 






52.56 
104.46 
140.00 
104.46 
36.56 
55.14 
54.26 






Coal 
3264 
937 
2502 
2874 
3952 
1049 
1019 
15597 


'i3878 


" 

£ 55 
$20.27 


20626 
7019 
16849 


3536 
4433 
6522 


4053 
5083 
7474 
6571 
5471 
3907 
5225 
5364 






117.5 
147.3 
216.6 
190.5 
158.6 
113.3 
151.5 
ISS.S 




$3.72 
1.27 
3.04 
3.79 
5 03 
.82 
260 
$20.27 


$7.11 
2.28 
4.13 
5.33 
6.26 
1.40 
3.97 
$30.48 


Cents. 
3.10 




34650 
38940 
27170 
16611 
16500 


9180 
24140 
24140 

8160 


























1.53 








31038] 5735 
278451 4774 
4544 3409 








187 


Feb. 3. 
























2.52 
















Entire run.. 











112348 


4680 


7.2b 


8.2s 


$.00543 


2.4S 



24 Hour Test on Oil. 



















Oil. 


1 




1 










Feb. 6. 


125 


126° 

124° 
128° 


480° 

■526°' 


6.5 
1.0 

2.4 
3.6 
S.S 
.2 
4'> 


29631 




43.2 
106.0 
128.0 
100.0 
35.3 
77 
42.2 


63.3 
137.0 
158.0 
130.0 

8(..9 
107.0 

63.3 


33.2 
22.6 
19.0 
23.2 
59.4 
28.0 
33.2 


1912 
371 
10')1 
1691 
1993 

lis 

1398 
8570 


:^-a 1 238% 3677 

'^u.c'S ■*"-" -"^s 

.-=3*8 1"-'"', S-« 

°S-=* 23889 4<.)')o 

SsO* 1648 5834 

U§ 14971 3551 

$21.68 1103956 4332 


4184 

5195 
7180 
(.011 
41,61 
6627 
4041 
4930 




121.3 




4.98 
1.03 
3.18 
4.04 
4.98 
.34 
3.13 
$21.67 


8.80 
1.81 
4.19 
5.58 
6.20 
.40 
4.95 
$31.93 


4 31 




32436i 35430 'IISO 
33573 3')l(,(l 24141) 
24193, 37170 24141) 
660, 16S0O, 91.S0, 
23980 16500 9180 
33920l 1 




150.6 




213 












174.3 




2 03 


Feb. 7. 


'i2S 
125 


116° 

124° 
118° 
122° 






135.1 










192.1 




2.50 




12.13 


147.2 

13.80 : 142.9 




3 72 


Entire run.. 


24. 




r.::.::i 


$.006324 


2.83 



24 Hour Test— Park Co. Coal. 



Feb. 14 and 15. 












_ \ 












































I 








$2. 1ST 














































































































24. 








1 




16930 




101854 


4244 4839 


6.016 


6.846 


140.0 


$.005417 $18.20 1 $28.43 1 














1 



















Simply gave the watt hours produced per poiiml of coal. By assum- 
ing a price per ton on the coal we have deduced the costs per kilo- 
watt hour which are given, but not having the information necessary 
to ascertain the operating expenses or fixed charges, the total cost 
per kilowatt hour delivered to the consumer is omitted. 



No. 3 is the result of three tests made under the direction of the 
writer on a combined electric and lighting station, to ascertain the 
relative economy on oil and coal for fuel. Inasmuch as the infor- 
mation is quite complete, it has been thought advisable to insert it 
in this paper. The station consists of two compound condensing 



106 



THE ICUKCTKICAI. W'OKl^U. 



Vol. XXIV. No. 



engines, coupled direct to a line .sluift. This sliafl runs two 90 
kilowatt railway generators, two 16 kilowatt arc light machines, 
two alternating incandescent dynamos of 30 and SO kilowatt capacity 
respectively, or a total capacity of 392 kilowatts. The station is 
considerably underloaded, delivering but 1,248 kilowatt hours. 

Referring to table No. 3 it will be observed that the test began 
at 10.20 a. m., and continued for 24 hours. As the load in this 
.station varied greatly, one of the objects of the tesst was to ascertain 
the cost of producing power during the different periods, and the 
right hand column in the table shows the total cost per kw hour. 

The railway portion of this station operates from four to six cars, 
and during the time of the test but four cars were in f)peration. The 
cars started at S:SO a. ni., and ran until 12 o'clock midnight, and 
the lighting load was added as indicated by the figure. 

The ilivision in the table shows the principal variation in the 
load, and it is interesting to note the change in cost per kilow.itt 



work there would be an additional revenue of $9 per day added to 
this station, assuming that all the motors were running fully loaded. 

As a matter of fact the following statement shows approximately 
the average amount of power demanded from electric motors when 
running on various kinds of work: Wood working machinery. 40 
per cent, of rated capacity of machines in the plant; elevators, 80 
per cent. ; printing presses, 55 per cent. ; machine shops, 40 per 
cent., or an average of about 55 per cent. On this basis this plant 
could drive safel)' 160 horse power in addition to its present railroad 
load, which, at 2 cents per horse power hour would bring an addi- 
tional revenue of $33 per ilay, and deducting S9, the cost of fuel, 
leaves $24 per day additional net profit which this plant can be 
made to earn, provided tlie full capacity of the motors is paid for. 

In ca.se the additional load for electric motors is not available this 
extra 90 horse power could be utilized in driving an ice plant. In 
practice it takes about 2 horse power 24 hours to produce a ton of 





Station 


H. P. 
Capacity. 


Kilowatt r.?J).oy!^ 
capacity <^^^/^lf 


Watt Hours 
Per Day. 


Coal. 
Kind Used. 


Cost Coal 
Per Ton. 


Watt Hrs. 
Per lb. 
Coal. 


Co.st Coal 
Pr. Kw. 
Hour. 


Cost Other 
Exps. 
Kw. Hr. 


Total Cost 

Per Kw. 
Hr. Del. to 
Customer. 




1 

3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
U 
12 
13 
14 
IS 






004,000 
4IW,300 
30S,.T00 
29'J,000 
I'M.l.W 
140,000 
120,700 
105,700 
8,5,100 
53,700 
,SO,.30O 
47,800 
37,100 
33,000 
33,400 




$2.53 
3.01 
2.57 
2.47 

2.55 
3.15 
1.94 
1.42 

2.20 
82 

2.26 
2.38 


114. 
88. 
107. 
122. 

108. 
53. 

71. 
65. 
S3. 
48. 

82. 
66. 


Cents. 
1.11 
1.10 
1.20 
1.01 

1.18 
2.% 
1.36 
1.10 
2.06 

.85 
2.24 
1.38 
1.80 

.11 


Cents. 
4.94 
4.06 
5.16 
4.72 

5.76 
5.92 
337 
3.61 
3.05 
5.07 
4.69 
5.71 
4.42 


Cents. 
6.05 
5.76 
6.30 
5.73 
6.35 
6.94 
8.88 
4.73 




4.71 
5.11 
5.92 
6.93 
7.09 
6.22 
6.19 




Averages. . 










2.28 


81.5 


1.46 


4.65 


6.20 




16 

17 
18 
19 
20 
21 

23 
24 

25 


90. 

25. 
37. 
17. 
18. 
20. 

48. 
33. 
20. 

20. 


67.045 
18.400 
27.450 
12.720 
13.420 
14.500 

3,S.0S0 
24.605 
15.000 

15.200 


24. 

IS. 

10. 

14.7 
0.5 
5.0 

7.5 
10. 
9. 

6. 


1,609,070 

270,000 
274,500 
187,860 
87,230 
72,800 

207,375 
240,057 
135,000 

91,368 


Bitm. Slaclc. 

Bitm. Block. 
Authr. Pea. 


Assumed. 
$1.50 
1.50 
1.50 
1.50 
1.50 
1.50 

3.00 
3.00 
3.00 

4.50 


ISO. 
46. 
SO. 
M. 
62. 
40. 

76. 
46. 
56. 

65. 


.SO 
1.63 
1.34 
1.17 
1.21 
1.87 

1.98 

3.27 
2.68 

3.46 












Averages.. 














66. 


1.91 






AUcnialintr Ciinent 


26 

27 

a* 

29 
30 

31 
32 


26. 

295. 
66. 
38. 
30. 

30. 
25. 


19.000 

220.000 
49.220 
28.000 
22.000 

22.300 
18.480 


8. 

9.S 
10.0 
12.0 
11.0 

14.0 
0.0 


152,000 

2,090,000 
785,920 
330,000 
242,000 

312,060 
110,880 


Bitm. Slack. 

Indian Block 
Bitm. '• 

Anthr. I'ea. 


$1.50 

300 

3.00 
3.00 
3.00 

4.50 

4 50 


104. 

52. 
121. 
%. 
76. 

108. 

no. 


.72 

2.89 
1.24 
1.56 
1.98 

2.09 
2.05 








Averages . . 














95.3 


1.79 






Combined Systems < 


33 

34 

35 


181. 

440. 
.12. 


134.780 

332.150 
24,100 


21.0 

24.0 
IS.S 


2,843,760 

7,971,600 
373,520 


Bitm. Block. 

.\ntli. Scrns. 
Bitm. Slack. 


$3.00 

1.50 
1.50 


104. 

208. 
111. 


1.44 

.36 
.68 


. 






Averajres. . 














141. 


.83 






Elberfeld 
Hamburer 

Colotrne 

liarmen 
Hanover 
Dusseldorf 


(direct current station) 
{alternating current station) 


313,438 
542,900 

307,074 






148. 

71. 

104. 
219. 
185. 






5.70 
5.18 

6.05 




(direct cu 


rrent with act 


uinulator) 


144,9% 
452,520 
484,111 


6.85 
5.02 
4,54 



hour produced, depending, of course, as it does, upon the quantity 
of current delivered, as the cost remains practically constant, with 
the exception of the fuel. From 7:20 a. m. to 4:10 p. m. , when 
the railway load is being operated, the cost averages 3.1 cents per 
kilowatt hour, and from 12 o'clock midnight until S a. m. the cost 
per kilowatt hour is 3.96 cents, while during the heavy load, from 
5 p. m, until midnight, the average co.st per kilowatt hour is but 
1.75 cents, and after deducting the labor, which is a fixed charge, 
the total cost per kilowatt hour for full load is but I'i cent.s. After 
allowMiig for salaries, olTice expenses, loss in lines and depreciation 
in the plant, the figures show that this station is delivering current 
to the consumer for 6.4 cents per kilowatt hour, which corresponds 
fairly well with the figures given in table No. 2. With a little 
calculation we see that this plant could have furnished 681 addi- 
tional kilowatt hours, or over 90 additional horse power in motors, 
for ten hours from 6 a. m. to 6 p. m., for an additional cost of but 
$9 for fuel, or at a cost of one cent per horse power hour, and as 
a price of two cents per horse-power hour can be obtained for motor 



ice, and on this basis the available capacity of th'S plant would 
produce 20 tons of ice, which would sell for at least $3 per ton, 
making an additional revenue of $60 per day for the plant, and 
after deducting for extra fuel, labor and depreciation, leaves $40 
per day profit. 

The cost of ice-m.iking plants is about as follow.s, per ton of out- 
put in 24 hours: 

1 ton f2,70O 

2 " 2.0.=il 

6 " 1,210 

12 " 'M2 

20 " .875 

40 " 800 

In clo.sing this paper I will briefly call attention to the approxi- 
mate results we are now getting from the dilTerent portions of power 
stations, and what we ought to expect from future station.s. 

rirst — lioilers — .\ large nimiber of stations running now are using 
boilers with plain furnaces, from which they secure an evaporation of 
5 pounds of water per pouiul of coal. By the introduction of water 



AicusT 4, 1894. 



THE ELECTRICAL WORLli. 



107 



tube or internally fired boilers or tubular boilers set in improved 
furnaces, we will secure an evaporation of 8 pounds of water per 
pound of the same fuel. 

Second — Engine and Generators — While we now get an average 
commercial efficiency of 60 to 70 per cent, in direct belted plants 
and 50 to 60 per cent. in those using shafting, we can increase these 
efficiencies to 70 and 75 per cent, respectively by the adoption of 
fewer and larger direct coupled units. This will not only reduce 
the cost of fuel and labor, but will decrease the amount of real 
estate required and make the total investment less. 

Third — Whi'e Europeans have recognized the advantage of the 
use of accumulators with batteries as auxiliaries in central station 
work, we have been slow to see this advantage, but the tendency 
now among American engineers and central station men is to look 
with favor upon this adjunct, and as there are many cases wherein 
a battery plant as an auxiliary can be made to pay well, the prob- 
abilitv is that we shall see in the next five j'ears many such plants 
installed. Witli a properly designed direct connected plant we 
may reasonabh- expect to deliver a kilowatt hour to the consumer 
in .stations having a capacity of not over 1,500 kilowatts for S cetits per 
kilowatt hour, which includes total cost of production and depreciation 
on the plant, but excludes interest on the investment and profit, as- 
suming that a good quality of bituminous coal can be had for $2.50 per 
ton. In larger stations with cheaper fuel the cost can be brought to 
5',2 cents. 

Another Inoperative Unipolar Machine. 



Sine Form of Curves of Alternating E. M. F. 



According to an illustrated description in a German contemporary, 
it appears that another German patent has been granted for a uni- 
polar machine which will develop no current. Had the inventor 
read a recent article in The Electrical World he would have saved 
himself the expense of the patent and the embarrassment of finding 
out, after it is too late, that his machine is of no use. We recom- 
mend the German Patent Bureau to adopt the same plan that our 
Patent Office has found so very effective in these cases, which is 
simply to call for a working model before the patent will be 
allowed. 

Treatment in Case of Accidents. 



The publication of Dr. d'Arsonval's valuable " formula, " namely 
that a man shocked by electricity .should be treated as if drowned, 
has called forth other articles on this subject, among which is a 
recent one by a German doctoi in one of our contemporaries. With 
genuine German thoroughness he states that the first thing to be 
done is to get a physician, then to treat the burns like any other 
burns, etc. , adding that they are not generally dangerous. As we 
are mere laymen it may not seem proper for us to express any radi- 
cally diflterent opinions on medical matters, yet, being Americans, 
we venture to suggest that it would be far better to advise a person 
to send some one else for the physician, and meanwhile try at once 
to resuscitate the victim by artificial respiration, leaving the care 
of the bums to the undertaker, or to the physician if resuscitation 
is successful. Thoroughness is a good thing, but a little common 
sense is sometimes better. 



Another Revolutionizing Railway System. 



A consulting engineer informs us that an enthusiastic inventor 
came to him recently with the following idea: The rail for his street 
railway is made of a flexible band, and large electromagnets are 
placed behind each of the wheels, which, by their magnetic attrac- 
tion, will raise up the rail behind each wheel, thus forming little 
hills down which the car will move by gravity, these little hills 
following the car as it travels along. As the rail neither advances 
nor recedes from the magnet, no power will be required other than 
a small amount of current to excite the magnets. He w'as told that 
his mistake was to come to an engineer with his project; he would 
no doubt be able to obtain financial assistance to form v. large com- 
pany to introduce his invention if he went to some of the many- 
capitalists who do not believe in .science or in the advice of an 
engineer. It was suggested to him that even the power for the 
magnets might be dispensed with if the flexible rails be made to 
pass over pulleys directly behind the wheels. It reminds us of a 
scheme for canal boat propulsion, due, we believe, to Mark 
Twain, in which the canal was made in the form of an inclined 
plane, down which the boats would slide by gravity; but, as that 
involves difficulties for the return trip, he improves it by making 
the boats themselves in the form of an inclined plane instead, and 
they would then slide down in any direction in which they were 
pointed. 



Our American contemporary, the Electrical World, recently dis- 
cu,s.sed in an editorial note the question of the value of sine curves 
for the electromotive force of alternators. We have ourselves 
already remarked on this question, and have expressed our opinion, 
which we know to be shared liy alternator experts in this country, 
that the elaborate attempts which are being made by some of the 
American alternator builders to give this property to their ma- 
chines are utterly useless, and a complete waste of time and energy. 
Our esteemed conteraporar\', however, thinks differently, and bases 
its conclusions on the deductions of Kennelly and some experiments 
by Dr. Duncan on two-phase motors. It is, therefore, apparently 
supported by both theory ami practice; jet, when we examine the 
matter a little more closeh-, we are by no means inclined to agree 
that our contemporary has sufficient grounds for its conclusions. In 
the first place, theoretical considerations, especially of the intricate 
phenomena of alternate current machinery, are apt to ignore those 
influences which, though difficult to put into exact mathematical 
form, are just the things which determine the truth or fallacy of 
the conclusions. Again and again this has happened, and it has 
been shown that mathematical inference, unsupported bj- experi- 
mental evidence or based on insufficient data, cannot be relied on. 

It may, perhaps, be argued that the results of Dr. Duncan's re- 
searches afford this necessary experimental evidence. Let us see 
what these researches amount to. Dr. Duncan commences by ob.serv- 
ing that "the mathematical treatment is difficult, unless many essen- 
tial phenomena are omitted. " He then describes some experiments 
on a two-phase 2 h. p. Tesla motor. This motor was run from a 
25 h. p. two-phase generator, which was believed to give practically 
a true sine curve of electromotive force. The results obtained were 
not compared with those which might have been obtained from anj' 
other alternator; they therefore stand alone. Moreover, the motor 
was not even run up to its full capacity, nor was it supplied with its 
rated electromotive force; so that it was "not, of course, particularly 
efficient. " In all of which, we may ask, is there anything to show- 
that the motor was more efficient than it would have been in any 
other case? Nor are the practical rules for design, which follow 
from these deductions, any more comforting to the builder of alter- 
nate current machinery. "To satisfy the condition in the armature 
would require an infinite number of armature windings, but it can 
be practically satisfied in the higher machines with a reasonable 
number of windings. It must not be understood that it is especially 
easy to accomplish this. " So much for the true sine armature; as 
to the field windings, "projecting pole pieces should certainly be 
avoided. " We should not be surprised to hear that the sine curve 
should be carefully avoided, and that the "best" curve is of a very 
different shape. — London Electrician. 



An Experiment That Failed. 



To the Editor of Tlw Electrical World : 

Sir: — I was somewhat interested in reading Lieut. Patten's last 
contribution on "An Experiment That Failed, " as I myself designed 
a telephone repeater almost identical with Lieut. Patten 's more than 
ten years ago, with just the same results. After a great many 
experiments, I succeeded finally in producing an instrument on 
altogether a different plan, of which it can be said that it was just 
as easy to carry on conversation over a long line with the instru- 
ment in circuit as without it. 

SCHENECTADY, N. Y. J. S. B. 



The Measurement of Polyphased Currents. 



To the Editor of The Electrical World: 

Sir: — Prom a note by Prof. A. Blonael in the issue of your jour- 
nal for July 28, 1894, it appears that a misunderstanding exists as 
to the paternity of the general formula which is quoted therein. 
Mr. Blondel also quotes my aisclaimer to this formula and then 
construes it in' a manner to make it appear quite the opposite of its 
obvious meaning and intent. The statement discussed means sim- 
ply ana only that to the writer the demonstration given by Mr. 
Blondel did not seem as natural as the one given, aurt that beyond 
the demonstration of Mr. Blondel the writer was not aware of any 
which was not limited to some consideration of the form of the cir- 
cuits in which the energy was utilized. More explanation than was 
given did not seem necessary at the time the article was written. 
A comparison of the methods of Prof. Blondel and myself will show- 
that they are not the same, the same final result being reached in 
either case, but in a different manner. 

W.\sHiNGTON, D. C. Alexander D. Lunt. 



ELECTRO-PHYSICS. 

I'ni-Direclional front Alio natiiis Currents. — A Royal Society paper 
by Major Cardew is published with illustrations, in the Lond. "Elec.," 
July 13. In making some tests of a high potential alternating current 
system of about 1,000 volts, he found that in all cases there' was an appar- 
ent E. M. V. of 5 to 6 volts, tending to cause a flow of positive electricity 
to earth; a small copper voltameter showed the existence of a uni-direc- 
tional current to earth. He explains the results by stating that when the 
cables were charged with positive electricity the polarization is sufficient 
during one alternation to considerably increase the resistance of the slight 
leakage to earth by the formation of a film of oxides; this obstruction is 
cleared off by the succeeding negative wave, which opens the leak, but 
the time of an alternation is quite insufficient to produce this effect on 
the water pipe earth and the result therefore is a passage of negative 
electricity to earth through the cables and of a corresponding quantity 
to earth by the water pipes. 

FJeclricily and Gravilalion. — A correspondent to the Lond. "Elec. 
Rev.," July 13, states that there are very strong reasons for believing 
that the ether obeys the ordinary laws of gravitation. "If we accept the 
notion that ether attracts itself, and obeys the ordinary laws of gravita- 
tion in regard to itself and to other forms of matter in a condensed form, 
then it is not difficult to understand its whole phenomena of disturb- 
ance. " 

riioto-Electricity. — "Cosmos," June 16, contains an article by Mr. Ber- 
Ihier, in which he gives a good summary of batteries or cells in which 
light is converted into an electric current directly; quite a number of 
devices are described, and in a few cases some quantitative data are given. 

Plio/o-Electric Researches. — The Lond. "Elec," July 13, contains a 
brief summary by Dr. Lodge of the researches of Mr. Righi. 

Calculating Co-efficients uj Self-Induction. — "L'Ind. Elec," July Ki, 
mentions a paper by Mr. Guye on the geometric distance between ele- 
ments of an entire surface and its application to the calculation of the 
co-efficient of self-induction. 

I'rodnrtion of Hail. — The theory of Mr. Marangoni, in which elec- 
tricity is an important factor, is briefly abstracted in the Loud "IClec." 
July 13. 

MAGNETISM. 

/■'roetic/i's Magnetic Lau'. — \\\ an article by Dr. Froelich, in the "Elek. 
Zeit.," July 5, he calls attention to the law which he recently deduced 
(see Digest, Aug. 12. 1893, also Feb. 17, and The Electrical World, Feb. 24, 
p. 23'*), stating that he has since endeavored to verify it by experiments, 
obtaining good results, but finding that the calculated maximum flux 
was always smaller than that which had been found experimentally with 
high magnetizing forces. He concludes that the apparatus with which 
such measurements are usually made involves a number of errors when 
liii-h magnetizing forces are used; he refers to those usually used in 
practice in which the iron is surrounded by a coil, its circuit being com- 
pleted by an iron yoke; among them are: that the influence of the yoke, 
as also that of the contact surface, is not eliniinaled with sufficient pre- 
cision; that the magnetizing coil has an action not only on the sample 
but also on the yoke, which action was not taken into account with 
sufficient inecision; that the small test coil is affected not only by the 
llux through the iion sample; but also by that in the yoke and in the air 
space, and finally that the sharp ends in the iron give rise to leakage at 
high magnetization. In order, therefore, to test his formulas, he calculates 
a seiies of results and curves from the recent researches of Mr. Lehman, 
published in "Wied. Ann.," vol. 48, page 405, in which the method of 
KirchholT was used, which is free from the above named errors, and 
which, it may be safely assumed, gives the true magnetization curve; in 
tiiis method a complete iron ring surrounded by tie coil was used. Dr. 
I'loclich gives his formulas, the deduced values of the con.stants and 
seveial tables of results and curves, showing the dilTerence between the 
calculated and observed values, the agreement being a very satisfactoiy 
one ; the above refers to his more complicated but nu)re accurate formu- 
las, and he therefore concludes that these formulas repiescnt the true 
magnetizing law of iron; he finds from these results that the maximum 
llux is very much higher than was usually supposed, and furthermore, 
tliat it cannot be determined with any accuracy. He also applies his 
simpler aijproximate formulas to these results and finds that they are 
veiy reliable for magnetizing forces between H = (> and 11=40 — that is, f<ir 
the lange used in practice— but that above and below these values they 
do not apply (it will be remembered that this was a straight line law) ; 
he concludes, therefore, that his simple formulas can safely be applied in 
practice, but that the value of the ina.xinuim flux which enters in them 
is not the true maximum, but is only an apparent one, and therefore has 
the character of a mathematical constant. 



UNITS, MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTS. 

The Arc as a .S'/anrfarrf.— See abstract under "Rotation of the Electric 
Arc" 

.Specific Resistance of Pure Copper. — A Royal Society paper by Messrs. 
Swan and Rliodin is abstracted in the Lond. "Elec," July 13. Great care 
was taken to obtain the purest electrolytic copper, only the best of a large 
niiraber of samples being used and again refined electrolytically : the di- 
ameters were determined by the specific gravity method ; the absolute spe- 
cific resistance at 0° C. was calculated from the temperature co-efficients 
which were carefully determined; the density was 8.9587 at 15° C. ; the 
specific resistance in C. G. S. unitstpresumably at 0° C, although not so 
stated) for one sample was 1,603 hard .as drawn, 1,566 for the same sample 
annealed and 1,559 for another sample annealed; the temperature co-effi- 
cients were respectively 0.00408. 0.00418, 0.00415; he believes that the mean 
is the probable correct value, and gives the following as the true values; 
hard 1,603. soft 1,563; temperature co-efficients 0.00408 and 0.0041(> 
respectively. (Attention is called by the compiler to the determinations 
of Mr. Lagarde, given in the Digest, Oct. 7, 1893. further references to 
the original being given in the Digest, Nov. 18, 1893, and March 17, 1894.) 

Magnetic Curve Tracer. ^Kccoxi\n% to an editorial in the Lond. 
"Elec," July 13, Mr. Hess, before the French Academy, proposes to 
make use of the peculiarities of cathode rays pointed out by Dr. Lenard 
for obtaining a curve tracer with a pointer without inertia ; cathode rays 
are made to fall "on a rapidly moving photographic film, the whole 
"observing space," as Dr. Lenard calls it, being placed within the vari- 
able electric field to be investigated. 

Measuring Co-efficients of Induction. — An Academy paper by Mr. Abra- 
ham, on the measurements and comparison of true co-efficients of induc- 
tion by alternating currents of high frequency, is abstracted in "L'Ind. 
Elec," July 10, and more fully in "L'Elec." July 7; a Wheatstoue 
bridge and telephone are used ; the formulas for the relations are given. 

Measuring the Efficiency of a Large Motor. — The article by Mr. Rey. 
mentioned in the Digest last week, is given in abstract in "L'Ind. 
Elec," July 10 

Meter.— The Brocq meter is described and illustrated in "La Lum. 
Elec," July 7; a solenoid operates a float in a sort of dashpot, the 
motion of which is registered. 

TRANSFORMERS. 

Transformer System. — Mr. Whitcher. in the Lond. "Elec. Rev.," 
July 13, states that his method (see Digest July 28) is not as described in 
that journal ; he does not, however, describe it clearly. He states that 
an extra primary main is used in place of an automatic switch, on the 
primary side as well as on the secondary, and that he disperses with all 
automatic mechanism, using only the same number of mains: for large 
sub-stations he proposes to use a method in which the currents in the 
two sides of the three-wire system can be varied in phase relatively to 
each other, from consonance through all values of nppositeness, by means 
of which the engineer at the central station can control the transformer 
capacity by the suitable alteration of the phase dilTerence ; he also speaks 
of controlling it by varying the induction in some of the transformers. 

Constant Current Transjormer System. — In a description of the Fer- 
ranti system in "L'Elec," July 7 (see Digest. June -W, under "Ports- 
mouth"). Mr. Meylan adds a theory of the action of such transformers, 
showiue that it is questionable whether one can, by this means, obtain a 
true automatic regulator of the current and concludes that the construc- 
tion depends on the limits between which regulation is to be effected. 

Current Ruslies in Tran.'forniers. — Mr. Hay's article is continued in 
the Lond. "Elec," July 13; he discusses the effect of frequency and 
finds that the current rushes increase with the periodicity (that is, fie- 
quency). He then discusses experiments with inductive circuits con 
taining iron and gives curves and tables; in a certain case the curient 
rush was 6.74. In the same issue he replies to the comments of Dr. 
F'leming mentioned in the Digest last week, in which he states th,at the 
fact that his remarks applied to circuits without iron seems to have been 
overlooked by that Clitic and hopes th.at his statements will have the 
effect of shaking the confidence in some of Dr. FMeming's conclusions. 
AFC AND INCANDE.SCENT LIGHTS. 

Trojectors.— The "Elek. Zeit.." June 5, contains .an article of some 
length by Mr. Nerz. He discusses at some length the various statements 
made in the discussion of the .subject of photometry of projectors, which 
was published in The Electiical World last year; regarding Prof. S. P. 
Thompson's statement, he showed that according to that writer one square 
millimetre of crater has an intensity of 11.1 candles, while the present 
writer has obtained a maximum value more than ten times as great ; he 
shows that with the large Schuckeit search light at Chicago, on the 
assumption that the beam has an angle of 2 degrees, the theoretical point 



August 4, 1894. 



THE ELECXRICAIv WORLD. 



109 



from which the light appears to come will be only 43 metres behind the 
mirror, an error which can readily be neglected in applying the law of 
the inverse squares, as it is smaller than the' errors in the photometric 
measurements. (Although he appears to consider the theory of the 
inverse squares to apply to projectors he gives no experimental proofs of 
its correctness, nor does he appear to intimate that such verifications 
exist.) To show that the mirrors of the Schuckert Company are a suffi- 
ciently close approximation to a true parabola, he describes three methods 
for testing the same ; in one of these such a projector was compared directly 
with a Mangin projector, and it was shown that the parabolic projector 
was, in the worst case, 25 per cent, better and on an average 36 per cent, 
better; the results being obtained from tests made by several Government 
officials; in another case the calculated theoretical dispersion %vas com- 
pared with that from photometric measurements and it was found to be 
as 1 to 1.08, showing that the geometric foim of the reflector is a very 
close approximation to the true parabola ; the third method, that of Tschi- 
koleff, is an optical one in which certain images are photographed. A 
large table is given, containing quite complete data for 8 different sizes 
of projectors, including the light giving power under various conditions ; 
for a 60 cm. (about 24 inches) projector, with 40 amperes, the candle power 
is given as 24,900,000; the Austrian Government official, in a test, found 
it to be 20,000,000 at a distance of 2,050 metres, from which he deduces 
an absorption factor for the atmosphere, equal to 10.4 per cent, per ki- 
lometre, which he thinks is well within the probable value. Some simple 
theoretical deductions are given, from which a formula is deduced for 
the illuminating power on distant objects, as seen with the eye stationed 
at the projector; in an experiment made at the Gulf of Ismid with a 60 
cm. projector, objects at a distance of 9.8 km. could be readily seen ; he 
states that the absorption of the atmosphere may make a difference of 
from 2 to 50 per cent. ; he shows that the former method of judging pro- 
jectors by the discernment of objects as .seen from the projectors is a very 
inaccurate one, and that theoretically an increase in this distance of 10 
per cent, requires SO per cent, more light from the projector. 

Rolalion of the Electric A,c. — A Royal Society paper by Mr. Trotter 
is published in the Loud. "Elec," July 13; from experiments he finds 
that the effective luminosity of the arc is neither constant nor uniform ; 
his experiments showed that a bright spot existed at or near the crater 
and that a periodic phenomenon accompanied its appearance, which, 
although more marked with short humming arcs, he believes to be pres- 
ent in all : under certain conditions he found that a bright patch, occupy- 
ing one-fourth of the crater, appeared to be rapidly revolving ; it con- 
sisted of a bright spot with a curved appendage, sweeping around in 
different directions; he attributes the phenomenon to the refraction of 
the light by the heated vapor; an unexpected difficulty is thus introduced 
in the use of the arc as a .standard of light ; he intends to ascertain the 
nature of the phenomenon and to find practical conditions under which 
it is absent or negligible. 

Alternating Current Arc Lamps. — In the "Elek. Zeit.," July 5, Mr. 
Coerpei criticises unfavorably the recent article of Messrs. Roessler and 
Wedding, abstracted in the Digest July 7, claiming tha" the results were 
obtained with old and abandoned types of machines and that no practical 
deductions should be drawn from them ; he states that the Helios alter- 
nating current arc lamp has a hemispherical intensity below the hori- 
zontal of 498 candles with a consumption of 310 watts, corresponding to 
1.6 candles per watt. 

TRANSMISSION OF POWKR. 

Proposed Power Transmission Plant in Siceden. — The Lond. "Elec," 
July 13, gives some preliminary information regarding a proposed plant 
for transmitting 20,000 h.p. over an industrial district and to a neighbor- 
ing town by means of 15,000 volt alternating currents, it being a portion 
of the power of a waterfall amounting to about 49,000 h. p. and belong- 
ing to the Government ; it is proposed to charge about $22 per h. p. per 
annum. 

Allernalinc: Current Transmission of Power. — "I,a Lum. Elec," 
July 7, publishes a list of 31 installations, constructed or in course of con- 
struction, by Brown, Boveri & Co., in which single, di-phase or tri-phase 
currents are used ; some data is given but it does not include distances. 

Di-Phase Transmission oj Power. — The article mentioned in the 
Digest June 9 and 23 is abstracted quite fully, with the illustrations, in 
"L'Ind. Elec," July 10. 

ELECTRIC RAILWAYS. 

Roller Bearings for Railu'ays. — A paper by Mr. Purdon is abstracted 
in the Loud. "Elec. Eng. ," July 13; he describes tests showing a great 
saving of power in tiie use of roller bearings ; in a test in which two 
trucks were started down a grade and continued on a level, the distances 
which they ran were as 6.39 to I in favor of the roller bearings; a simi- 
lar result was obtained in a starting test ; he calculates the savings in 
per cent, in the use of roller bearings, for various grades, the results 
varying from 15.2 per cent, on a grade of 1 in 20, to 50.7 per cent, on a 
grade of 1 in 140; he assumes a frictional resistance of 25 lbs. per ton for 
the ordinary bearings and 4.2 for cars fitted with roller bearings in accord- 
ance with the results of the experiments ; he gives the extra cost of these 
bearings at about $50 per axle, which, however, might be reduced for large 
quantities. 

Lyons Tramway. — A descriptive article is begun in the Lond. "Elec. 
Rev.," July 13; although not so stated it appears to be a translation from 
the French article of Mr. Berthon, mentioned in the Digest June 30 and 
July 14. 



CENTRAL .STATIONS, PLANTS, SYSTEMS AND APPLIANCES. 

Gas vs. Steam for Central .Stations.— Mr. Threlfall, in the Lond. 
"Elec. Eng.," July 13, calls attention to serious discrepancies in the 
article mentioned in the Digest last week, claiming that if corrected the 
results would prove that the gas plant will be very considerably more 
economical, both in first cost and in working cost. 

Tlie Cance Rheostat. — .\ translation of the description of the rheostat 
mentioned in the Digest last week is contained in the Lond. "Elec. 
Eng.," July 1.3. 

Central Stations. — The "'Elek. Zeit.," July 5. abstracts at considerable 
length, including a number of tables of data, from the leport on the run- 
ning of the Cassel station for the year ending March, 1893. The alter- 
nating current station in the city of Caen, France, in which sub-trans- 
former stations are used, is described and illustrated in "L'Elec," 
July 14. .\n illustrated description of the Burton station is published in 
"Ind. and Iron," July 13. 

WIRES, WIRING AND CONDUITS. 

Ship U'irin.!^. — According to the large number of replies published in 
the Lond. "Elec. Rev.," July 13, the system described in that journal 
and abstracted in the Digest last week does not appear to be new, as a 
number of the correspondents claim to have used it for a number of years, 
Siemens Bros. Sc Co. having used it on 53 vessels. It is stated that great 
care must be taken to avoid low insulation of the distributing boards ; 
one of the correspondents explains in detail the construction which he 
uses, a sheet of rubber being used for insulation ; another writer thinks 
that the estimate of 10 per cent, for the excess in the cost of the wire is 
rather low, his experience being that it is about 15 percent, higher; 
another claims that it requires an enormous quantity of cable compared 
with the single or double wire system, but he thinks it well worth the 
extra expense. 

In an article by Mr. Leroy in "L'Elec," July 7, an abstract of which 
is published in the Lond. "Elec. Eng. ."July 13, he discusses the merits 
and demerits of the insulated and the ship-return systems, concluding in 
favor of the latter, at least for the iron vessels of commerce, if not for the 
war vessels. 

TELEGRAPHY, TELEPHONY AND SIGNALS. 

Cable Telegraphy and Telephony. — In an editorial in the Lond. "Elec. 
Rev.," July 13, a reply is made to a recent editorial in The Electrical 
World in referring to Dr. Pupin's system; the tone of the editorial is 
decidedly more moderate than its former criticism ; the remarks were 
based chiefly on the results of numerous experiments which have been 
made during several years by the British Postal Telegraph Department 
upon Wheatstone automatic fast speed working: it was found necessary 
to introduce repeaters, so as to bring the working "K R" within the 
neces.sary limits for highspeed; a large number of trials were made with 
shunted condensers to see whether this would not enable fast speed 
working to be obtained without the use of repeaters, but it was found 
that the tendency of such contrivance was to reduce and not to increase 
the woiking speed; it was added that although the arrangements were 
uuich on the same lines as those indicated by Dr. Pupin, it was possible 
that certain of the combination suggested by him were not used ; the 
Editors add that they hope they have been mistaken in their estimate of 
it. 

.Subscribers' Telephones Without Batteries. — A system of Mr. Merino.of 
Madrid, in which no battery is required at the subscribers' end of a tele- 
phone line, is described briefly in the "Elek. Zeit.," July 5. Instead of 
sending the battery current through the microphone and the primary 
induction coil, the telephone being connected with the secondary and 
line, the line is connected with the microphone and the primary coil, 
while the telephone is connected only with the .secondarj- coil, the bat- 
tery being then placed at the central station ; in this system it is very 
easy to make the connections between the subscribers' and the central 
stations, as well as among the subscribers. 

Time Distribution — .\ccording to the "Elek. Zeit.," July 5, a com- 
pany is about to start a regular time distribution system in Berlin, in 
which ordinary well regulated clocks are used and are set from a central 
station every four hours ; the rentage of such a cIock will be .50 cents per 
month. 

Telephole. — "Cosmos," June 23, contains an article hy Mr. Rabourdin, 
in which he describes the principle of an apparatus for transmitting light, 
as for instance, the form of a moving figure, to a distance, by means of 
an electric current. 

Pacific Cable. — Mr. Alexander .Siemens has made au offer to the Cana- 
dian Government to lay a cable from \'ictoria to Sydney within three 
years; his offer is now being considered. .V brief report of the Ottawa 
conference is published in the Lond. "Elec. Rev.," July 1.1, giving, 
however, nothing of importance. 

Atlantic Cables. — According to the "Elek. Zeit.," July 5, only 7 out of 
the 17 cables which have been laid across the Atlantic, are in use, the 
remaining ten, which have been abandoned, represent a capital of about 
thirty million dollars. 

Telegraph Cable in the St. Gothard Tunnel. — The Lond. "Elec. 
Eng.," July 13, abstracts the descriptive article mentioned in the Digest 
March 31. 

Compensating Cables. — A large number of systems, devised by Prof. S. 
P. Thompson, are illustrated in "La Lum. Elec," July 7. 



110 



XHK ELECTRICAL WORLD. 



Vol.. XXIV. No. S. 



ELECTRO-CHEMISTRY. 

Exlraclion oj Cold and St'/t'er.— According to the- I.oncl. "Elec. 
Kcv. ," July 13, Mr. Trug i.s said to have greatly facilitated the extraction 
of gold and silver from their ores, by a method which depends partly 
upon centrifugal force and partly on amalgamation: a distributing disc 
throws out the sludge in such a way that the particles of metal are col- 
licted in an annular trough filled with mercury, the surface of the mer- 
cury being kept sufficiently active by connect ng that metal with the 
negative pole, and the tube for feeding the sludge to the disc with the 
positive pole of a current generator. 

Electric Tanning. — "Ind. and Iron, " July 6, states that the installation 
at Orbe, Switzerland, in which the Oroth system is to be used, has now 
commenced working with a weekly output of 300 hides; it is considered 
a model of its kind in many respects; a complete illustrated description 
is promised ; the report of Prof. I'nwin on tests with such leather, 
mentioned in the Digest Jan. 27, is given. 

I'ickling. — The Lond. "Elec. Rev.," July 13, mentions a methodwhich 
is claimed to do the work much more certainly and with less danger 
to pitting the surface ; the articles are made the positive pole of a battery, 
the negative pole of which is either carbon or wire gauze electroplated 
with silver and covered with platinum black; the bath consists of dilute 
sulphuric acid containing a depolarizer such as a nitrate or chromic acid. 

Aluitiinium. — In a note in "La Lum. Elec," July 7, Mr. Moissan 
calls attention to the fact that the greatest obstacles in the development 
of the aluminium indu.stiy are the impurities in the metals; aluminium 
dissolves a quantity of carbon which is much greater than was formerly 
supposed and forms a perfectly definite carbide, having the property 
of decomposing water and evolving methylene gas; nitrogen also pos- 
sesses great affinity for aluminium. 

Alnmiiiiiim Plating. — The system of Van Aubel is described briefly in 
"La Lum, Elec," July 7; he first covers the aluminium with a scarcely 
visible coating of copper, after which the ordinary silver, nickel, etc., 
baths may be used; sulphate of copper and a current from a Grove cell 
are used for the copper coating, no special precautions being necessary. 

Minimum E. M. F. Decomposilion. — In an editorial in the Lond. 
"Klec Rev.," July 13, the statement of Bertholet, made in 18S2, is given, 
and is claimed to have been confirmed by the more recent experiments 
of Leblanc and Nourrison ; he states that "the minimum electromotive 
force required to decompose an electrolyte is the sum of the heat absorbed 
by the separation of the acid from the base in dilute solutions, and the 
heat of decomposition into oxygen and hydrogen of the water by which 
the acid and the base are di.ssolved, provided that the acid and the base 
are neither oxidized nor reduced, and that the electrodes are not 
attacked." Bertholet's conclusion is independent of any theory of dis- 
sociation into ions. 

Electrolytic Decomposition of Water. — The Lond. "Elec. Rev.," July 
13, mentions some recent articles in the German on this subject. 

Electrolysis of Alkaline Chlorides. — The E- M. F. for decomposing 
sodium chloride, calculated by Nourrison, is stated in the Lond. "Elec. 
Rev.," July 13, as being 2.02 volts, while the figures of Mr. Oettel are 
2. .30; the method of calculating each is given. 

Faurc's ratenl. — A continued article by a patent solicitor is pub- 
lished in "Ind. and Iron," July 6 and 13. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Electricity in Therapeutics.— t\i^ Lond. "Elec. Rev.," July 13, 
abstracts a paper <m the recent researches of Debedat, in which the appli- 
cation of electricity for stimulating the nutrition of the muscular system 
is experimented upon scientifically; the results are given and show in 
some cases a gain of 40 per cent, in the weight of the muscle due to cer- 
tain applications of the current, while in other ca.ses there was either no 
effect or else an injurious one. He concludes that the most advantage- 
cms mode of promoting the healthy growth of the muscles is to use an 
induction coil and to arrange the periods of contraction and repose so as 
to approximate to the conditions of a muscle during the performance of 
rhythmic gymnastic movements, namely about 30 periods; prolonged 
tetanization is extremely hurtful, showing that the methods most com- 
monly used by ill-informed practitioners and worse informed quacks 
are entirely wrong. 

Electrical Treatment of Tic-Douloureux. — A method of treatment is 
described in the Lond. "Elec Rev.," and "Elec. Eng.," July 13. 

What to Do in Case of Accidents. — "L'Ind. Elec," June 10, contains 
an article by Mr. Claude in which he calls attention to the importance 
of instructing persons not only how to treat those injured by an electric 
shock, but more particularly how to remove such victims from the cir- 
cuits when such circuits are still alive ; he cites cases in which a second 
death was caused or nearly caused by the prevailing ignorance as to how 
siich victims should be handled ; he points out the danger of touching 
the body except through the medium of some insulating material and 
suggests first taking oil some of one's own clothes and wrapping them 
around the hands, or of making a bundle of such clothes and forcing 
Hum between the victim and his connection with the earth. 

Educational. — A report of the recent meeting of the London Technical 
Education Board is published in the Lond. "Elec," June 29; the same 
number contains an editorial on the subject of education. A reference 
to education i« also made in the editorial on electro-chemistry in the 



same issue ; attention is also called to the first part of a paper by Prof. 
Ostwald in the "Elec. Zeit.," June 14, abstracted in the I^nd. "Elec," 
June 29. According to the Lond. "Elec. Eng.," June 22, chairs of 
electro chemistry are to be founded in the Polytechnic Academies 
of Berlin, Hanover and AixlaChapelle. 

Killed by Electricity. — Another accident is reported in the English 
journals; an attendant at an installation was instantly killed by an alter- 
nating current of 2.000 volts. 

Elevators.— "\a Lum. Elec," July 7, gives an illustrated description 
of the inclined plane elevator at Marseilles in which two cars are con- 
nected by a cable, the descending one being weighted with water, so as 
to pioduce an overbalance, the water being pumped up by means of a 
pump; the description is interesting but the only electrical feature seems 
to be the indicator of the water level in the tank. In the same issue a 
number of electric elevators are described and well illustrated. 

Electric Steering Compass. — According to the Lond. "Elec. Rev.," 
July 13, an apparatus of the same kind as that mentioned in the Digest 
June 2 and .30 was used in 1881 and worked perfectly; the invention did 
not come into general use because it would not pay, as some one has to 
stand by to keep a lookout, and might as well be steering. 

Electrical Steam Cut-Off. — An automatic variable steam cut-off oper- 
ated by electricity is described and illustrated in the Lond. "Elec. 
Eng.," July 13. 

Consulting and Conti acting Engineers. — The leading editorial in the 
Lond. 'Elec. Rev. ."July 13. discusses again the inadvisability and 
incompatibility of contracting engineers posing and acting as consulting 
engineers, considered from the point of view of the purchasers. It calls 
attention to the fact that some of the responsible firms will not bid for 
work when a contractor, who at times may be their competitor, is acting 
as a consulting engineer, in which case the purchaser suffers. By the 
formation of a strictly professional institution as suggested, to which only 
purely professional gentlemen could belong, the purchasing public would 
then know that they were not committing their interests into incom 
petent hands. 

Cataloguing Literature. — A correspondent to the Lond. "Elec," July 
13, suggests that the international cataloguing of scientific papers might 
be greatly facilitated if it became customary for the author of a paper to 
conclude it with an abstract drawn up according to certain prescribed 
rules ; he also proposes that tlie|introduction of the custom might be facil- 
itated if scientific societies and periodicals should make it a rule that 
every paper should be accompanied by such an abstract. 

Biographical. — The death of Carl Grawinkel is announced. He was 
well known in connection with the work of the German Telegraph De- 
partment ; also of Paul Lemonnier and Pierre Houry. 

Prizes. — "L'Ind.' Elec, " July 10, publishes a list of the prizes offered 
by the Industrial Society of Muelhause for the year 1895, pertaining to 
electricity. 

noonlight Tables for September, 1894. 



Herewith we give Mr. H. W. Frund's tables of lighting hours for the 
month of September under his modified form of moonlight schedule. 





TABLE 


NO. 1. 






TABLE 


NO. 2. 






Standard Moonlight 




Frund's New Moonl 


ght 




System. 






System. 




Date. 


Light. 


Date. 


Ext'ing. 


Date. 


Light. 


Date. 

2 


Extiug. 


1 


7.00 P. M. 


2 


4.30 A. M. 


1 


7.00 P. M. 


4.30 A.M. 


2 


7.00 " 


3 


4.30 •' 


2 


7.00 " 


3 


4.30 " 


3 


7.00 " 


4 


4.30 " 


3 


7.00 " 


4 


4..« " 


4 


7.50 " 


s 


4.30 " 


4 


7.00 " 


5 


4.30 " 


s . 


8.20 " 


6 


4.30 " 


S 


7.00 ■' 


6 


4.30 " 


6 


9.10 " 


7 


4.31) " 


6 


6.50 •' 


7 


4.30 " 


7 


10.00 " 


8 


4.30 " 


7 


6.50 •• 


8 


4.30 •• 


8 


10.50 " 


9 


4.40 " 


8 


6.50 '• 


9 


4.30 ■• 





11.50 " 


10 


4.40 " 


9 


6.50 " 


10 


4.40 " 


10 









10 


6.50 " 


11 


4.40 " 






11 


12.50 A. M. 


11 


4.40 A. M. 


11 


6.S0 ■' 


11 


12.00 M. 


12 


1.50 •■ 


12 


4.40 " 


12 


6.40 " 


12 




13 


3.00 ■• 


13 


4.40 ■■ 


13 


6.40 " 


U 




14 


No light. 


14 


No light. 


14 


6.40 " 


14 




IS 


" 


IS 




IS 


6.40 •• 


IS 




16 


6.40 P. M. 


16 


7.40 P. M. 


16 


6.40 " 


16 




17 


6.40 " 


17 


8.10 " 


17 


6.40 " 


17 




18 


6.40 " 


18 


8.40 " 


18 


6.30 •• 


18 




19 


6.30 " 


19 


9.10 ■• 


19 


6.30 •• 


19 




20 


6.30 " 


30 


9.50 " 


20 


6.30 " 


20 




21 


6.30 " 


21 


lO.SO " 


21 


6.30 " 


21 




22 


6.30 '• 


22 


11.50 " 


22 


6.30 " 


22 




23 


6.30 " 


24 


1.00 A. M. 


23 


6.30 " 


24 


1.00 A.M. 


24 


6.20 " 


25 


2.20 •■ 


24 


6.20 '• 


25 


2.20 •• 


25 


6.20 " 


26 


3.30 •■ 


25 


6.20 " 


26 


3.30 •■ 


26 


6.20 " 


27 


4.50 ■• 


26 


6.20 ■• 


27 


4..S0 " 


27 


6.20 •■ 


28 


4.S0 •• 


27 


6.20 ■• 


28 


4.50 •• 


28 


6.20 " 


29 


s.oo •■ 


28 


6.20 '• 


29 


S.OO " 


29 


5.20 ■■ 


30 


S.OO •' 


29 


6.20 " 


30 


S.OO •• 


30 


6.20 " 


1 


S.oo •' 


30 


6.10 " 


1 


S.OO " 


Total 


No. of hours, 176.10. 







NoTi:.— These schedules are made up 
used, and il varies considerably from sii 
must be made to all the times here give 



•n sun time. Where standard time is 
I time, the proper deduction or addition 



August 4, 1894. 



THE ELECTRICAL WOYll^D. 



Ill 



New Books. 



ALTERNATING CURRENT WIRING AND DISTRIBUTION. By Will- 
iam Le Roy Emmet, Member A. I, E. E. New York : The Electrical 
Engineer. 1894. 76 pages, 29 illustrations. Price, $1.00. 

The object of this work, the author states in his preface, is to point 
out the practical significance of some of the laws governing the distribu- 
tion of alternating currents, and to explain these laws in such a manner 
that their nature and relative importance may be realized by practical 
men without the expenditure of time necessary to the study of complete 
works on the subject. To this end mathematical expressions and scien- 
tific terms have been avoided as much as possible, and the hope is ex- 
pressed that the book may help the reader to form certain ideas and con- 
ceptions which will tend to make more available to him the information 
obtainable from more thorough and comprehensive works. The compe- 
tencj' of the author, who is chief engineer of the General Electric 
lighting department, to execute the plan thus outlined is unquestionable, 
and in many respects the book is one